Historien

House of Dionysos, Delos



FLORIDA BUILDINGS I LOVE: No. 127: Delos A. Blodgett House, 1896, Daytona Beach

Nord -Florida var, hvor pengene var i slutningen af ​​1800'erne.

Sydflorida blev betragtet som for vildt og ugæstfrit til at være meget værd af noget. Men velhavende nordboere, der søgte mildt vejr, var glade for at tilbringe deres vintre nord for det, vi nu kender som I-4-korridoren.

Længe før det var kendt for autoløb, var Daytona Beach sådan et sted, og Delos Blodgett var sådan en person. Han var bosat i Grand Rapids, Michigan, og han tjente sin formue i træ. Men under en ferie i Florida mødte han og senere giftede sig med Daisy Peck, og de flyttede til Daytona Beach, som var afgjort i 1870.

Blodgetts rigdom gjorde ham i stand til at ansætte en af ​​regionens mest fremtrædende arkitekter, Sumner H. Gove (1853-1926), og bygge et stort hus i Queen Anne-stil i 1896. Da havde Gove etableret sit ry på sådanne projekter som det imponerende Burgoyne House (nu revet ned), der lignede et stødigt Newport -palæ, der var gået syd for vinteren. Dens design påvirkede Gove på Blodgett manse, som betragtes som det fremragende hus i sin stil i Volusia County.

Husets gæster i Blodgett -hjemmet inkluderede suffragette Susan B. Anthony, ifølge ejendommens nominering til National Register of Historic Places.

Delos Blodgett nød 12 år i huset før hans død i 1908. Udgiver Walter Edmunds lejede huset af Daisy Blodgett som et vinterhus. Hun solgte den til den venezuelanske politiske flygtning Julian Arroyo i 1920, han flyttede den på tværs af gaden og byggede Daytona Terrace Hotel — nu et aldershjem kendt som Olds Hall — på husets tidligere sted.

Mangeårige læsere af denne serie ved, hvad der skete med de fleste investorer, der blev rige under landboomen i Florida ’s 1920'erne: De mistede det hele i bysten. Arroyo led den samme skæbne i 1927 og mistede huset til afskærmning. I årtier efter var det et pensionat med en række ejere, ifølge National Register -forskerne, Paul Weaver og Barbara Mattick.

Dronning Anne-stil arkitektur i USA var populær længe efter den 12-årige regeringstid for den britiske monark i begyndelsen af ​​1700'erne. Og det var meget anderledes end originalen i England, stilen var meget mere formel og palladisk. Den indhyllede veranda var en standardfunktion i Queen Anne Revival-huse i USA. Vinduerne var i en række forskellige stilarter, og hustage blev punkteret med flere gavle. Tårne var almindelige. Disse var udsmykkede strukturer med malede detaljer og en række forskellige sidespor, men havde mindre honningkager end deres victorianske samtidige.

Selvom øst- og nordsiden har flere vinduer, er Blodgett-husets vestvendte væg (væk fra US 1) tom.

Gove, arkitekten, flyttede til Daytona i enten 1882 eller 1891 (kilder adskiller sig) af sundhedsmæssige årsager og døde i 1926 efter en karriere, hvor han tegnede mange vigtige bygninger i Volusia County.


Hvad siger de fleste bøger?

Først og fremmest, at Delos er et af de vigtigste arkæologiske steder i Grækenland. Selvfølgelig finder du aldrig en bog, der henviser til et websted som DET vigtigste, der er en for mange at vælge. Men hvis der var en liste, ville Delos være temmelig højt på den, deroppe med Akropolis og Knossos. Alligevel siger de også, at Leto, gravid af Zeus, fødte Apollo der. Nogle beskriver det som lille og ubeboet uden vand og lave bakker, og nogle siger, at det er fuld af ødelagte huse, templer, statuer og mosaikker (duh).

Så hvad siger jeg? Godt. ikke noget. Der er ikke et ord, der vil gøre et sted som Delos retfærdighed, og jeg siger det ikke, fordi jeg keder mig for meget til at sætte mig ned og prøve at finde en måde at male et billede på. Jeg siger det ikke, fordi jeg tror, ​​det vil imponere dig og give dig lyst til at besøge det mere. Jeg siger dette, fordi jeg tror på det.

Desuden kan du ikke besøge Delos alene - det er en pakkeløsning sammen med Mykonos. Du kan ikke engang overnatte (jeg gætter på ordet 'ubeboet', jeg brugte før afklaret dette), og bådplanerne tillader kun maksimalt 6-7 timer der. Jeg fortalte dig, Delos er anderledes. Sektioner som "steder at se", "strande", "mad" og "natteliv" ville kun forblive tomme, hvis jeg fulgte den plan, jeg er kommet med. Hvad ville jeg sige om mad? "Besøg den eneste cafeteria i Delos"? Det ville være et grin. Desuden gider du ikke engang medbringe dit eget vand og mad, hvis du ikke vil blive stjålet og spise noget af dårlig værdi.

Det er i hvert fald ikke meningen. Pointen er alt, hvad jeg kan gøre nu, er at give dig en lidt kort beskrivelse af, hvad der er hvad i Delos. Så her går det.

Først er der konkurrenternes Agora. Compita var romerske borgere eller frie slaver, og de tilbad Lares Competales eller ellers "Crossroads Gods".

På din venstre side derfra finder du processionsvejen, der fører dig til Sanctuary of Apollo, annonceret af Propylaea. Propylaea er en port bygget af hvidt med templer og statuer. Det første, du bemærker, når du kommer ind i helligdommen, er Naxioternes hus lige ved siden af, som faktisk er et tempel bestilt af indbyggerne i Naxos i 2. halvdel af det 7. århundrede f.Kr.

Lige derefter finder du tre templer i træk. Det første og største er det store tempel i Apollo, begyndt af delianerne i 476 f.Kr. For det andet er et athensk tempel af pentelisk marmor, mens det tredje og mindste er delianernes tempel, fremstillet af den athenske tyran Pysistratos fra det 6. århundrede til at huse det hellige Asteria.

Ud over helligdommen ligger Lion District, bymidten, der blev bygget i den hellenistiske tidsalder. Du går ind i den ved den italienske Agora, hvorigennem du når Leto -templet og Dodecatheon (= tolv guder), dedikeret til Olympus '12 guder, i det 3. århundrede f.Kr. Dernæst kommer den berømte Lions Terrace. Løverne blev fremstillet af naxisk marmor i det 7. århundrede f.Kr. De var oprindeligt ni, men en sidder nu ved arsenalet i Venedig, og tre er permanent forsvundet.

Fortsætter ad Delos 'hellige vej, lidt længere fremme, når du de fire høje søjler i Poseidoniasternes institution.

Museet på stedet er ret i nærheden. De fleste af de gode dele er naturligvis enten spredt langs øen eller i det arkæologiske museum i Athen, men det har stadig en absorberende samling. Løverne fra terrassen, jeg nævnte lige før, vil komme til forsvar (dem på selve terrassen er kopier).

Næste er terrassen for de fremmede guder. Ruinerne af de syriske guders helligdom stammer fra 100 f.Kr., med et lille religiøst teater indeni. Lige derefter er det første af de tre Serapeions fra det 2. århundrede f.Kr. Disse tre templer er dedikeret til Serapis, den første og eneste succesrige gud, der med vilje er opfundet af mennesket. Mellem den første og den anden Serapeions står helligdommen til de samothriske store guder. Den tredje Serapeion, der måske var hovedreservatet, huser stadig en halv statue.

Yderligere til venstre for Heraion, et tempel dedikeret til Hera fra 500 f.Kr., fører trin op til toppen af ​​Mount Kythnos. På vej op finder du den hellige hule, hvor Apollo løb et af sine mange orakler, senere dedikeret til Herakles, mens du på bjerget finder helligdommen, bygget af Arsinoe Philadelphos, hustru til hendes bror, kongen af Egypten.

Hvis du går tilbage til Heraion og drejer til venstre mod havnen, møder du teaterkvarteret, der omgav 2. århundrede f.Kr. teater i Delos, med en kapacitet på 5500. Husene her stammer fra den hellenistiske og romerske tidsalder. Hvert hus har et særligt navn og noget særligt, der gør dem unikke. For eksempel har delfinernes hus og maskenes hus smukke mosaikker. Cleopatras hus har hovedløse statuer af ejerne. Et af de flotteste huse er dog House of the Trident.

Det er stort set, hvad Delos er. Jeg kunne henvise til andre ting, f.eks. De øer, der omgiver Delos eller mindre steder som det minoiske springvand, men du finder ud af det alligevel, når du besøger denne storslåede ø. Alt, hvad jeg kan fortælle dig, er: Medbring vand, tag mad, iført fornuftige sko, organiser dig eller ansæt en guide og. hav det sjovt! Delos er måske ikke den prangende masser af mennesker, der danser-deres-øjne-ud sjov, men den hele-den-historie-du-kan-fordøje slags kan være lige så fantastisk, synes du ikke?


Morgenfruer

(Jennifer Nalewicki)

Ofte omtalt som “flowers of the dead ” (flor de muerto), det mente, at duften af ​​disse lyse orange blomster hjælper med at tiltrække sjæle til alteret. På La Casa del Artesano blandes klynger af friskplukkede morgenfruer med brændende røgelse lavet af kopaltræets harpiks og en klokke, hvis duft og lyd er tiltrukket af sjæle.


El Pueblo historie

Los Angeles Plaza Historic District omfatter cirka 9,5 hektar i centrum af Los Angeles. Distriktet omfatter 22 bidragydende og 8 ikke-bidragende ressourcer, der stammer fra begyndelsen af ​​1800-tallet til begyndelsen af ​​det 20. århundrede. Centreret på en åben plads, er den groft afgrænset af Cesar Chavez Avenue (nord), North Los Angeles Street og North Alameda Streets (øst), Arcadia Street (syd) og North Spring Street (vest). Distriktet repræsenterer en sjælden, intakt og mangfoldig gruppe af historiske/kulturelle ressourcer, der eksemplificerer byens grundlæggelse og tidlige vækst. Ressourcerne omfatter bygninger og steder fra byens spanske, mexicanske og tidlige amerikanske perioder - fra adobe -bygninger og store victorianske kommercielle blokke til spanske genoplivningsbygninger i begyndelsen af ​​det 20. århundrede.

Distriktet blev første gang opført i National Register of Historic Places den 3. november 1972. Nomineringen blev efterfølgende ændret i 1981 til at omfatte yderligere fem bidragende ressourcer og til at give yderligere oplysninger om to bygninger, der er opført i den oprindelige nominering.

Roots of El Pueblo - Begyndelsen af ​​Los Angeles

Denne 20 minutter lange dokumentar-undersøger den multietniske historie for de mennesker, der kom til El Pueblo de la Reina de Los Angeles fra grundlæggelsen i 1781 til i dag.

Olvera Street mexicansk markedsplads

I november 1928 gik en ung kvinde ved navn Christine Sterling en tur på den historiske plads. Halvvejs på gaden så hun Avila Adobe med en fordømmelsesmeddelelse fra byens sundhedsembedsmænd om, at bygningen var planlagt til nedrivning. Da hun vidste, at Avila Adobe var det ældste hus i Los Angeles, begyndte hun at skaffe penge til at reparere det. Hun havde også en drøm om at oprette en "mexicansk markedsplads" nær Avila Adobe, hvor folk kunne lære om Los Angeles 'spanske og mexicanske arv. Gennem hendes indsats blev mange af de historiske bygninger omkring pladsen reddet. Hendes drøm om at skabe en "mexicansk markedsplads" blev også til virkelighed. Hun inviterede håndværkere og håndværkere og åbnede Olvera Street påskesøndag 1930. Den dag i dag er Olvera Street en populær attraktion for både turister og lokale og tiltrækker over 2 millioner mennesker om året.

125 Paseo de la Plaza, Los Angeles, 90012
Åben dagligt
(213) 485-6855
http://calleolvera.com/

Avila Adobe

Avila Adobe blev konstrueret i 1818 af en fremtrædende ranchero, Francisco José Avila, indfødt i Sinaloa, der var alcalde eller borgmester i Los Angeles i 1810. Efter Francisco Avilas død i 1832 fortsatte hans anden kone, Encarnación Avila, med at bo i huset med hendes to døtre. Los Angeles -folketællingen fra 1844 viser Encarnación Avila, 40 år, som enke, der bor i huset med en datter. For en kort periode, fra den 10. januar til den 19., 1847, blev adobe kommanderet som et militært hovedkvarter af den invaderende nordamerikanske hær under Robert Stockton.

Efter Encarnación Avila døde i 1855, overgik hjemmet til hendes to døtre, Luisa og Francisca og deres ægtemænd, Manuel Garfias og Theodore Rimpau. Francisca og Theodore Rimpau og deres ni børn fortsatte med at bo i adobe fra 1855 til 1868, indtil de flyttede til Anaheim, Californien, hvor Theodore fungerede som den første borgmester. Fra 1868 til begyndelsen af ​​1920'erne blev adobe lejet og brugt som restaurant, værelseshus eller var ofte ledig. Bygningens tilstand forværredes og blev til sidst fordømt i 1926 af City Health Department, som vakte opmærksomhed fra Christine Sterling, der begyndte en offentlig kampagne for at redde adobe.

I dag er Avila Adobe åbent for offentligheden som museum og er indrettet, som det kunne have vist sig i slutningen af ​​1840'erne. Det tiltrækker over 300.000 besøgende årligt og er et vidunderligt roligt sted i hjertet af storbyen.

10 Olvera St, Los Angeles, 90012
Åben mandag til søndag 9:00 til 16:00
(213) 680-2525
http://calleolvera.com/history/adobe/

Plaza Firehouse

Plaza Firehouse var den første bygning, der blev bygget af Los Angeles City til at rumme brandslukningsudstyr og personale. Byrådet hyrede arkitekten William Boring til at tegne en struktur, der blev bygget af Dennis Hennessy. Boring's design fulgte nøje en daværende måde i hans hjemlige Illinois, hvor hestene var stablet inde på stationen, som det var skik i koldere klimaer. En unik drejeskive i gulvet gjorde det unødvendigt at bakke hestene ind eller ud. Byggeriet begyndte i maj 1884 og blev afsluttet medio august. Firehouse nr. 1 åbnede for forretninger i september samme år.

Inden længe var byens ejerskab af stedet omstridt. Fru L.M Bigelow og Griffin Johnston hævdede, at stedet tilhørte dem, og i begyndelsen af ​​1891 besluttede Højesteret i deres favør. Lejemålet med fru Bigelow udløb i 1897, og byen besluttede kun at bygge alle fremtidige stationer på kommunalt ejet grund og dermed afslutte Plaza Firehouse liv som brandstation. På det tidspunkt var Plaza -området og Los Angeles Street blevet hjertet i byens oprindelige Chinatown. I løbet af de næste tres år blev Plaza Firehouse opdelt og brugt forskelligt som en salon, billigt pensionat, cigarforretning, poolrum og angiveligt et hus med dårligt ry. I 1953 sluttede staten Californien med Los Angeles City og County for at oprette El Pueblo de Los Angeles Historic Monument, som Plaza Firehouse skulle være en del af. Staten købte bygningen i 1954 og begyndte processen med at restaurere strukturen og installere brandslukningsudstyr og memorabilia.

Plaza Firehouse blev indviet som Californiens historiske vartegn nr. 730. Det var den første bygning i monumentet, der blev restaureret.

501 N Los Angeles, Los Angeles, 90012
Åben tirsdag til søndag 10:00 til 15:00
(213) 680-2525
https://www.discoverlosangeles.com/things-to-do/the-old-plaza-firehouse

Sepulveda hus

Tirsdag til søndag 10:00 til 15:00

Senora Francisca Gallardo fik tildelt en grund mellem Bath Street og Vine Street (senere omdøbt til Olvera Street) i 1847. I 1881 gav hun den Adobe, hun byggede der, til sin niece, Eloisa Martinez de Sepúlveda. Da Bath Street blev udvidet og foretog en forlængelse af Main Street i 1886, mistede Eloisa 1.600 fod af sin mors lod og en del af familiens adobe. Som erstatning byggede hun året efter en kombination af forretnings- og boligbyggeri med et usædvanligt Eastlake -design. Den havde en trekantet gavl og to store karnapper toppet med jernkryds. Den ru murfacade på Main Street blev malet en rødbrun farve og blyant med hvid maling for at ligne de præcise linjer af mørtel mellem murstenene.

Den toogtyve værelses bygning havde to store butikker foran Main Street, og til pensionater, fjorten soveværelser og et badeværelse på anden sal. Senora Sepúlvedas private kvarterer på bagsiden blev adskilt fra butikkerne ved en brisevej. I 1901 gav hun bygningen til sin yndlingsniece og gudbarn Eloisa Martinez de Gibbs, der havde giftet sig med Edward Gibbs, byrådsmedlem. Flere af Gibbs -børnene blev født i Sepúlveda -huset. Senora Sepúlveda døde i 1903, og Gibbs -familien flyttede væk i 1905, men ejede bygningen, indtil staten Californien overtog den i 1953.

I 1930'erne, efter at den mexicanske markedsplads havde åbnet på Olvera Street, overtalte Christine Sterling Forman Brown og hans partnere til at åbne deres "Yale Puppeteers" i bygningen. Hun inviterede også fotografer Viroque Baker og Ernest Pratt til at oprette deres atelierer på anden sal. I 1940'erne under Anden Verdenskrig var der en USO -kantine i bygningen, der gav tilflugtssted for de tusinder af tropper, der passerede gennem Union Station.

12 Olvera St, Los Angeles, CA 90012
Åben tirsdag til søndag 10:00 til 15:00
(213) 485-6855

Pico hus

Pico -huset bygget af Pío Pico, den sidste guvernør i Californien under mexicansk styre, der levede næsten hele 1800 -tallet, fra 1801 til 1894. Dette var den første tre -etagers bygning og det første store hotel i Los Angeles. Pico valgte arkitekt Ezra F. Kysor til at designe det "fineste hotel i Los Angeles". Byggeriet begyndte den 18. september 1869, og hotellet åbnede for forretninger den 9. juni 1870. For at skaffe midler til bygning og indretning af hotellet solgte Pío og hans bror Andrés de fleste af deres store jordbesiddelser i San Fernando -dalen. Hotellet blev bygget i italiensk stil med dybe sæt rundbuede vinduer og døre, og hovedgaden og Plaza-facaderne blev stukket til at ligne blå granit. Hotellet havde toogfirs soveværelser og enogtyve stuer samt badeværelser og vandskabe til hvert køn på hver etage.

430 N Main St, Los Angeles, 90012
Åben for særlige begivenheder, udstillinger og optagelser
(213) 485-8372

Italian Hall / Italian American Museum

Designet af arkitekt Julius Kraus og bygget af Pozzo Construction Company, den italienske hal (1907-08), der ligger på hjørnet af North Main Street og Cesar Chavez Avenue fungerede som et vigtigt kulturelt og socialt center for italienerne i Los Angeles og er en af ​​syv bygninger ved El Pueblo, der var forbundet med det italienske samfund. I mere end to årtier var det stedet for møder, banketter og danse samt hovedkvarter for grupper som Garibaldina Society (1888) og Il Circolo Operaio Italiano (Italian Worker's Club). Pete Pontrellis orkester spillede der ugentligt. Bygningen fungerede også som udgangspunkt for madlavning i weekenden og placering til festligheder som vendemnia eller italiensk vinhøstfest. Hallen var også vært for internationalt kendte figurer som Emma Goldman og Ricardo Flores Magón.

Den italienske tilstedeværelse ved El Pueblo begynder i 1823, da Giovanni Leandri åbnede en butik og byggede en adobe, hvor Plaza Firehouse nu står. I det 19. århundrede boede et betydeligt antal italienere på El Pueblo og ejede eller drev en tredjedel af virksomhederne i Plaza-området.

Nyd en smuk restaureret bygning med spændende og informative udstillinger.

644 North Main Street, LA CA 90012
Åben tirsdag til søndag 10:00 til 15:00
(213) 485-8432
http://www.iamla.org/

Merced Teater

Merced Theatre blev bygget i 1870 og er en af ​​de ældste strukturer opført i Los Angeles til præsentation af dramatiske forestillinger. Det fungerede som centrum for teatralsk aktivitet i byen fra 1871 til 1876.

Teatret blev bygget af William Abbot, søn af schweiziske immigranter, der bosatte sig i Los Angeles i 1854. I 1858 giftede han sig med kvinden, som han ville navngive teatret for, Maria Merced Garcia, datter af José Antonio Garcia og María Guadalupe Uribe , der var mangeårige beboere i Los Angeles pueblo. Teatret blev designet af Ezra F. Kysor, arkitekten for Pico House.

301 W Main St, Los Angeles, 90012
Åben tirsdag til fredag ​​12.00 til 17.00 og en time før showtime
(209) 381-0500
https://www.mercedtheatre.org/

Plaza katolske kirke

Plaza -kirken blev indviet i december 1822, som La Iglesia de Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles. Det er den eneste bygning ved El Pueblo, der stadig bruges til sit oprindelige formål. Our Lady Queen of Angels katolske kirke - kendt af lokalbefolkningen som La Placita Church - er den ældste kirke i byen og fungerer i dag som et aktivt sogn for det romersk -katolske ærkebispedømme i Los Angeles.

535 N Main St, Los Angeles, 90012
Åben dagligt
http://laplacita.org/

Garnier Building / Chinese American Museum

Garnier -bygningen blev bygget i 1890 af Philippe Garnier, en fransk nybygger, der ankom til Los Angeles i 1859 i en alder af atten. Philippe Garnier og hans brødre, Eugene, Abel og Camille, ejede den 4.400 hektar store Rancho Los Encinos i San Fernando -dalen, hvor de opdrættede får. På trods af at han tabte en betydelig sum penge ved uldmarkedstyrtet i 1872, var Garniers økonomisk godt stillet og forblev indflydelsesrige i lokal handel. Philippe Garnier fungerede som bankdirektør i bestyrelsen for Farmers and Merchants Bank fra 1879 til 1891 og menes at have opført flere andre bygninger i Los Angeles.

Garnier -bygningen blev primært designet til kinesiske kommercielle lejere. Huslejen for hele bygningen var $ 200 om måneden i de første tre år. Garnier -bygningen er den ældste bygning i Los Angeles udelukkende og kontinuerligt beboet af kinesiske immigranter fra tidspunktet for dens opførelse i 1890, indtil staten overtog den i 1953. Det var hovedkvarter for store kinesisk -amerikanske organisationer og husede virksomheder, kirker og skoler. Det var en vigtig struktur i den oprindelige Los Angeles Chinatown.

Bygningen huser det kinesiske amerikanske museum med permanente og midlertidige udstillinger.

425 N. Los Angeles Street, Los Angeles, 90012
Åben tirsdag til søndag 10:00 til 15:00
(213) 485-8567
http://camla.org/

Pelanconi hus

Pelanconi -lageret blev bygget i 1910 af Lorenzo Pelanconi og hans mor, Isabel Tononi til opbevaring af deres vin. Bagved åbningen på Olvera Street er en lille to-etagers firkantet bygning kendt som Pelanconi House. Det blev bygget af en italiensk vinhandler, Giuseppi Covaccichi mellem 1855-57 og er det ældste hus lavet af fyret mursten, der stadig står i Los Angeles. Covaccichi og hans partner, Giuseppi Gazzo ejede også en vingård, der lå diagonalt på tværs af Olvera Street.

Mellem 1858 og 1871 skiftede Pelanconi -huset fire gange. Antonio Pelanconi, der kom fra Lombardiet i Italien, købte huset og vingården i 1871. I 1866 giftede han sig med Isabel Ramirez, datter af Juan Ramirez, der ejede meget af det, der nu er Olvera Street. I 1877 overgav Antonio vingårdsdriften til sin partner, Giacomo Tononi, og døde to år senere. Hans enke giftede sig med Tononi i 1881.

Senora Consuelo Castillo de Bonzo overtog Pelanconi -huset til sin restaurant, La Golondrina Cafe i 1930. Hun fjernede bagvæggen på både lageret og Pelanconi -huset for at skabe et stort rum til restauranten. Det er den ældste restaurant på Olvera Street.

W-17 Olvera St, Los Angeles, 90012
Åben mandag til søndag
(213) 628-4349
https://www.casalagolondrinacafe.com/

Hammel Bygning

Hammel -bygningen på North Main Street blev opført i 1909. Oprindeligt bygget som fire lette industriforretninger med et delvis kælderopbevaringsrum langs Olvera Street, fronter bygningen nu på Olvera Street og huser to butikker i stueetagen og to kælderbutikker. Marie Hammel, der byggede den italienske hal ved siden af ​​i 1907-8, hyrede arkitekterne Husdon og Munsell til at opføre bygningen til en pris af $ 4.000. I 1913 overgik Hammel -bygningen til fru Hammels datter, Marie Hammel McLaughlin, der forstørrede bygningen på siden Olvera Street.

Da Olvera Street blev omdannet til et mexicansk markedssted i 1930, var det nødvendigt at give offentligheden adgang til bygningen fra Olvera Street, og trapper skulle konstrueres til stueetagen i Hammel -bygningen. Små kældre blev udgravet i løbet af 1940'erne for at skaffe yderligere butikker til Olvera Street -handlende. Selvom Main Street -facaden ikke har ændret sig væsentligt, er Olvera Street -facaden blevet ændret og repareret gennem årene.

Simpson/Jones Building

Doria Deighton Jones byggede det, der nu er kendt som Simpson/Jones -bygningen i 1894. Webstedet, der tidligere havde indeholdt en stor adobe, som hun, hendes mand John Jones og deres børn besatte. Adobe blev revet ned, da Bath Street blev udvidet i 1886 til at blive en forlængelse af Main Street. Simpson/Jones -bygningen blev konstrueret til at huse William Gregory Engines, også kendt som Moline Engines. Senere var lejere Diamond Shirt Company og Soochow Restaurant. Da Doria døde i 1908, blev hendes ejendom delt mellem hendes tre børn og hendes datter, Constance Jones Simpson arvede de tre bygninger tæt på Plaza på Main Street. Fru Simpson modsatte sig Christine Sterlings idé om at lukke biltrafik på Olvera Street og kæmpede sagen hele vejen til Californiens højesteret. I 1960 blev Simpson/Jones -bygningen ændret for at skabe udseendet af en mexicansk banco.

Bygningen huser nu to restauranter: Chiguacle - Sabor Ancetral de Mexico og La Luz del Dia.

América Tropical

I 1932 fik David Alfaro Siqueiros (1896-1974), en af ​​det store mexicanske kunstnere i det tyvende århundrede, til opgave at male en idealiseret tropisk scene på en anden etagers ydermur på Olvera Street, i hjertet af downtown Los Angeles. Siqueiros i stedet oprettet America Tropical, et monumentalt vægmaleri, der skildrer en tilgroet jungle med en korsfæstet indisk bonde, der blev overgået af en amerikansk ørn, hvor revolutionære soldater retter deres rifler. Dette billede var straks kontroversielt inden for årtiet, hvor hele vægmaleriet blev kalket. I de næste tyve år forblev det under lag af hvid maling, forsømt og alt andet end glemt.

I 1988 indledte Getty Conservation Institute et samarbejde med Los Angeles City for at spare America Tropical. Dette førte til en undersøgelse af miljøet omkring vægmaleriet og designet af et beskyttende husly og udsigtsplatform for offentligheden. Fyrre år efter dets oprettelse, America Tropical blev afsløret for verden og er igen tilgængelig for offentligheden. I dag kan besøgende på El Pueblo lære mere om historien og kontroversen omkring America Tropical på America Tropical Interpretive Center, der ligger på den verdensberømte Olvera Street.


ENCYCLOPEDIA

DIONYSOS, den ungdommelige, smukke, men feminine gud for vin. Han kaldes også både af grækerne og romerne Bacchus (Bakchos), det vil sige den støjende eller urolige gud, som oprindeligt var en ren epithet eller efternavn til Dionysos, men ikke forekommer før efter Herodotos tid.

Ifølge den almindelige tradition var Dionysos søn af Zeus og Semele, datter af Cadmus fra Theben (Hom. Salme. vi. 56 Eurip. Bacch. i det. Apollod. iii. 4. & sekt 3) hvorimod andre beskriver ham som en søn af Zeus af Demeter, Io, Dione eller Arge. (Diod. Iii. 62, 74 Schol. ad Pind. Pyt. iii. 177 Plut. de Flum. 16.) Diodorus (iii. 67) nævner yderligere en tradition, hvorefter han var søn af Ammon og Amaltheia, og at Ammon, af frygt for Rhea, bar barnet til en hule i nærheden af ​​Mount Nysa, i et ensom ø dannet af floden Triton. Ammon overlod der barnet til Nysa, datter af Aristaeus, og Athena påtog sig ligeledes at beskytte drengen. Andre repræsenterer ham igen som en søn af Zeus af Persephone eller Iris, eller beskriver ham ganske enkelt som en søn af Lethe eller Indus. (Diod. Iv. 4 Plut. Sympos. vii. 5 Philostr. Vit. Apollon. ii. 9.)

Den samme mangfoldighed af meninger hersker med hensyn til gudens oprindelige sted, som i den almindelige tradition er Theben, mens vi i andre finder Indien, Libyen, Kreta, Dracanum på Samos, Naxos, Elis, Eleutherae eller Teos, nævnt som hans fødested. (Hom. Salme. xxv. 8 Diod. iii. 65, v. 75 Nonnus, Dionys. ix. 6 Theokrit. xxvi. 33.) Det er på grund af denne mangfoldighed i traditionerne, at gamle forfattere blev drevet til den antagelse, at der oprindeligt var flere guddommeligheder, som bagefter blev identificeret under det ene navn Dionysos. Cicero (de Nat. Deor. iii 23) skelner fem Dionysi og Diodorus (iii. 63, & ampc.) Tre.

Den fælles historie, der gør Dionysos til søn af Semele af Zeus, kører som følger: Hera, jaloux på Semele, besøgte hende i forklædning af en ven eller en gammel kvinde og overtalte hende til at bede Zeus om at vise sig for hende i samme herlighed og majestæt, som han var vant til at nærme sig sin egen kone Hera. Da alle anmodninger om at afstå fra denne anmodning var resultatløse, efterkom Zeus langt om længe og viste sig for hende i torden og lyn. Semele var rædselsslagen og overvældet af synet, og da hun blev grebet af ilden, fødte hun et barn for tidligt. Zeus, eller ifølge andre, Hermes (Apollon. Rhod. Iv. 1137) reddede barnet fra flammerne: det blev syet op i låret på Zeus og blev dermed moden. Forskellige epiteter, som er givet til guden, henviser til denne forekomst, såsom purigen & ecircs, m & ecircrorraph & ecircs, m & ecircrotraph & ecircs og ianigena. (Strab. Xiii. S. 628 Diod. Iv. 5 Eurip. Bacch. 295 Eustath. ad Hom. s. 310 Ov. Mødte. iv. 11.)

Efter Dionysos 'fødsel overlod Zeus ham til Hermes eller ifølge andre Persephone eller Rhea (Orph. Salme. xlv. 6 Steph. Byz. s. v. Mastaura), der tog barnet med til Ino og Athamas på Orchomenos og overtalte dem til at opdrage ham som pige. Hera blev nu opfordret af hendes jalousi til at kaste Ino og Athamas i en vanvittig tilstand, og for at redde sit barn ændrede Zeus ham til en vædder og førte ham til nymferne på Nysa -bjerget, der opførte ham i en hule, og blev derefter belønnet for det af Zeus, ved at blive placeret som Hyades blandt stjernerne. (Hygin. Fab. 182 Theon, ad Arat. Phaen. 177 komp. Hyades.)

Indbyggerne i Brasiae i Laconia, ifølge Pausanias (iii. 24. & sekt 3), fortalte en anden historie om Dionysos 'fødsel. Da Cadmus hørte, sagde de, at Semele var mor til en søn af Zeus, satte han hende og hendes barn i en kiste og kastede det i havet. Brystet blev båret af vinden og bølgerne til kysten af ​​Brasiae. Semele blev fundet død og blev højtideligt begravet, men Dionysos blev opdraget af Ino, der på det tidspunkt tilfældigvis var i Brasiae. Brasiae -sletten blev af denne grund bagefter kaldet Dionysos 'have.

Traditionerne om Dionysos 'uddannelse såvel som om de personer, der påtog sig det, adskiller sig lige så meget som dem om hans afstamning og fødested. Udover nymferne på Mount Nysa i Thrakien, muserne, Lydae, Bassarae, Macetae, Mimallones (Eustath. ad Hom. s. 982, 1816), nymfen Nysa (Diod. iii. 69) og nymferne Philia, Coronis og Cleis i Naxos, hvor barnet Dionysus siges at have været båret af Zeus (Diod. iv. 52) , er navngivet som de væsener, som plejen af ​​hans barndom blev betroet. Mystis siges desuden at have instrueret ham i mysterierne (Nonn. Dionys. xiii. 140), og Hippa på fjeldet Tmolus ammede ham (Orph. Salme. xlvii. 4) Macris, datter af Aristaeus, modtog ham fra Hermes 'hænder og fodrede ham med honning. (Apollon. Rhod. Iv. 1131.) På Nysa -bjerget kaldes Bromie og Bacche også hans sygeplejersker. (Serv. ad Jomfru. Eclog. vi. 15.)

Mount Nysa, from which the god was believed to have derived his name, was not only in Thrace and Libya, but mountains of the same name are found in different parts of the ancient world where he was worshipped, and where he was believed to have introduced the cultivation of the vine. Hermes, however, is mixed up with most of the stories about the infancy of Dionysus, and he was often represented in works of art, in connexion with the infant god. (Comp. Paus. iii. 18. § 7.)

When Dionysus had grown up, Hera threw him also into a state of madness, in which he wandered about through many countries of the earth. A tradition in Hyginus (Digter. Astr. ii. 23) makes him go first to the oracle of Dodona, but on his way thither he came to a lake, which prevented his proceeding any further. One of two asses he met there carried him across the water, and the grateful god placed both animals among the stars, and asses henceforth remained sacred to Dionysus.

According to the common tradition, Dionysus first wandered through Egypt, where he was hospitably received by king Proteus. He thence proceeded through Syria, where he flayed Damascus alive, for opposing the introduction of the vine, which Dionysus was believed to have discovered (euretês ampelou). He now traversed all Asia. (Strab. xv. p. 687 Eurip. Bacch. 13.) When he arrived at the Euphrates, he built a bridge to cross the river, but a tiger sent to him by Zeus carried him across the river Tigris. (Paus. x. 29 Plut. de Flum. 24.)

The most famous part of his wanderings in Asia is his expedition to India, which is said to have lasted three, or, according to some, even 52 years. (Diod. iii. 63, iv. 3.) He did not in those distant regions meet with a kindly reception everywhere, for Myrrhanus and Deriades, with his three chiefs Blemys, Orontes, and Oruandes, fought against him. (Steph. Byz. s.v. Blemues, Gazos, Gêreia, Dardai, Eares, Zabioi, Malloi, Pandai, Sibai.) But Dionysus and the host of Pans, Satyrs, and Bacchic women, by whom he was accompanied, conquered his enemies, taught the Indians the cultivation of the vine and of various fruits, and the worship of the gods he also founded towns among them, gave them laws, and left behind him pillars and monuments in the happy land which he had thus conquered and civilized, and the inhabitants worshipped him as a god. (Comp. Strab. xi. p. 505 Arrian, Ind. 5 Diod. ii. 38 Philostr. Vit. Apollon. ii. 9 Virg. Aen. vi. 805.)

Dionysus also visited Phrygia and the goddess Cybele or Rhea, who purified him and taught him the mysteries, which according to Apollodorus (iii. 5. § 1.) took place before he went to India. With the assistance of his companions, he drove the Amazons from Ephesus to Samos, and there killed a great number of them on a spot which was, from that occurrence, called Panaema. (Plut. Quaest. Gr. 56.) According to another legend, he united with the Amazons to fight against Cronus and the Titans, who had expelled Ammon from his dominions. (Diod. iii. 70, &c.) He is even said to have gone to Iberia, which, on leaving, he entrusted to the government of Pan. (Plut. de Flum. 16.)

On his passage through Thrace he was ill received by Lycurgus, king of the Edones, and leaped into the sea to seek refuge with Thetis, whom he afterwards rewarded for her kind reception with a golden urn, a present of Hephaestus. (Hom. Il. vi. 135, &c., Od. xxiv. 74 Schol. ad Hom. Il. xiii. 91. Comp. Diod. iii. 65.) All the host of Bacchantic women and Satyrs, who had accompanied him, were taken prisoners by Lycurgus, but the women were soon set free again. The country of the Edones thereupon ceased to bear fruit, and Lycurgus became mad and killed his own son, whom he mistook for a vine, or, according to others (Serv. ad Aen. iii. 14) he cut off his own legs in the belief that he was cutting down some vines. When this was done, his madness ceased, but the country still remained barren, and Dionysus declared that it would remain so till Lycurgus died. The Edones, in despair, took their king and put him in chains, and Dionysus had him torn to pieces by horses.

After then proceeding through Thrace without meeting with any further resistance, he returned to Thebes, where he compelled the women to quit their houses, and to celebrate Bacchic festivals on mount Cithaeron, or Parnassus. Pentheus, who then ruled at Thebes, endeavoured to check the riotous proceedings, and went out to the mountains to seek the Bacchic women but his own mother, Agave, in her Bacchic fury, mistook him for an animal, and tore him to pieces. (Theocrit. Id. xxvi. Eurip. Bacch. 1142 Ov. Mødte. iii. 714, &c.)

After Dionysus had thus proved to the Thebans that he was a god, he went to Argos. As the people there also refused to acknowledge him, he made the women mad to such a degree, that they killed their own babes and devoured their flesh. (Apollod. iii. 5. § 2.) According to another statement, Dionysus with a host of women came from the islands of the Aegean to Argos, but was conquered by Perseus, who slew many of the women. (Paus. ii. 20. § 3, 22. § 1.) Afterwards, however, Dionysus and Perseus became reconciled, and the Argives adopted the worship of the god, and built temples to him. One of these was called the temple of Dionysus Cresius, because the god was believed to have buried on that spot Ariadne, his beloved, who was a Cretan. (Paus. ii. 23. § 7.)

The last feat of Dionysus was performed on a voyage from Icaria to Naxos. He hired a ship which belonged to Tyrrhenian pirates but the men, instead of landing at Naxos, passed by and steered towards Asia to sell him there. The god, however, on perceiving this, changed the mast and oars into serpents, and himself into a lion he filled the vessel with ivy and the sound of flutes, so that the sailors, who were seized with madness, leaped into the sea, where they were metamorphosed into dolphins. (Apollod. iii. 5. § 3 Hom. Hymn. vi. 44 Ov. Mødte. iii. 582, &c.) In all his wanderings and travels the god had rewarded those who had received him kindly and adopted his worship : he gave them vines and wine.

After he had thus gradually established his divine nature throughout the world, he led his mother out of Hades, called her Thyone, and rose with her into Olympus. (Apollod. l. c.) The place, where he had come forth with Semele from Hades, was shown by the Troezenians in the temple of Artemis Soteira (Paus. ii. 31. § 2) the Argives, on the other hand, said, that he had emerged with his mother from the Alcyonian lake. (Paus. ii. 37. § 5 Clem. Alex. Adm. ad Gr. s. 22.) There is also a mystical story, that the body of Dionysus was cut up and thrown into a cauldron by the Titans, and that he was restored and cured by Rhea or Demeter. (Paus. viii. 37. § 3 Diod. iii. 62 Phurnut. N. D. 28.)

Various mythological beings are described as the offspring of Dionysus but among the women, both mortal and immortal, who won his love, none is more famous in ancient history than Ariadne. The extraordinary mixture of traditions which we have here had occasion to notice, and which might still be considerably increased, seems evidently to be made up out of the traditions of different times and countries, referring to analogous divinities, and transferred to the Greek Dionysus.

We may, however, remark at once, that all traditions which have reference to a mystic worship of Dionysus, are of a comparatively late origin, that is, they belong to the period subsequent to that in which the Homeric poems were composed for in those poems Dionysus does not appear as one of the great divinities, and the story of his birth by Zeus and the Bacchic orgies are not alluded to in any way : Dionysus is there simply described as the god who teaches man the preparation of wine, whence he is called the "drunken god " (mainomenos), and the sober king Lycurgus will not, for this reason, tolerate him in his kingdom. (Hom. Il. vi. 132, &c., Od. xviii. 406, comp. xi. 325.) As the cultivation of the vine spread in Greece, the worship of Dionysus likewise spread further the mystic worship was developed by the Orphici, though it probably originated in the transfer of Phrygian and Lydian modes of worship to that of Dionysus. After the time of Alexander's expedition to India, the celebration of the Bacchic festivals assumed more and more their wild and dissolute character.

As far as the nature and origin of the god Dionysus is concerned, he appears in all traditions as the representative of some power of nature, whereas Apollo is mainly an ethical deity. Dionysus is the productive, overflowing and intoxicating power of nature, which carries man away from his usual quiet and sober mode of living. Wine is the most natural and appropriate symbol of that power, and it is therefore called "the fruit of Dionysus." (Dionusou karpos Pind. Fragm. 89, ed. Böckh.) Dionysus is, therefore, the god of wine, the inventor and teacher of its cultivation, the giver of joy, and the disperser of grief and sorrow. (Bacchyl. ap. Athen. ii. s. 40 Pind. Fragm. 5 Eurip. Bacch. 772.)

As the god of wine, he is also both an inspired and an inspiring god, that is, a god who has the power of revealing the future to man by oracles. Thus, it is said, that he had as great a share in the Delphic oracle as Apollo (Eurip. Bacch. 300), and he himself had an oracle in Thrace. (Paus. ix. 30. § 5.) Now, as prophetic power is always combined with the healing art, Dionysus is, like Apollo, called iatpos, or hugiatês (Eustath. ad Hom. s. 1624), and at his oracle of Amphicleia, in Phocis, he cured diseases by revealing the remedies to the sufferers in their dreams. (Paus. x. 33. § 5.) Hence he is invoked as a theos sôtêr against raging diseases. (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 210 Lycoph. 206.)

The notion of his being the cultivator and protector of the vine was easily extended to that of his being the protector of trees in general, which is alluded to in various epithets and surnames given him by the poets of antiquity (Paus. i. 31. § 2, vii. 21. § 2), and he thus comes into close connexion with Demeter. (Paus. vii. 20. § 1 Pind. Isthm. vii. 3 Theocrit. xx. 33 Diod. iii. 64 Ov. Hurtig. iii. 736 Plut. Quaest. Gr. 36.)

This character is still further developed in the notion of his being the promoter of civilization, a law-giver, and a lover of peace. (Eurip. Bacch. 420 Strab. x. s. 468 Diod. iv. 4.) As the Greek drama had grown out of the dithyrambic choruses at the festivals of Dionysus, he was also regarded as the god of tragic art, and as the protector of theatres. In later times, he was worshipped also as a theos chthonios, which may have arisen from his resemblance to Demeter, or have been the result of an amalgamation of Phrygian and Lydian forms of worship with those of the ancient Greeks. (Paus. viii. 37, § 3 Arnob. adv. Gent. v. 19.)

The orgiastic worship of Dionysus seems to have been first established in Thrace, and to have thence spread southward to mounts Helicon and Parnassus, to Thebes, Naxos, and throughout Greece, Sicily, and Italy, though some writers derived it from Egypt. (Paus. i. 2. § 4 Diod. i. 97.) Respecting his festivals and the mode of their celebration, and especially the introduction and suppression of his worship at Rome, see Dikt. af Ant. s. vv. Agriônia, Anthestêria, Halôa, Aiôra, and Dionysia.

In the earliest times the Graces, or Charites, were the companions of Dionysus (Pind. Ol. xiii. 20 Plut. Quaest. Gr. 36 Apollon. Rhod. iv. 424), and at Olympia he and the Charites had an altar in common. (Schol. ad Pind. Ol. v. 10 Paus. v. 14 in fin.) This circumstance is of great interest, and points out the great change which took place in the course of time in the mode of his worship, for afterwards we find him accompanied in his expeditions and travels by Bacchantic women. called Lenae, Maenades, Thyiades, Mimallones, Clodones, Bassarae or Bassarides, all of whom are represented in works of art as raging with madness or enthusiasm, in vehement motions, their heads thrown backwards, with dishevelled hair, and carrying in their hands thyrsus-staffs (entwined with ivy, and headed with pine-cones), cymbals, swords, or serpents. Sileni, Pans, satyrs, centaurs, and other beings of a like kind, are also the constant companions of the god. (Strab. x. p. 468 Diod. iv. 4. &c. Catull. 64. 258 Athen i. p. 33 Paus. i. 2. § 7.)

The temples and statues of Dionysus were very numerous in the ancient world. Among the sacrifices which were offered to him in the earliest times, human sacrifices are also mentioned. (Paus. vii. 21. § 1 Porphyr. de Abstin. ii. 55.) Subsequently, however, this barbarous custom was softened down into a symbolic scourging, or animals were substituted for men, as at Potniae. (Paus. viii. 23. § 1, ix. 8. § 1.)

The animal most commonly sacrificed to Dionysus was a ram. (Virg. Georg. ii. 380, 395 Ov. Hurtig. jeg. 357.) Among the things sacred to him, we may notice the vine, ivy, laurel, and asphodel the dolphin, serpent, tiger, lynx, panther, and ass but he hated the sight of an owl. (Paus. viii. 39. § 4 Theocrit. xxvi. 4 Plut. Sympos. iii. 5 Eustath. ad Hom. s. 87 Virg. Eclog. v. 30 Hygin. Poët. Astr. ii. 23 Philostr. Imag. ii. 17 Vit. Apollon. iii. 40.)

The earliest images of the god were mere Hermae with the phallus (Paus. ix. 12. § 3), or his head only was represented. (Eustath. ad Hom. s. 1964.) In later works of art he appears in four different forms:--
1. As an infant handed over by Hermes to his nurses, or fondled and played with by satyrs and Bacchae.
2. As a manly god with a beard, commonly called the Indian Bacchus. He there appears in the character of a wise and dignified oriental monarch his features are expressive of sublime tranquillity and mildness his beard is long and soft, and his Lydian robes (bassara) are long and richly folded. His hair sometimes floats down in locks, and is sometimes neatly wound around the head, and a diadem often adorns his forehead.
3. The youthful or so-called Theban Bacchus, was carried to ideal beauty by Praxiteles. The form of his body is manly and with strong outlines, but still approaches to the female form by its softness and roundness. The expression of the countenance is languid, and shews a kind of dreamy longing the head, with a diadem, or a wreath of vine or ivy, leans somewhat on one side his attitude is never sublime, but easy, like that of a man who is absorbed in sweet thoughts, or slightly intoxicated. He is often seen leaning on his companions, or riding on a panther, ass, tiger, or lion. The finest statue of this kind is in the villa Ludovisi.
4. Bacchus with horns, either those of a ram or of a bull. This representation occurs chiefly on coins, but never in statues.

Kilde: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.


House of the Seven Gables

In 1668, merchant and ship-owner John Turner built a house on Salem Harbor that was destined to become one of America’s most beloved historic homes. Designated a National Historic Landmark District in 2007, The House of the Seven Gables is best known today as the setting of world-renowned American author Nathaniel Hawthorne’s 1851 novel. Plan your visit, learn about our educational opportunities, and embark on a guided group tour with us. We can’t wait to see you! Your adventure and historical journey awaits you at The House of the Seven Gables in Salem, MA.


MITHRIDATES VI

MITHRIDATES VI Eupator Dionysos (r. 120-63 BCE), last king of Pontus, the Hellenistic kingdom that emerged in northern Asia Minor in the early years of the 3rd century BCE (Figure 1). He is noted primarily for his opposition to Rome. Of the three wars he fought against Rome, the first (89-85 BCE), in which his armies swept through Asia Minor and Greece, eventually only meeting defeat at the hands of Sulla, identified him as Rome&rsquos most determined foreign enemy since Hannibal. His massacre in this war of tens of thousands of Roman and Italian civilians (the &lsquoAsian Vespers&rsquo) helped to establish his legendary notoriety as an exotic and cruel Oriental, a formidable but ultimately unsuccessful challenger to Rome&rsquos Mediterranean supremacy.

Mithridates&rsquo ancestors may well have been an offshoot of the Achaemenid royal family (Bosworth and Wheatley, 1998). They were certainly Iranian nobility who took part in the Persian colonization of Asia Minor, and in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE ran a fiefdom on the shore of the Propontis (the Sea of Marmara) and western end of the south coast of the Black Sea. Shortly before 300 BCE the family became involved in intrigues at the court of Antigonos and they were forced to flee further east into Paphlagonia, where, accompanied by six knights in a manner surely meant to recall the circumstances in which Darius became king of Persia, Mithridates I Ktistes founded what came to be known as the kingdom of Pontus and the line of Pontic kings (Diod. 20.111.4). Greek-style diplomacy, including a consistent policy of intermarriage with the Seleucids, established the kingdom&rsquos Hellenistic credentials, but there was no attempt to hide the family&rsquos Iranian origins: indeed it was precisely the mixture of Greek and Persian background that Mithridates Eupator later publicized, when he claimed (with some justification) to be descended from Cyrus and Darius, and (less convincingly) from Alexander the Great and Seleukos (Justin, Epit. 38.8.1). Stories of his birth and early life&mdashcomets, lightning, riding a dangerous horse, retreat to the wilderness for seven years&mdashreflect this mixed Persian and Macedonian lineage (McGing, 1986, pp. 43-46).

Eupator was about 13 years old when his father, Mithridates V Euergetes, was assassinated in 120 BCE. Once in sole control of his kingdom, having murdered his mother and brother (App., Mith. 112), he first turned his attention to conquest on the northern side of the Black Sea (Justin, Epit. 37.3.1, 38.7.4-5), where his grandfather Pharnakes had established diplomatic links in the first half of the 2nd century (IosPE I2 402 IG Bulg. I2 40). An opportunity for military intervention presented itself when the city of Chersonesos, under intense pressure from its barbarian neighbors, invited Mithridates to become its protector (Strabo, 7.4.3 C309). The resulting campaigns of his general Diophantos against the Scythians&mdashrecorded in a long inscription (IosPE jeg 2 352)&mdashended with the conquest of the Crimea and annexation of the Bosporan kingdom of Paerisades (Strabo, 7.4.4 C310). This was the beginning of a highly successful policy that, by the time of his first clash with Rome, left Mithridates master of a network of subjects, allies, and friends incorporating almost the entire circuit of the Black Sea. While there were material benefits from this Euxine &lsquoempire&rsquo&mdashthe annual tribute from the Crimea and adjoining territories was 180,000 measures of corn and 200 talents of silver (Strabo. 7.4.6 C311)&mdashthe major significance of the Black Sea for Mithridates was military manpower. Time and again the literary sources emphasize the Euxine composition of his armies (e.g., App., Mith. 15 69). Without this resource he could not have challenged Rome.

Whether he actually wanted to challenge Rome or was, rather, a compliant Hellenistic king dragged unwillingly into conflict by Bithynian and/or Roman aggression, is a matter of scholarly disagreement (e.g., McGing, 1986 Strobel, 1997). It would be difficult, however, to deny that he had some sort of imperial ambitions in Asia Minor. His first act in the area was to arrange, through his agent Gordios, the murder of his brother-in-law Ariarathes VI of Cappadocia (Justin, Epit. 38.1.1), with the purpose, presumably, of ensuring that his sister Laodice would be able to control the kingdom more easily as regent for her own young son, Ariarathes VII. His next major policy decision was the invasion and seizure of Paphlagonia (ca. 105 BCE), undertaken in cooperation with Nikomedes III of Bithynia (Justin, Epit. 37-38). At least initially, neither paid any attention to Roman demands for their withdrawal: Nikomedes placed his son on the throne, and Mithridates occupied part of Galatia. The alliance with Bithynia collapsed shortly thereafter, when Nikomedes invaded Cappadocia and married Laodice. Mithridates expelled them both, murdered his nephew Ariarathes VII, and installed his own eight-year-old son as Ariarathes IX, with Gordios as regent (Justin, Epit. 38.1). Mithridates&rsquo diplomatic mission to Rome in about 101, just as Marius was winning great victories over the Teutones, Amrones, and Cimbri, may show him in more compliant form.

The 90s BCE, a period of chronological difficulty (de Callataÿ, 1997, pp. 186-214), are witness to firmer Roman action in Asia. In 99 or 98 Rome&rsquos leading general Gaius Marius led an embassy to the east and issued a stern warning to Mithridates: &ldquobe stronger than the Romans or obey their commands in silence&rdquo (Plut., Mar. 31.2-3). He seems to have heeded Marius&rsquos warning for a time. He reacted with diplomacy alone when Nikomedes, determined on causing trouble, put forward a false pretender to the Cappadocian throne. This forced a counterclaim, through Gordios, as to the legitimacy of Ariarathes IX (Justin, Epit. 38.2.5). When the Senate ordered the complete evacuation of Pontic and Bithynian forces from these lands, Mithridates complied, and had to stomach the loss of all Pontic influence in Cappadocia, when the ineffective Ariobarzanes was declared king. It was at this moment in 95 BCE that Eupator began to mint coins in earnest, with the first issues of his dated royal tetradrachms. If this was a hint of future defiance, it was soon followed by clearer recalcitrance: when Tigranes came to the throne of Armenia in the same year, Mithridates married his daughter Kleopatra to him and got him to invade Cappadocia and expel Ariobarzanes (or possibly, prevent him from taking his throne). The Senatorial response, in the past a mostly desultory diplomacy when it came to the intrigues of the Anatolian kings, was uncharacteristically forceful: the praetorian governor of Cilicia, C. Cornelius Sulla, was ordered to restore, or install, Ariobarzanes and he did so at the head of an army which met opposition from Cappadocians, Armenians, Gordios, and even Mithridates&rsquo own general, Arkhelaos (Plut., Sulla 5 App., Mith. 57 Front., Strat. 1.5.18). While this may have stopped short of direct military defiance by Mithridates, it was something very close. The message from Rome must have been clear: Mithridates could have been under no illusions that, if at a future date he attempted to use military force in Asia Minor, he would encounter Roman military opposition. So when, probably in 91, he again sent armies to annex both Bithynia and Cappadocia, no doubt taking advantage of the Social War in Italy, his ambitious aggression and readiness to defy Rome, are revealed. The Senate dispatched Manius Aquillius at the head of an allied army to restore the kings, but he overstepped his orders and forced Nikomedes IV of Bithynia to invade Pontus, wishing, Appian says (Mith. 11), to stir up a war. Aquillius&rsquos ineptitude in the negotiations that followed enabled Mithridates to present himself as the innocent victim of Roman and Bithynian aggression. In 89 BCE Aquillius got his war, but could hardly have foreseen the consequences. Mithridates crushed and scattered the allied and Roman forces facing him he then occupied Bithynia, and his armies fanned out across Asia Minor once master of Asia, he invaded and overran much of Greece too (Sherwin-White, 1984, pp. 121-48). These do not look like the actions of a king taken by surprise and forced reluctantly into a military struggle.

At the beginning of this first war with Rome, Mithridates had two years to advance his cause almost unchecked, while the Senate sorted out its problems with the Italian allies. In this time the limited resistance he encountered was local, and most of it easily overcome his only substantial rebuff was his failure to capture Rhodes (App., Mith. 24-25). However, there was more to his success than the absence of a Roman army (although that must have been a powerful incentive for waverers to take his side): he seems to have been welcomed at such places as Kos, Magnesia, Ephesus, and Mytilene and when he ordered the famous massacre of Romans and Italians in 88, the Greeks of Asia were on the whole obligingly enthusiastic (App., Mith. 22-23). Mithridates undoubtedly exploited the widespread dislike of Rome in Asia (Kallet-Marx, 1995, pp. 138-48), but was in himself an attractive and convincing champion. On one side, his royal Persian background gave him great prestige amongst an Anatolian population heavily influenced by Iranian culture and he was not slow to behave like his Achaemenid forbears. He gave all his sons Persian names he kept a harem and appointed eunuchs to positions of power and responsibility he offered sacrifices on mountaintops in the grand manner of the Persian kings at Pasargadae (App., Mith. 66, 70) he organized his empire into satrapies (App., Mith. 21-22). He also came with a leading reputation as a civilized benefactor of the Greek world (McGing, 1986, pp. 88-108). Dedications on Delos demonstrate the high regard in which he was held there and at Athens he competed in equestrian games at Chios and Rhodes he cultivated Greek learning, and his court, which in most respects was structured on standard Hellenistic lines and in its senior levels was manned largely by Greeks, became a center for philosophers, poets, historians, doctors his coins depicted a new Alexander and militarily he had already won great victories for the protection of the Black Sea Greeks. When faced with a choice between this proven winner and a very distant Rome, many of the cities of Asia Minor must have found the king of Pontus a good option. So too did many Greeks of the mainland, where, as in Asia, any opposition was fairly swiftly overcome. Astonishingly, given their consistent policy of loyalty to Rome for many generations, the Athenians went over willingly to Mithridates&rsquo side: he was mint magistrate at Athens in 87/86 and may well have been Eponymous Archon the year before (Habicht, 1997, pp. 303-21).

When Sulla landed in Greece with five legions in the summer of 87, all Mithridates&rsquo successes proved illusory. His support rapidly deserted him, and he found himself besieged in Athens, which fell to Sulla&rsquos forces on 1 March 86. The three main Pontic army groups then came together for the decisive battle of the war: at Chaironeia Sulla triumphed, and a little later at Orchomenos he destroyed another Pontic army dispatched from Asia. This was the end of the war in Greece. In Asia Minor Mithridates&rsquo supporters, willing and forced, all now realized that they were backing the loser, and Pontic control began to disintegrate. Mithridates&rsquo brutal treatment of the individuals and cities that deserted his cause merely hastened the end. After further defeat at the hands of the Roman general Fimbria, he accepted the lenient terms offered by Sulla, which amounted to little worse than a return to the pre-war status quo. Having devastated Asia and Greece, and murdered thousands of Romans and Italians, he was lucky, as Sulla&rsquos troops complained, to get off so lightly. Terms may have been agreed at the Peace of Dardanos in 85, but many Romans must have suspected there was unfinished business with the king of Pontus.

In 83 and 82, L. Licinius Murena, whom Sulla had left in charge of Asia with two legions, launched a series of raids into Pontus that have come to be called the Second Mithridatic War (App., Mith. 64-66). When Mithridates finally responded by inflicting a heavy defeat on Murena, the stage was set for another major conflagration in Asia. However, Mithridates declined the opportunity: clearly he was not ready to challenge Rome again, and Sulla called off Murena, thus bringing an end in 81 to this particular round of hostilities. Eupator&rsquos subsequent determination to set down in writing what had been agreed verbally at Dardanos (App., Mith. 67) may signify a genuine attempt to regularize his relations with Rome. At any rate, with one of his armies suffering a heavy defeat against the Achaian tribes in the northeast corner of the Black Sea, and with Cilicia designated as the province of P. Servilius Vatia, consul for 79, Mithridates was ready to agree to all Sulla&rsquos conditions. When his second embassy to Rome arrived, however, in 78, they found Sulla had just died and the Senate was too busy to receive them. The royal anger is clear: Eupator immediately persuaded his son-in-law Tigranes of Armenia to invade Cappadocia. Tigranes did on this occasion withdraw, but the Senate realized who was behind the operation, and it is hardly surprising to find prominent Romans admitting that another war with Mithridates was looming ahead (Sallust, Hist. 1.77.8 2.47.7 Maur.).

The immediate causes of the Third Mithridatic War (73-63 BCE) are disputed, but Appian (Mith. 70) and Sallust (Hist. 4.69 Maur.) both admit that Mithridates made no attempt to deny his responsibility for what he regarded as merely a resumption of hostilities started by the Romans. Probably in 76 or 75 he entered negotiations with the Roman rebel in Spain, Sertorius. He could not have thought that the Senate would see his treaty with Sertorius, concluded in 74, as anything other than a declaration of war. An explosion of activity in the Pontic royal mint from February 75 also points to his martial intentions (de Callataÿ, 1997, p. 46). The immediate impetus for war was probably provided by the Roman annexation of Bithynia: according to Eutropius (6.6) it was in 74 that Nikomedes IV died and bequeathed his kingdom to Rome. Whether it was the realization that Mithridates would not accept Roman control of Bithynia, or that they had just got news of the Pontic-Sertorian alliance, by late 74 even the Senate knew that war was imminent: the consular provinces of Lucullus and Cotta were changed, and both consuls were dispatched to the east. In the spring of 73 Mithridates overran Bithynia and invaded the Roman province of Asia. The whole region had suffered terribly in the aftermath of the First Mithridatic War (Plut., Luc. 20) and there was widespread disaffection with Rome, but this time, in contrast to what happened in 89, two Roman proconsuls and an army awaited Mithridates&rsquo onslaught. He made his main objective the capture of Cyzicus on the Propontis, but was outwitted by the superior strategy of Lucullus and forced to withdraw in disorder (App., Mith. 72-76). This was the last serious threat Mithridates could muster. Lucullus pursued him slowly across Asia Minor into Armenia, where Tigranes reluctantly received him. In 68 and 67 political conditions in Rome caused the Roman advance to stall, allowing Mithridates to slip back into Pontus and defeat the occupation forces. In 66, however, Pompey succeeded to the Mithridatic command and drove him out of Asia to his last remaining stronghold in the Crimea. Here in 63 BCE he succumbed to the treachery of his son, Pharnakes, who in negotiating with the Romans was no doubt trying to salvage something from the wreckage of his father&rsquos empire. Rather than face the humiliation of capture, Mithridates, having failed to do away with himself by poison, asked an obliging Celtic bodyguard to run him through with a sword (App., Mith. 111).

Mithridates Eupator presented himself as heir to the empires of Darius and Alexander the Great. Imperial conquest was central to this identity. Many of the ancient sources assume that the king&rsquos ambitions included plans from an early stage for war with Rome. While this looks very much like hindsight, it is also probable that by the mid 90s, it was clear to Mithridates that even limited aggression in Asia Minor would be thwarted by Rome and he spent the remaining thirty years of his life trying to balance the realities that an independent king must face when confronted by a superior power. Although he failed to be stronger than Rome, his failure was a grand one, and he was long remembered as a symbol of uncompromising defiance. On hearing of his death, Pompey ordered a full royal burial at Sinope, &ldquobecause he admired his great deeds and considered him the best of the kings of his time&rdquo (App., Mith. 113).

Appian, &ldquoThe Mithridatic Wars,&rdquo in Roman History, tr. H. White and E. I. Robson, 4 vols., LCL, Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1912-13, II, book 12.

E. Badian, &ldquoRome, Athens and Mithridates,&rdquo American Journal of Ancient History 1, 1976, pp. 105-28.

L. Ballesteros Pastor, Mitrídates Eupátor, rey del Ponto, Granada, 1996.

R. Bernhardt, Polis und römische Herrschaft in der späten Republik (149-31v. Chr), Berlin, 1985.

L. Boffo, &ldquoGrecità di frontiera: Chersonasos Taurica e i del Ponto Eusino (SIG 3 709),&rdquo Athenaeum 67, 1989, pp. 211-59, 369-405.

A. B. Bosworth and P. V. Wheatley, &ldquoThe Origins of the Pontic House,&rdquo Journal of Hellenic Studies 118, 1998, pp. 155-64.

F. de Callataÿ, L&rsquohistoire des guerres mithridatiques vue par les monnaies, Louvain-La-Neuve, 1997.

M. D. Campanile, &ldquoCittà d&rsquoAsia Minore tra Mitridate e Roma,&rdquo Studi ellenistici 8, 1996, pp. 145-73.

Diodorus of Sicily, tr. C. H. Oldfather, et al., 12 vols., LCL, Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1933-67.

Eutropius, Brevarium ab urbe condita, ed. C. Santini, Leipzig, 1979 The Breviarum, tr. H. W. Bird, Liverpool, 1993.

J.-L. Ferrary, Philhellénisme et impérialisme: Aspects idéologiques de la conqûete romaine du monde hellénistique, de la seconde guerre de Macédoine à la guerre contre Mithridate, Rome, 1988.

Frontinus, The Stratagems, tr. C. E. Bennett, LCL, London and New York, 1926.

D. Glew, &ldquoMithridates Eupator and Rome: A Study of the Background of the First Mithridatic War,&rdquo Athenaeum 55, 1977, pp. 380-405.

Idem, &ldquoBetween the Wars: Mithridates Eupator and Rome, 87-73 BC,&rdquo Chiron 11, 1981, pp. 467-95.

C. Habicht, Athens from Alexander to Antony, tr. D. L. Schneider, Cambridge, Mass., 1997.

H. Heinen, &ldquoMithradates VI. Eupator und die Völker des nördlichen Schwarzmeerraums,&rdquo Hamburger Beiträge zur Archäologie 18-19, 1991-92, pp. 1-15.

J. Hind, &ldquoMithridates,&rdquo CAH 2 IX, pp. 129-64.

IG Bulg. jeg 2: G. Mikhailov, Inscriptiones graecae in Bulgaria repertae, I: Inscriptiones orae Ponti Euxini, 2nd ed., Sofia, 1970.

IosPE I 2: V. V. Latyshev, Inscriptiones antiquae orae septentrionalis Ponti Euxini graecae et latinae I: Inscriptiones Tyriae, Olbiae, Cherosnesi Tauricae, 2nd ed., St. Petersburg, 1916.

Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, tr. J. C. Yardley, Atlanta, 1994.

R. Kallet-Marx, Hegemony to Empire: The Development of the Roman Imperium in the East from 148 to 62 BC, Berkeley, 1995.

A. Keaveney, Lucullus: A Life, London, 1992.

G. Kleiner, &ldquoBildnis und Gestaltdes Mithridates,&rdquo Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts 68, 1953, pp. 73-95.

D. Magie, Roman Rule in Asia Minor: To the End of the Third Century after Christ, 2 vols., Princeton 1950.

C. Marek, &ldquoKarien im ersten mithridatischen Krieg,&rdquo in Alte Geschichte und Wissenschaftgeschichte: Festschrift für Karl Christ zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. P. Kneissl and V. Losemann Darmstadt, 1988, pp. 285-308.

B. C. McGing, The Foreign Policy of Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontus, Leiden, 1986.

Idem, &ldquoAppian&rsquos Mithridateios,&rdquo in ANRW II.34.1, pp. 496-522.

A. Mastrocinque, Le guerre di Mitridate, Milan, 1999.

E. Olshausen, &ldquoMithridates VI. und Rom,&rdquo in ANRW I, 1, 1972, pp. 806-15.

Idem, &ldquoDas Königreich Pontos,&rdquo in Pauly-Wissowa, RE Suppl. XV, cols. 396-442.

J. van Ooteghem, Lucius Licinius Lucullus, Brussels, 1959.

Plutarch, Lives, tr. Charlotte Perrin, 11 vols., LCL, Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1914-26 &ldquoLucullus,&rdquo II, pp. 470-611 &ldquoCaius Marius,&rdquo IX, pp. 464-599 &ldquoSulla,&rdquo IV, pp. 324-445.

T. Reinach, Mithridates Eupator: König von Pontos, tr. A. Goetz, Leipzig, 1895.

W. Z. Rubinsohn, &ldquoMithradates VI Eupator Dionysos and Rome&rsquos Conquest of the Hellenistic East,&rdquo Mediterranean Historical Review 8, 1993, pp. 5-54.

E. Salomone Gaggero, &ldquoLa propaganda antiromana di Mitridate VI Eupatore in Asia Minor e in Grecia,&rdquo in Contributi di storia antica in onore di Albino Garzetti, Genoa, 1976, pp. 89-123.

Sallust, Historiarum reliquiae, ed. B. Maurenbrecher, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1891-93 The Histories, tr. P. McGushin, 2 vols., Oxford, 1992-94.

D. B. Selov, &ldquoLe royaume pontique de Mithridate Eupator,&rdquo Journal des savants, 1982, pp. 243-66.

A. N. Sherwin-White, Roman Foreign Policy in the East: 168 B.C. to A.D. 1, London, 1984.

Strabo, Geography, III: Books 6 and 7, tr. H. L. Jones, LCL, London and New York, 1924.

K. Strobel, &ldquoMithradates VI. Eupator von Pontos: Der letzte große Monarch der hellenistischen Welt und sein Scheitern an der römischen Macht,&rdquo Ktema 21, 1996, pp. 55-94.


General Robert E. Lee's Parole and Citizenship

On a spring day 140 years ago, Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee met face to face in the parlor of Wilmer McLean's house in Appomattox Court House, Virginia. On that historic occasion, April 9, 1865, the two generals formalized the surrender of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, thus bringing an end to four years of fighting between North and South.

After agreeing upon terms of the surrender, the generals each selected three officers to oversee the surrender and parole of Lee's army. Later that day, Lee and six of his staff signed a document granting their parole.

On May 29, 1865, President Andrew Johnson issued a Proclamation of Amnesty and Pardon to persons who had participated in the rebellion against the United States. There were fourteen excepted classes, though, and members of those classes had to make special application to the President.

Lee sent an application to Grant and wrote to President Johnson on June 13, 1865:

"Being excluded from the provisions of amnesty & pardon contained in the proclamation of the 29th Ulto I hereby apply for the benefits, & full restoration of all rights & privileges extended to those included in its terms. I graduated at the Mil. Academy at West Point in June 1829. Resigned from the U.S. Army April '61. Was a General in the Confederate Army, & included in the surrender of the Army of N. Va. 9 April '65."

On October 2, 1865, the same day that Lee was inaugurated as president of Washington College in Lexington, Virginia, he signed his Amnesty Oath, thereby complying fully with the provision of Johnson's proclamation. But Lee was not pardoned, nor was his citizenship restored. And the fact that he had submitted an amnesty oath at all was soon lost to history.

More than a hundred years later, in 1970, an archivist at the National Archives discovered Lee's Amnesty Oath among State Department records (reported in Prologue, Winter 1970). Apparently Secretary of State William H. Seward had given Lee's application to a friend as a souvenir, and the State Department had pigeonholed the oath.

In 1975, Lee's full rights of citizenship were posthumously restored by a joint congressional resolution effective June 13, 1865.

At the August 5, 1975, signing ceremony, President Gerald R. Ford acknowledged the discovery of Lee's Oath of Allegiance in the National Archives and remarked: "General Lee's character has been an example to succeeding generations, making the restoration of his citizenship an event in which every American can take pride."

Lee signed his Amnesty Oath on October 2, 1865, but was not restored to full citizenship in his lifetime. (General Records of the Department of State, RG 59)


2020 COVID Relief Bill Did Not Give Congress a Raise

Just hours after President Trump signed the $900 billion COVID-19 relief package on December 21, 2020, claims that the bill had included a stealth “rider bill” that granted large pay raise for members of Congress spread across social media.

A widely shared graphic claimed that the bill “behind your little $600 check” includes “$25,000,000 for additional salary for House of Representatives."

On December 22, a similar version of the claim reading, “They gave you $1200 . six months later they’ll give you $600 . in the same year they gave themselves $40k+ pay raises,” was shared over 66,000 times in hours.

However, a spokesperson for the House Appropriations Committee confirmed that congressional salaries had not gone up in 2020.

“In fact, the legislation just passed specifically blocks the COLA that would otherwise have taken effect,” said an Appropriations Committee spokesperson, referring to the automatic “cost of living adjustment,” in pay, which Congress has voted to turn down since 2009.

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Se videoen: The House of Dionysos, Delos, Greece Stock Video (Januar 2022).