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Perus geografi - Historie

Perus geografi - Historie



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Peru ligger i det vestlige Sydamerika, der grænser op til det sydlige Stillehav, mellem Chile og Ecuador. Perus terræn omfatter en vestlig kystslette (costa), høje og robuste Andesbjergene i midten (Sierra), den østlige lavlandsjungle i Amazonasbassinet (selva).
Klima: Peru varierer fra tropisk i øst til tør ørken i vest


Perus geografi - Historie

Lima ( / ˈ l iː m ə / LEE -mə Spansk udtale: [ˈLima]) er hovedstaden og den største by i Peru. Det ligger i dalene ved floderne Chillón, Rímac og Lurín i den centrale kystdel af landet med udsigt over Stillehavet. Sammen med havnen i Callao danner det et sammenhængende byområde kendt som Lima Metropolitan Area. Med en befolkning på mere end 9,5 millioner er [4] Lima en af ​​de største byer i Amerika.

Lima blev navngivet af indfødte i landbrugsområdet kendt af indfødte peruanere som Limaq. Det blev hovedstaden og den vigtigste by i Viceroyalty of Peru. Efter den peruanske uafhængighedskrig blev den hovedstad i Republikken Peru (República del Perú). Omkring en tredjedel af den nationale befolkning bor i hovedstadsområdet.

Lima er hjemsted for en af ​​de ældste højere læreanstalter i den nye verden. National University of San Marcos, der blev grundlagt den 12. maj 1551 under Viceroyalty of Peru, er det første officielt etablerede og det ældste kontinuerligt fungerende universitet i Amerika.

I dag betragtes byen som det politiske, kulturelle, finansielle og kommercielle centrum i landet. Internationalt er det et af de tredive mest befolkede bymæssige byområder i verden. På grund af sin geostrategiske betydning er den blevet defineret som en "beta" by.

Juridisk set strækker metropolen sig hovedsageligt inden for provinsen Lima og i en mindre del mod vest inden forfatningsprovinsen Callao, hvor havneby og Jorge Chávez lufthavn er placeret. Begge provinser har regional autonomi siden 2002.

I oktober 2013 blev Lima valgt til at være vært for de Pan American Games i 2019, disse spil blev afholdt på spillesteder i og omkring Lima og var den største sportsbegivenhed, der nogensinde var vært for landet. Det var også vært for APEC -møderne i 2008 og 2016, de årlige møder i Den Internationale Valutafond og Verdensbankgruppen i oktober 2015, FN's klimakonference i december 2014 og Miss Universe 1982 -konkurrencen.


Regioner i Peru Kort

Peru (officielt Republikken Peru) er opdelt i 25 regioner (regioner, ental - region) og 1 provins (provincia). I alfabetisk rækkefølge er regionerne: Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura , Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes og Ucayali. Lima er provinsen i Peru. Regionerne er yderligere opdelt i i alt 196 provinser (provinser) og 1.869 distrikter (distrikter). [Bemærk: Callao, den største havn i Peru, omtales også som en forfatningsmæssig provins, den eneste provins i Callao -regionen].

Peru dækker et areal på 1.285.216 kvadratkilometer og er Sydamerikas 3. største land og det 19. største land i verden. Beliggende på kysten af ​​Stillehavet er Lima - hovedstaden, den største og mest folkerige by i Peru. Lima er også den 4. største by i Sydamerika og den 2. største by i Amerika. Det er nationens administrative, kulturelle, uddannelsesmæssige, kommercielle og økonomiske centrum.


Indhold

Landets navn kan stamme fra Birú, navnet på en lokal hersker, der boede nær San Miguel -bugten, Panama City, i begyndelsen af ​​1500 -tallet. [18] Spanske erobrere, der ankom i 1522, mente at dette var den sydligste del af den nye verden. [19] Da Francisco Pizarro invaderede regionerne længere mod syd, kom de til at blive udpeget Birú eller Perú. [20]

En alternativ historie leveres af den samtidige forfatter Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, søn af en inka -prinsesse og en conquistador. Han sagde navnet Birú var en almindelig amerikaner, der blev overværet af besætningen på et skib på en undersøgende mission for guvernør Pedro Arias de Ávila og fortsatte med at fortælle flere tilfælde af misforståelser på grund af manglen på et fælles sprog. [21]

Den spanske krone gav navnet juridisk status med 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, der betegnede det nyligt stødte Inkarige som provinsen Peru. [22] Under spansk styre vedtog landet betegnelsen Viceroyalty of Peru, som blev Republikken Peru efter uafhængighed.

Prehistorie og præ-columbiansk Peru Rediger

De tidligste vidnesbyrd om menneskelig tilstedeværelse på peruansk område er dateret til cirka 12.500 fvt i Huaca Prieta -bosættelsen. [23] Andinske samfund var baseret på landbrug, ved hjælp af teknikker som kunstvanding og terrasser kamelidhold og fiskeri var også vigtige. Organisationen stolede på gensidighed og omfordeling, fordi disse samfund ikke havde nogen forestilling om marked eller penge. [24] Det ældste kendte komplekse samfund i Peru, Caral/Norte Chico -civilisationen, blomstrede langs Stillehavets kyst mellem 3.000 og 1.800 fvt. [25] Denne tidlige udvikling blev fulgt af arkæologiske kulturer, der hovedsageligt udviklede sig omkring kyst- og Andesregionerne i hele Peru. Cupisnique-kulturen, der blomstrede fra omkring 1000 til 200 fvt [26] langs det, der nu er Perus Stillehavskyst, var et eksempel på en tidlig præ-inka-kultur.

Chavín -kulturen, der udviklede sig fra 1500 til 300 fvt, var sandsynligvis mere et religiøst end et politisk fænomen med deres religiøse centrum i Chavín de Huantar. [27] Efter tilbagegangen i Chavin -kulturen omkring begyndelsen af ​​1. århundrede e.Kr. opstod og faldt en række lokaliserede og specialiserede kulturer, både på kysten og på højlandet, i løbet af de næste tusinde år. På kysten omfattede disse civilisationerne i Paracas, Nazca, Wari og de mere fremragende Chimu og Moche.

Moche, der nåede deres apogee i det første årtusinde CE, var kendt for deres kunstvandingssystem, der befrugtede deres tørre terræn, deres sofistikerede keramiske keramik, deres høje bygninger og kloge metalarbejde. [28] Chimu var de store bybyggere af præ-Inca-civilisationen, da en løs sammenslutning af befæstede byer spredt langs kysten i det nordlige Peru, Chimu blomstrede fra omkring 1140 til 1450. [29] Deres hovedstad var i Chan Chan uden for moderne -dag Trujillo. [29] I højlandet udviklede både Tiahuanaco-kulturen, nær Titicacasøen i både Peru og Bolivia, [30] og Wari-kulturen, nær den nuværende by Ayacucho, store bymæssige bosættelser og omfattende statssystemer mellem 500 og 1000 CE. [31]

I 1400-tallet opstod inkaerne som en magtfuld stat, der i løbet af et århundrede udgjorde det største imperium i det præ-columbianske Amerika med deres hovedstad i Cusco. [32] Inkaerne i Cusco repræsenterede oprindeligt en af ​​de små og relativt mindre etniske grupper, Quechuas. Efterhånden, allerede i det trettende århundrede, begyndte de at udvide og indarbejde deres naboer. Inkaudvidelsen var langsom indtil omkring midten af ​​det femtende århundrede, da erobringstempoet begyndte at accelerere, især under kejser Pachacutis styre. [33] Under hans styre og hans søns, Topa Inca Yupanquis, kom inkaerne til at kontrollere det meste af Andesregionen, med en befolkning på 9 til 16 millioner indbyggere under deres styre. Pachacuti offentliggjorde også en omfattende lovkodeks for at styre hans fjerntliggende imperium, mens han konsoliderede sin absolutte tidsmæssige og åndelige autoritet som Solens Gud, der regerede fra et storslået genopbygget Cusco. [34] Fra 1438 til 1533 brugte inkaerne en række metoder, fra erobring til fredelig assimilering, for at inkorporere en stor del af det vestlige Sydamerika, centreret om Andes bjergkæder, fra det sydlige Colombia til det nordlige Chile, mellem Stillehavet i vest og Amazonas regnskov i øst. Imperiets officielle sprog var Quechua, [35] selvom der blev talt hundredvis af lokale sprog og dialekter. Inkaerne omtalte deres imperium som Tawantinsuyu som kan oversættes til "De fire regioner" eller "De fire forenede provinser." Mange lokale former for tilbedelse vedblev i imperiet, de fleste af dem om lokal hellig Huacas, men Inka -ledelsen tilskyndede tilbedelsen af ​​Inti, solguden og pålagde dens suverænitet over andre kulturer som Pachamamas. [36] Inkaerne betragtede deres konge, Sapa -inkaerne, som "solens barn". [37]

Erobring og kolonitid Rediger

Atahualpa (også Atahuallpa), den sidste Sapa Inca, blev kejser, da han besejrede og henrettede sin ældre halvbror Huáscar i en borgerkrig udløst af deres fars, Inca Huayna Capacs død. I december 1532 blev en fest af erobrere (støttet af Chankas, Huancas, Cañaris og Chachapoyas som indiske hjælpere) ledet af Francisco Pizarro besejret og erobrede Inka -kejser Atahualpa i slaget ved Cajamarca. Den spanske erobring af Peru var en af ​​de vigtigste kampagner i den spanske kolonisering af Amerika. Efter år med indledende udforskning og militære konflikter var det det første skridt i en lang kampagne, der tog årtiers kampe, men endte med spansk sejr og kolonisering af regionen kendt som Peres vicekongevær med hovedstad i Lima, som dengang var kendt som "La Ciudad de los Reyes" (Kongernes By). Erobringen af ​​Peru førte til spin-off kampagner i hele vicekongedømmet samt ekspeditioner mod Amazonasbassinet som i tilfælde af spansk indsats for at dæmpe amerikansk modstand. Den sidste inka-modstand blev undertrykt, da spanierne tilintetgjorde Neo-Inca-staten i Vilcabamba i 1572.

Den oprindelige befolkning kollapsede dramatisk overvældende på grund af epidemiske sygdomme indført af spanskerne samt udbytning og socioøkonomiske ændringer. [38] Viceroy Francisco de Toledo reorganiserede landet i 1570'erne med guld- og sølvminedrift som hovedøkonomisk aktivitet og amerikansk tvangsarbejde som primær arbejdsstyrke. [39] Med opdagelsen af ​​de store sølv- og guldknuder ved Potosí (nutidens Bolivia) og Huancavelica blomstrede vicekongedømmet op som en vigtig leverandør af mineralressourcer. Peruviansk bullion gav indtægter til den spanske krone og drev et komplekst handelsnetværk, der strakte sig så langt som til Europa og Filippinerne. [40] Den kommercielle og befolkningsudveksling mellem Latinamerika og Asien gennemgik via Manila Galleons, der passerede gennem Acapulco, havde Callao i Peru som det fjerneste slutpunkt på handelsruten i Amerika. [41] I forhold til dette var Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, guvernør i Panama, også ansvarlig for at bosætte Zamboanga City i Filippinerne, som nu taler spansk kreolsk ved at ansætte peruvianske soldater og kolonister. [42] På grund af mangel på tilgængelig arbejdsstyrke blev afrikanske slaver tilføjet til arbejdsbefolkningen. Udvidelsen af ​​et kolonialt administrativt apparat og bureaukrati sideløbende med den økonomiske reorganisering. Da erobringen startede udbredelsen af ​​kristendommen i Sydamerika, blev de fleste mennesker kraftigt konverteret til katolicisme, hvor spanske gejstlige senere troede på puritanske gudstjenester i engelske kolonier, at de indfødte folk "var blevet ødelagt af Djævelen, der arbejdede" igennem dem for at frustrere "deres fundamenter. [43] Det tog kun en generation at konvertere befolkningen. De byggede kirker i hver by og erstattede nogle af inka -templerne med kirker, f.eks. Coricancha i byen Cusco. Kirken ansatte inkvisitionen og lavede brug af tortur for at sikre, at nyomvendte katolikker ikke kom på afveje til andre religioner eller overbevisninger og klosterskoler og uddannede piger, især fra inkaadelen og overklassen, "indtil de var gamle nok til enten at bekende [at blive nonne] eller at forlade klosteret og påtage sig den rolle ('estado') i det kristne samfund, som deres fædre planlagde at opføre "i Peru. [44] Peruviansk katolicisme følger synkretismen fundet i ma. ny latinamerikanske lande, hvor religiøse indfødte ritualer er blevet integreret med kristne festligheder. [45] I denne bestræbelse kom kirken til at spille en vigtig rolle i de indfødtes akkulturering og trække dem ind i de spanske nybyggeres kulturelle kredsløb.

I det 18. århundrede reducerede faldende sølvproduktion og økonomisk diversifikation kraftigt den kongelige indkomst. [46] Som svar vedtog kronen Bourbon -reformerne, en række udgaver, der øgede skatter og opdelte vicekongedømmet. [47] De nye love fremkaldte Túpac Amaru IIs oprør og andre oprør, som alle blev undertrykt. [48] ​​Som et resultat af disse og andre ændringer kom spanierne og deres kreolske efterfølgere til at monopolisere kontrollen over landet og beslaglagde mange af de bedste landområder, der blev forladt af den massive indfødte affolkning. Spanskerne modstod imidlertid ikke den portugisiske ekspansion af Brasilien på tværs af meridianen. Tordesillas -traktaten blev gjort meningsløs mellem 1580 og 1640, mens Spanien kontrollerede Portugal. Behovet for at lette kommunikationen og handelen med Spanien førte til splittelsen af ​​vicekongedømmet og oprettelsen af ​​nye vicekonflikter i New Granada og Rio de la Plata på bekostning af de områder, der dannede Perikongedømmet, hvilket reducerede magten, fremtrædelsen og betydningen af Lima som den vicekongelige hovedstad og flyttede den lukrative Andeshandel til Buenos Aires og Bogotá, mens minedrift og tekstilproduktion faldt i et progressivt forfald i vicekongedømmet i Peru.

Til sidst ville vicekongedømmet opløses, som med store dele af det spanske imperium, når det blev udfordret af nationale uafhængighedsbevægelser i begyndelsen af ​​det nittende århundrede. Disse bevægelser førte til dannelsen af ​​størstedelen af ​​nutidens lande i Sydamerika på de områder, der på et eller andet tidspunkt havde udgjort Perikongedømmet. [49] Erobringen og kolonien bragte en blanding af kulturer og etniciteter, der ikke fandtes, før spanierne erobrede det peruvianske område. Selvom mange af inka -traditionerne gik tabt eller fortyndede, blev nye skikke, traditioner og viden tilføjet, hvilket skabte en rig blandet peruansk kultur. [45] To af de vigtigste oprindelige oprør mod spanierne var Juan Santos Atahualpa i 1742 og Oprør i Túpac Amaru II i 1780 omkring højlandet nær Cuzco. [50]

Uafhængighed Rediger

I begyndelsen af ​​1800 -tallet, mens de fleste sydamerikanske nationer blev fejet af uafhængighedskrige, forblev Peru en royalistisk højborg. Da eliten vaklede mellem frigørelse og loyalitet over for det spanske monarki, blev uafhængighed først opnået efter besættelsen ved militære kampagner af José de San Martín og Simón Bolívar.

De økonomiske kriser, tabet af magt i Spanien i Europa, uafhængighedskrigen i Nordamerika og indfødte oprør bidrog alle til et gunstigt klima for udviklingen af ​​emancipationsideer blandt Criollo befolkning i Sydamerika. Criollo -oligarkiet i Peru nød imidlertid privilegier og forblev loyal over for den spanske krone. Befrielsesbevægelsen startede i Argentina, hvor autonome juntas blev oprettet som et resultat af tab af autoritet for den spanske regering over dens kolonier.

Efter at have kæmpet for uafhængigheden af ​​Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata, skabte José de San Martín Andeshæren og krydsede Andesbjergene på 21 dage. En gang i Chile sluttede han sig sammen med den chilenske hærs general Bernardo O'Higgins og befriede landet i kampene ved Chacabuco og Maipú i 1818. [51] Den 7. september 1820 ankom en flåde med otte krigsskibe til havnen i Paracas under kommando over general José de San Martin og Thomas Cochrane, der tjente i den chilenske flåde. Umiddelbart den 26. oktober overtog de kontrollen over byen Pisco. San Martin bosatte sig i Huacho den 12. november, hvor han etablerede sit hovedkvarter, mens Cochrane sejlede nordpå og blokerede havnen i Callao i Lima. På samme tid i nord blev Guayaquil besat af oprørsstyrker under kommando af Gregorio Escobedo. Fordi Peru var den spanske regerings højborg i Sydamerika, var San Martins strategi for at befri Peru at bruge diplomati. Han sendte repræsentanter til Lima og opfordrede vicekongen til, at Peru blev givet uafhængighed, men alle forhandlinger viste sig ikke at lykkes.

Perus vicekonge, Joaquín de la Pazuela udnævnte José de la Serna til øverstkommanderende for den loyalistiske hær for at beskytte Lima mod den truede invasion af San Martin. Den 29. januar organiserede de la Serna et kup mod de la Pazuela, som blev anerkendt af Spanien, og han blev udnævnt til vicekonge i Peru. Denne interne magtkamp bidrog til den befriende hærs succes. For at undgå en militær konfrontation mødte San Martin den nyudnævnte vicekonge, José de la Serna, og foreslog at oprette et konstitutionelt monarki, et forslag der blev afvist. De la Serna opgav byen, og den 12. juli 1821 besatte San Martin Lima og erklærede peruansk uafhængighed den 28. juli 1821. Han skabte det første peruvianske flag. Øvre Peru (Bolivia) forblev som en spansk højborg, indtil hæren af ​​Simón Bolívar befriede det tre år senere. José de San Martin blev erklæret beskytter af Peru. Peruviansk national identitet blev forfalsket i løbet af denne periode, da bolivariske projekter for et latinamerikansk konføderation flammede og en union med Bolivia viste sig flygtig. [52]

Simon Bolivar lancerede sin kampagne nordfra og befriede Viceroyalty of New Granada i slagene i Carabobo i 1821 og Pichincha et år senere. I juli 1822 samledes Bolivar og San Martin i Guayaquil -konferencen. Bolivar blev efterladt ansvaret for fuldstændig befrielse af Peru, mens San Martin trak sig tilbage fra politik, efter at det første parlament blev samlet. Den nystiftede peruvianske kongres hedder Bolivar -diktator i Peru, hvilket giver ham magt til at organisere militæret.

Ved hjælp af Antonio José de Sucre besejrede de den større spanske hær i slaget ved Junín den 6. august 1824 og det afgørende slag ved Ayacucho den 9. december samme år og konsoliderede uafhængigheden af ​​Peru og Alto Peru. Alto Peru blev senere etableret som Bolivia. I løbet af republikkens første år forårsagede endemiske magtkampe mellem militære ledere politisk ustabilitet. [53]

1800 -tallet Rediger

Fra 1840'erne til 1860'erne nød Peru en periode med stabilitet under formandskabet i Ramón Castilla gennem øgede statsindtægter fra guano -eksport. [54] Men i 1870'erne var disse ressourcer blevet opbrugt, landet stod stærkt i gæld, og de politiske kampene var igen stigende. [55] Peru påbegyndte et jernbaneprogram, der hjalp, men også gjorde landet konkurs.

I 1879 gik Peru ind i Stillehavskrigen, der varede indtil 1884. Bolivia påkaldte sin alliance med Peru mod Chile. Den peruvianske regering forsøgte at mægle tvisten ved at sende et diplomatisk team til at forhandle med den chilenske regering, men udvalget konkluderede, at krigen var uundgåelig. Chile erklærede krig den 5. april 1879. Næsten fem års krig endte med tabet af departementet Tarapacá og provinserne Tacna og Arica i Atacama -regionen. To fremragende militære ledere under hele krigen var Francisco Bolognesi og Miguel Grau. Oprindeligt forpligtede Chile sig til en folkeafstemning for byerne Arica og Tacna, der skulle afholdes år senere for selv at bestemme deres nationale tilknytning. Chile nægtede imidlertid at anvende traktaten, og ingen af ​​landene kunne bestemme de lovbestemte rammer. Efter Stillehavskrigen begyndte en ekstraordinær indsats for genopbygning. Regeringen begyndte at igangsætte en række sociale og økonomiske reformer for at komme sig efter krigens skader. Politisk stabilitet blev kun opnået i begyndelsen af ​​1900'erne.

20. århundrede Rediger

Interne kampe efter krigen blev efterfulgt af en periode med stabilitet under Civilista -partiet, der varede indtil begyndelsen af ​​det autoritære regime Augusto B. Leguía. Den store depression forårsagede Leguías fald, fornyet politisk uro og fremkomsten af ​​American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA). [56] Rivaliseringen mellem denne organisation og en koalition mellem eliten og militæret definerede peruansk politik i de følgende tre årtier. En sidste fredsaftale i 1929, underskrevet mellem Peru og Chile kaldet Lima -traktaten, returnerede Tacna til Peru. Mellem 1932 og 1933 blev Peru opslugt af en årelang krig med Colombia om en territorial strid mellem Amazonas-afdelingen og hovedstaden Leticia.

Senere, i 1941, kæmpede Peru og Ecuador den ecuadoriansk -peruvianske krig, hvorefter Rio -protokollen søgte at formalisere grænsen mellem de to lande. Ved et militærkup den 29. oktober 1948 blev general Manuel A. Odría præsident. Odrias formandskab var kendt som Ochenio. Han kom hårdt ned på APRA, glædeligt for et øjeblik oligarkiet og alle andre til højre, men fulgte en populistisk kurs, der vandt ham stor gunst hos de fattige og lavere klasser. En blomstrende økonomi gav ham mulighed for at forkæle sig med dyre, men publikumsopfyldende socialpolitikker. Samtidig var borgerrettighederne imidlertid stærkt begrænsede, og korruption var udbredt i hele hans regime. Odría blev efterfulgt af Manuel Prado Ugarteche. Imidlertid fik omfattende anklager om bedrageri det peruvianske militær til at afsætte Prado og installere en militærjunta, ledet af Ricardo Pérez Godoy. Godoy kørte en kort overgangsregering og holdt nyvalg i 1963, som blev vundet af Fernando Belaúnde Terry, der overtog formandsposten indtil 1968. Belaúnde blev anerkendt for sit engagement i den demokratiske proces. I 1968 gennemførte de væbnede styrker, ledet af general Juan Velasco Alvarado, et kup mod Belaúnde. Alvarado's regime gennemførte radikale reformer, der havde til formål at fremme udviklingen, men fik ikke udbredt støtte. I 1975 erstattede general Francisco Morales-Bermúdez kraftigt Velasco, lammede reformer og førte tilsyn med genoprettelsen af ​​demokratiet.

Peru deltog i en kort vellykket konflikt med Ecuador i Paquisha -krigen som følge af territorial strid mellem de to lande. Efter at landet oplevede kronisk inflation, blev den peruvianske valuta, sol, erstattet af Inti i midten af ​​1985, som selv blev erstattet af nuevo sol i juli 1991, hvor den nye sol havde en kumulativ værdi på en milliard gamle såler. Peruanernes årlige indkomst pr. Indbygger faldt til $ 720 (under niveauet i 1960), og Perus BNP faldt med 20%, hvor de nationale reserver var negative $ 900 millioner. Tidens økonomiske turbulens forværrede de sociale spændinger i Peru og bidrog til dels til stigningen i voldelige oprørsbevægelser i landdistrikterne, som Sendero Luminoso (skinnende sti) og MRTA, hvilket forårsagede store ødelæggelser i hele landet. Bekymret over økonomien, den stigende terrortrussel fra Sendero Luminoso og MRTA og anklager om officiel korruption overtog Alberto Fujimori formandsposten i 1990. Fujimori gennemførte drastiske foranstaltninger, der fik inflationen til at falde fra 7.650% i 1990 til 139% i 1991. [ citat nødvendig ]

I modsætning til sin reformindsats opløste Fujimori kongressen i auto-golpe ("selvkup") af 5. april 1992. Derefter reviderede han forfatningen, der kaldte nye kongresvalg, og gennemførte omfattende økonomiske reformer, herunder privatisering af talrige statsejede virksomheder, skabelse af et investeringsvenligt klima og forsvarlig forvaltning af økonomien . Fujimoris administration blev slået fast af oprørsgrupper, især Sendero Luminoso, der gennemførte terrorkampagner i hele landet i 1980'erne og 1990'erne. Fujimori slog til mod oprørerne og havde succes med stort set at standse dem i slutningen af ​​1990'erne, men kampen blev ødelagt af grusomheder begået af både de peruvianske sikkerhedsstyrker og oprørerne: Barrios Altos -massakren og La Cantuta -massakren af ​​regeringens paramilitære grupper, og bombningerne af Tarata og Frecuencia Latina af Sendero Luminoso. Disse hændelser kom efterfølgende til at symbolisere krænkelser af menneskerettighederne begået i de sidste års vold. [ citat nødvendig ]

I begyndelsen af ​​1995 stødte Peru og Ecuador igen sammen i Cenepa -krigen, men i 1998 underskrev regeringerne i begge nationer en fredsaftale, der klart afgrænsede den internationale grænse mellem dem. I november 2000 trak Fujimori sig tilbage fra embedet og gik i en selvpålagt eksil og undgik retsforfølgning for krænkelser af menneskerettigheder og korruptionsanklager fra de nye peruvianske myndigheder. [57]

21. århundrede og politisk uro Rediger

Siden slutningen af ​​Fujimori -regimet har Peru forsøgt at bekæmpe korruption og samtidig opretholde økonomisk vækst. [57] På trods af menneskerettighedsfremskridt siden oprørstidspunktet er mange problemer stadig synlige og viser den fortsatte marginalisering af dem, der led under den peruvianske konflikts vold. [58] En viceværtregering ledet af Valentín Paniagua overtog ansvaret for at gennemføre nye præsident- og kongresvalg. Herefter blev Alejandro Toledo præsident i 2001 til 2006.

Den 28. juli 2006 blev den tidligere præsident Alan García præsident for Peru efter at have vundet valget i 2006. I maj 2008 blev Peru medlem af Union of South American Nations. I april 2009 blev den tidligere præsident Alberto Fujimori dømt for krænkelser af menneskerettighederne og idømt 25 års fængsel for hans rolle i drab og kidnapninger af Grupo Colina -dødstroppen under hans regerings kamp mod venstreorienterede guerillaer i 1990'erne. [59] Den 5. juni 2011 blev Ollanta Humala valgt til præsident. Under hans formandskab blev premierminister Ana Jara og hendes kabinet med succes censureret, hvilket var første gang i 50 år, at et kabinet var blevet tvunget til at trække sig fra den peruanske lovgiver. [60] I 2016 blev Pedro Pablo Kuczynski valgt, selvom hans regering var kortvarig, da han trådte tilbage i 2018 blandt forskellige kontroverser omkring hans administration. Vicepræsident Martín Vizcarra tiltrådte derefter kontoret i marts 2018 med generelt gunstige godkendelsesvurderinger. [61] Alan García var involveret i Operation Car Wash -skandalen, og da politiet forsøgte at arrestere ham, begik han selvmord den 17. april 2019. Senere samme år, i juli, anholdt politiet Alejandro Toledo i Californien. Midt i krisen opløste præsident Vizcarra kongressen den 30. september 2019, og der blev afholdt valg den 26. januar 2020. Det første tilfælde af COVID-19 blev bekræftet den 6. marts 2020. Under COVID-19-pandemien i Peru var de fleste peruanere under en hjemmebestilling af præsident Martin Vizcarra. En økonomisk krise udløst af pandemien førte imidlertid til, at han blev fjernet fra formandskabet, set af mange som et kup ved kongressen, og den højrefløjsregering af Manuel Merino, den nye præsident, fik meget modreaktion. Protester sprang ud over landet, og efter 5 dage trak Merino sig tilbage. Han blev erstattet af Francisco Sagasti. Sagasti ledede en foreløbig, centristisk regering og håndhævede mange af Vizcarras tidligere politikker. Valg blev afholdt den 11. april 2021, og Pedro Castillo fra partiet Free Peru vandt den første runde, tæt fulgt af Keiko Fujimori.

Peru er en enheds præsidentrepræsentant demokratisk republik med et flerpartisystem. [2] [3] Landet har opretholdt et liberalt demokratisk system under sin forfatning fra 1993, som erstattede en forfatning, der lænede regeringen til en føderation for at bemyndige præsidenten mere magt. [62] [63] Det er også en enhedsrepublik, hvor centralregeringen besidder mest magt og kan skabe administrative splittelser. Det peruvianske regeringssystem kombinerer elementer, der stammer fra de politiske systemer i USA (en skriftlig forfatning, en autonom højesteret, et præsidentsystem) og Folkerepublikken Kina (en enheds kongres, et premier- og ministeriesystem og et stærkt udøvende). [64]

Den peruvianske regering er opdelt i tre grene:

  • Lovgiver: den enkammerlige kongres i Peru, der består af 130 medlemmer af kongressen (baseret på befolkning), kongresformanden og den permanente kommission [65]
  • Eksekutiv: Præsidenten, Ministerrådet, som i praksis kontrollerer national lovgivning og fungerer som kabinet for præsidenten, der består af premierministeren og 18 ministre i staten
  • Retsvæsen: Højesteret i Peru, også kendt som Royal Audencia i Lima, sammensat af 18 dommere, herunder en Supreme Justice, sammen med 28 overordnede domstole, 195 retsinstanser og 1.838 distriktsretter.

I henhold til dens forfatning er præsidenten både stats- og regeringschef og vælges for en femårig periode uden øjeblikkeligt genvalg. [66] Præsidenten udpeger ministre, der fører tilsyn med de 18 ministerier i staten, herunder premierministeren, i kabinettet. [67] Forfatningen udpeger minimal autoritet til premierministeren, der leder kabinetsmøder, hvor ministre rådgiver præsidenten og fungerer som talsmand på vegne af den udøvende afdeling. [68] Præsidenten er også i stand til at stille spørgsmål om tillid til kongressen i Peru og følgelig beordre kongressens opløsning, foretaget i 1992 af Alberto Fujimori og i 2019 af Martín Vizcarra. [69]

I Perus kongres er der 130 kongresmedlemmer fra 25 administrative divisioner, bestemt af respektive befolkning, valgt til fem år. [70] Lovforslag foreslås af de udøvende og lovgivende beføjelser og bliver til lov ved hjælp af en flerstemmighedsafstemning i kongressen. [71] Retsvæsenet er nominelt uafhængigt, [72] selvom politisk indgriben i retsspørgsmål har været almindelig gennem historien. [73] Kongressen i Peru kan også vedtage et mistillidsforslag, mistillid til ministre samt igangsætte anklager og dømme ledere i et forsøg på at balancere magten mellem den udøvende og lovgivende afdeling. [74] [75] Det lovgivende organ i nyere tid har bestået semi-vellykkede anklager, herunder Alberto Fujimori i 2000 og Pedro Pablo Kuczynski i 2018, hvilket fik Kuczynski til at trække sig. [76]

Perus valgsystem anvender obligatorisk afstemning for borgere fra 18 til 70 år, herunder dobbeltborgere og peruanere i udlandet. [77] Medlemmer af kongressen vælges direkte af vælgere i de respektive distrikter gennem proportionel afstemning. Præsidenten vælges ved et almindeligt valg sammen med næstformanden gennem et flertal i et to-runde system. [78] Valg observeres og organiseres af den nationale valgjury, det nationale kontor for valgprocesser og det nationale register over identifikation og civil status. [79]

Peru bruger et flerpartisystem til kongres- og folketingsvalg. Major groups that have formed governments, both on a federal and legislative level, are parties that have historically adopted economic liberalism, progressivism, right-wing populism (specifically Fujimorism), nationalism, and reformism. [80]

The most recent general election was held on 5 June 2016 and resulted in the election of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski as president and Martín Vizcarra as vice president. [81] The most recent congressional election was a snap election held on 26 January 2020 in response to the dissolution of congress, in which Popular Action, Alliance for Progress, and FREPAP secured a majority in congress. [82]

Regions and territories Edit

Peru is divided into 26 units: 24 departments, the Constitutional Province of Callao and the Province of Lima (LIM) — which is independent of any region and serves as the country's capital. [83] Under the constitution, the 24 departments plus Callao Province have an elected "regional" [d] government composed of the regional governor and the regional council. [84] [85]

The Governor constitutes the executive body, proposes budgets, and creates decrees, resolutions, and regional programs. [86] The Regional Council, the region's legislative body, debates and votes on budgets, supervises regional officials, and can vote to remove the governor, deputy governor, or any member of the council from office. The Regional Governor and the Regional Council serve a term of four years, without immediate reelection. These governments plan regional development, execute public investment projects, promote economic activities, and manage public property. [87] [88]

Provinces, such as the province of Lima, are administered by a municipal council, headed by a mayor. [89] The goal of devolving power to regional and municipal governments was among others to improve popular participation. NGOs played an important role in the decentralization process and still influence local politics. [90] [91]

Some areas of Peru are defined as metropolitan areas which overlap district areas. The largest of them, the Lima metropolitan area, is the seventh-largest metropolis in the Americas.

Foreign relations Edit

Over recent decades, Peru's foreign relations has historically been dominated by close ties with the United States and Asia, [92] particularly through the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the World Trade Organization, the Pacific Alliance, Mercosur, and the Organization of American States (OAS). [93] [94] Peru is an active member of several regional trade blocs and is one of the founding members of the Andean Community of Nations. It is also a member of international organizations such as the OAS and the United Nations. [95] Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, a celebrated Peruvian diplomat, served as United Nations Secretary General from 1981 to 1991.

Peru has planned to be fully integrated into the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) by 2021, attributing its economic success and efforts to strengthen institutions as meeting factors to be a part of the OECD. [96] [97] Peru is a member of the World Trade Organization, and has pursued multiple major free trade agreements, most recently the Peru—United States Free Trade Agreement, the China—Peru Free Trade Agreement, the European Union Free Trade Agreement, free trade agreements with Japan, and many others. [98] [99]

Peru maintains an integrated relationship with other South American nations, and is a member of various South American intergovernmental agreements, more recently the Organization of American States, Mercosur, the Andean Community of Nations, the Pacific Alliance, and the APEC. Peru has historically experienced stressed relations with Chile, including the Peru v Chile international court resolution and the Chilean-Peruvian maritime dispute, but the two countries have agreed to work in improving relations. [100]

Additionally, Peru has participated in taking a leading role in addressing the crisis in Venezuela through the establishment of the Lima Group. [101]

Military and law enforcement Edit

Peru has the fourth largest military in Latin America. Peru's armed forces—the Armed Forces of Peru—comprise the Peruvian Navy (MGP), the Peruvian Army (EP), and the Peruvian Air Force (FAP), in total numbering 392,660 personnel (including 120,660 regulars and 272,000 reservists) as of 2020. [102] Their primary mission is to safeguard the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country. [103]

Their functions are separated by branch:

  • The Peruvian Army is made up of the Chief of Staff, two Control Bodies, two Support Bodies, five Military Regions and six Command Rooms.
  • The Peruvian Air Force was officially created on May 20, 1929 with the name of Peruvian Aviation Corps. Its main function is to serve as the country's air defense. It also participates in social support campaigns for hard-to-reach populations, organizes air bridges during disasters, and participates in international peace missions. Its four major air bases are located in the cities of Piura, Callao, Arequipa and Iquitos.
  • The Peruvian Navy is in charge of the country's maritime, river, and lake defense. It is made up of 26,000 sailors. Personnel are divided into three levels: superior personnel, junior personnel and seafarers.

The military is governed by both the Commander in Chief, Ministry of Defense, and Joint Command of the Armed Forces (CCFFAA). The CCFFAA has subordinates to the Operational Commands and Special Commands, with which it carries out the military operations that are required for the defense and the fulfillment of the tasks that the executive power provides. [104] Conscription was abolished in 1999 and replaced by voluntary military service. [105] The National Police of Peru is often classified as a part of the armed forces. Although in fact it has a different organization and a wholly civil mission, its training and activities over more than two decades as an anti-terrorist force have produced markedly military characteristics, giving it the appearance of a virtual fourth military service with significant land, sea and air capabilities and approximately 140,000 personnel. The Peruvian armed forces report through the Ministry of Defense, while the National Police of Peru reports through the Ministry of Interior. [106] [103]

Since the end of the crisis in Peru in 2000, the federal government has significantly reduced annual spending in defense. [107] In the 2016—2017 budget, defense spending has constituted 1.1% of GDP ($2.3 billion), the second lowest spending relative to GDP in South America following Argentina. [108] More recently, the Armed Forces of Peru have been used in civil defense. In 2020, Peru used its military personnel and even reservists to enforce the strict quarantine measures placed during the COVID-19 pandemic. [109]

Peru is located on the central western coast of South America facing the Pacific Ocean. It lies wholly in the Southern Hemisphere, its northernmost extreme reaching to 1.8 minutes of latitude or about 3.3 kilometres (2.1 mi) south of the equator, covers 1,285,216 km 2 (496,225 sq mi) of western South America. It borders Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The Andes mountains run parallel to the Pacific Ocean they define the three regions traditionally used to describe the country geographically.

Det costa (coast), to the west, is a narrow plain, largely arid except for valleys created by seasonal rivers. Det sierra (highlands) is the region of the Andes it includes the Altiplano plateau as well as the highest peak of the country, the 6,768 m (22,205 ft) Huascarán. [110] The third region is the selva (jungle), a wide expanse of flat terrain covered by the Amazon rainforest that extends east. Almost 60 percent of the country's area is located within this region. [111] The country has fifty-four hydrographic basins, fifty-two of which are small coastal basins that discharge their waters into the Pacific Ocean. The other two are the Amazon basin, which empties into the Atlantic Ocean, and the endorheic basin of Lake Titicaca, both delimited by the Andes mountain range. In the second of these basins, the giant Amazon River begins, which, with its 6872 km, is the longest river in the world, with 75% of the Peruvian territory. Peru contains 4% of the planet's fresh water.

Most Peruvian rivers originate in the peaks of the Andes and drain into one of three basins. Those that drain toward the Pacific Ocean are steep and short, flowing only intermittently. Tributaries of the Amazon River have a much larger flow, and are longer and less steep once they exit the sierra. Rivers that drain into Lake Titicaca are generally short and have a large flow. [112] Peru's longest rivers are the Ucayali, the Marañón, the Putumayo, the Yavarí, the Huallaga, the Urubamba, the Mantaro, and the Amazon. [113]

The largest lake in Peru, Lake Titicaca between Peru and Bolivia high in the Andes, is also the largest of South America. [114] The largest reservoirs, all in the coastal region of Peru, are the Poechos, Tinajones, San Lorenzo, and El Fraile reservoirs. [115]

Climate Edit

The combination of tropical latitude, mountain ranges, topography variations, and two ocean currents (Humboldt and El Niño) gives Peru a large diversity of climates. The coastal region has moderate temperatures, low precipitation, and high humidity, except for its warmer, wetter northern reaches. [116] In the mountain region, rain is frequent in summer, and temperature and humidity diminish with altitude up to the frozen peaks of the Andes. [117] The Peruvian Amazon is characterized by heavy rainfall and high temperatures, except for its southernmost part, which has cold winters and seasonal rainfall. [118]

Wildlife Edit

Because of its varied geography and climate, Peru has a high biodiversity with 21,462 species of plants and animals reported as of 2003, 5,855 of them endemic, [119] and is one of the megadiverse countries.

Peru has over 1,800 species of birds (120 endemic), and 500 species of mammals and over 300 species of reptiles. [120] The hundreds of mammals include rare species like the puma, jaguar and spectacled bear. The Birds of Peru produce large amounts of guano, an economically important export. The Pacific holds large quantities of sea bass, flounder, anchovies, tuna, crustaceans, and shellfish, and is home to many sharks, sperm whales, and whales. [121]

Peru also has an equally diverse flora. The coastal deserts produce little more than cacti, apart from hilly fog oases and river valleys that contain unique plant life. [122] The Highlands above the tree-line known as puna is home to bushes, cactus, drought-resistant plants such as ichu, and the largest species of bromeliad – the spectacular Puya raimondii.

The cloud-forest slopes of the Andes sustain moss, orchids, and bromeliads, and the Amazon rainforest is known for its variety of trees and canopy plants. [121] Peru had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 8.86/10, ranking it 14th globally out of 172 countries. [123]

The economy of Peru is the 48th largest in the world (ranked by Purchasing Power Parity), [124] and the income level is classified as upper middle by the World Bank. [12] Peru is, as of 2011 [update] , one of the world's fastest-growing economies owing to an economic boom experienced during the 2000s. [125] It has an above-average Human Development Index of 0.74 which has seen steady improvement over the last 25 years. [ klarlægge ] [11] Historically, the country's economic performance has been tied to exports, which provide hard currency to finance imports and external debt payments. [126] Although they have provided substantial revenue, self-sustained growth and a more egalitarian distribution of income have proven elusive. [127] According to 2015 data, 19.3% of its total population is poor, including 9% that lives in extreme poverty. [128] Inflation in 2012 was the lowest in Latin America at only 1.8%, but increased in 2013 as oil and commodity prices rose as of 2014 [update] it stands at 2.5%. [129] The unemployment rate has fallen steadily in recent years, [ klarlægge ] and as of 2012 [update] stands at 3.6%.

Peruvian economic policy has varied widely over the past decades. [ klarlægge ] The 1968–1975 government of Juan Velasco Alvarado introduced radical reforms, which included agrarian reform, the expropriation of foreign companies, the introduction of an economic planning system, and the creation of a large state-owned sector. These measures failed to achieve their objectives of income redistribution and the end of economic dependence on developed nations. [130]

Despite these results, most reforms were not reversed until the 1990s, when the liberalizing government of Alberto Fujimori ended price controls, protectionism, restrictions on foreign direct investment, and most state ownership of companies. [131] Reforms have permitted sustained economic growth since 1993, except for a slump after the 1997 Asian financial crisis. [132]

Services account for 53% of Peruvian gross domestic product, followed by manufacturing (22.3%), extractive industries (15%), and taxes (9.7%). [133] Recent economic growth has been fueled by macroeconomic stability, improved terms of trade, and rising investment and consumption. [134] Trade is expected to increase further after the implementation of a free trade agreement with the United States signed on 12 April 2006. [135] Peru's main exports are copper, gold, zinc, textiles, and fish meal its major trade partners are the United States, China, Brazil, and Chile. [136]

Urbanization Edit

Ethnic groups Edit

Peru is a multiethnic nation formed by successive waves of different peoples over five centuries. Amerindians inhabited Peruvian territory for several millennia before the Spanish Conquest in the 16th century according to historian Noble David Cook, their population decreased from nearly 5–9 million in the 1520s to around 600,000 in 1620 mainly because of infectious diseases. [139]

The 2017 census for the first time included a question on ethnic self-identification. According to the results, 60.2% of the people identified themselves as mestizo, 22.3% identified themselves as Quechua, 5.9% identified themselves as white, 3.6% identified themselves as black, 2.4% identified themselves as Aymara, 2.3% identified themselves as other ethnic groups, and 3.3% didn't declare their ethnicity. [138]

Spaniards and Africans arrived in large numbers under colonial rule, mixing widely with each other and with indigenous peoples. After independence, there was gradual immigration from England, France, Germany, and Italy. [140] Peru freed its black slaves in 1854. [141] Chinese and Japanese arrived in the 1850s as laborers following the end of slavery, and have since become a major influence in Peruvian society, forming one of the largest populations of Asians in Latin America. [142]

Befolkning Rediger

With about 31.2 million inhabitants in 2017, Peru is the fourth most populous country in South America. [143] The demographic growth rate of Peru declined from 2.6% to 1.6% between 1950 and 2000 with the population being expected to reach approximately 42 million in 2050. [144] According to the 1940 Peruvian census, Peru had a population at the time of seven million residents. [145]

As of 2017 [update] , 79.3% lived in urban areas and 20.7% in rural areas. [146] Major cities include the Lima metropolitan area (home to over 9.8 million people), Arequipa, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Piura, Iquitos, Cusco, Chimbote, and Huancayo all reported more than 250,000 inhabitants in the 2007 census. [147] There are 15 uncontacted Amerindian tribes in Peru. [148]

Sprogredigering

According to the Peruvian Constitution of 1993, Peru's official languages are Spanish and, in areas where they predominate, Quechua and other indigenous languages. Spanish is spoken natively by 82.6% of the population, Quechua by 13.9%, and Aymara by 1.7%, while other languages are spoken by the remaining 1.8%. [149]

Spanish language is used by the government and is the mainstream language of the country, which is used by the media and in educational systems and commerce. Amerindians who live in the Andean highlands speak Quechua and Aymara and are ethnically distinct from the diverse indigenous groups who live on the eastern side of the Andes and in the tropical lowlands adjacent to the Amazon basin. [150]

Peru's distinct geographical regions are mirrored in a language divide between the coast where Spanish is more predominant over the Amerindian languages, and the more diverse traditional Andean cultures of the mountains and highlands. The indigenous populations east of the Andes speak various languages and dialects. Some of these groups still adhere to traditional indigenous languages, while others have been almost completely assimilated into the Spanish language. There has been an increasing and organized effort to teach Quechua in public schools in the areas where Quechua is spoken. In the Peruvian Amazon, numerous indigenous languages are spoken, including Asháninka, Bora, and Aguaruna. [150]

Religion Rediger

Roman Catholicism has been the predominant faith in Peru for centuries, albeit religious practices have a high degree of syncretism with indigenous traditions. As of the 2017 census, 76% of the population over 12 years old described themselves as Catholic, 14.1% as Evangelical, 4.8% as Protestant, Jewish, Latter-day Saints, and Jehovah's Witnesses, and 5.1% as nonreligious. [1]

Amerindian religious traditions continue to play a major role in the beliefs of Peruvians. Catholic festivities like Corpus Christi, Holy Week and Christmas sometimes blend with Amerindian traditions. Amerindian festivities from pre-Columbian remain widespread Inti Raymi, an ancient Inca festival, is still celebrated, especially in rural communities.

The majority of towns, cities, and villages have their own official church or cathedral and patron saint.

According to Article 50 of the Peruvian Constitution, Roman Catholicism is the official religion, and Roman Catholicism is mandatory in all state schools. [151]

Uddannelse Rediger

Peru's literacy rate is estimated at 92.9% as of 2007 this rate is lower in rural areas (80.3%) than in urban areas (96.3%). [152] Primary and secondary education are compulsory and free in public schools. [124] [153]

Peru is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World. The National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Viceroyalty of Peru, is the first officially established and the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas. [ citat nødvendig ]

Health Edit

Peru has a life expectancy of 75.0 years (72.4 for males and 77.7 for females) according to the latest data for the year 2016 from the World Bank. [154]

Toponyms Edit

Many of the Peruvian toponyms have indigenous sources. In the Andes communities of Ancash, Cusco and Puno, Quechua or Aymara names are overwhelmingly predominant. Their Spanish-based orthography, however, is in conflict with the normalized alphabets of these languages. According to Article 20 of Decreto Supremo No 004-2016-MC (Supreme Decree) which approves the Regulations to Law 29735, published in the official newspaper El Peruano on 22 July 2016, adequate spellings of the toponyms in the normalized alphabets of the indigenous languages must progressively be proposed with the aim of standardizing the naming used by the National Geographic Institute (Instituto Geográfico Nacional, IGN). The National Geographic Institute realizes the necessary changes in the official maps of Peru. [155]

Peruvian culture is primarily rooted in Amerindian and European traditions, [156] though it has also been influenced by various Asian and African ethnic groups. Peruvian artistic traditions date back to the elaborate pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture of Pre-Inca cultures. The Incas maintained these crafts and made architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu. Baroque dominated colonial art, though modified by native traditions. [157]

During this period, most art focused on religious subjects the numerous churches of the era and the paintings of the Cusco School are representative. [158] Arts stagnated after independence until the emergence of Indigenismo in the early 20th century. [159] Since the 1950s, Peruvian art has been eclectic and shaped by both foreign and local art currents.

Visual Arts Edit

Peruvian art has its origin in the Andean civilizations. These civilizations rose in the territory of modern Peru before the arrival of the Spanish. Peruvian art incorporated European elements after the Spanish conquest and continued to evolve throughout the centuries up on to the modern day.

Pre-Columbian art Edit

Peru's earliest artwork came from the Cupisnique culture, which was concentrated on the Pacific coast, and the Chavín culture, which was largely north of Lima between the Andean mountain ranges of the Cordillera Negra and the Cordillera Blanca. Decorative work from this era, approximately the 9th century BCE, was symbolic and religious in nature. The artists worked with gold, silver and ceramics to create a variety of sculpture and relief carvings. These civilizations were also known for their architecture and wood sculpture.

Between the 9th century BCE and the 2nd century CE, the Paracas Cavernas and Paracas Necropolis cultures developed on the south coast of Peru. Paracas Cavernas produced complex polychrome and monochrome ceramics with religious representations. Burials from the Paracas Necropolis also yielded complex textiles, many produced with sophisticated geometric patterns.

The 3rd century BCE saw the flowering of the urban culture, Moche, in the Lambayeque region. The Moche culture produced impressive architectural works, such as the Huacas del Sol y de la Luna and the Huaca Rajada of Sipán. They were experts at cultivation in terraces and hydraulic engineering and produced original ceramics, textiles, pictorial and sculptural works.

Another urban culture, the Wari civilization, flourished between the 8th and 12th centuries in Ayacucho. Their centralized town planning was extended to other areas, such as Pachacamac, Cajamarquilla and Wari Willka.

Between the 9th and 13th centuries CE, the military urban Tiwanaku empire rose by the borders of Lake Titicaca. Centered around a city of the same name in modern-day Bolivia, the Tiwanaku introduced stone architecture and sculpture of a monumental type. These works of architecture and art were made possible by the Tiwanaku's developing bronze, which enabled them to make the necessary tools.

Urban architecture reached a new height between the 14th and 15th centuries in the Chimú Culture. The Chimú built the city of Chan Chan in the valley of the Moche River, in La Libertad. The Chimú were skilled goldsmiths and created remarkable works of hydraulic engineering.

The Inca Civilization, which united Peru under its hegemony in the centuries immediately preceding the Spanish conquest, incorporated into their own works a great part of the cultural legacy of the civilizations which preceded it. Important relics of their artwork and architecture can be seen in cities like Cusco, architectural remains like Sacsahuamán and Machu Picchu and stone pavements that united Cusco with the rest of the Inca Empire.

Colonial art Edit

Peruvian sculpture and painting began to define themselves from the ateliers founded by monks, who were strongly influenced by the Sevillian Baroque School. In this context, the stalls of the Cathedral choir, the fountain of the Main Square of Lima both by Pedro de Noguera, and a great part of the colonial production were registered. The first center of art established by the Spanish was the Cuzco School that taught Quechua artists European painting styles. Diego Quispe Tito (1611–1681) was one of the first members of the Cuzco school and Marcos Zapata (1710–1773) was one of the last. [161]

Painting of this time reflected a synthesis of European and indigenous influences, as is evident in the portrait of prisoner Atahualpa, by D. de Mora or in the canvases of the Italians Mateo Pérez de Alesio and Angelino Medoro, the Spaniards Francisco Bejarano and J. de Illescas and the Creole J. Rodriguez.

During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Baroque Style also dominated the field of plastic arts.

Literature Edit

The term Peruvian literature not only refers to literature produced in the independent Republic of Peru, but also to literature produced in the Viceroyalty of Peru during the country's colonial period, and to oral artistic forms created by diverse ethnic groups that existed in the area during the pre-Columbian period, such as the Quechua, the Aymara and the Chanka people.

Peruvian literature is rooted in the oral traditions of pre-Columbian civilizations. Spaniards introduced writing in the 16th century colonial literary expression included chronicles and religious literature. After independence, Costumbrism and Romanticism became the most common literary genres, as exemplified in the works of Ricardo Palma. [162] The early 20th century's Indigenismo movement was led by such writers as Ciro Alegría [163] and José María Arguedas. [164] César Vallejo wrote modernist and often politically engaged verse. Modern Peruvian literature is recognized thanks to authors such as Nobel laureate Mario Vargas Llosa, a leading member of the Latin American Boom. [165]

Cuisine Edit

Due to the Spanish expedition and discovery of the Americas, the explorers started the Columbian Exchange which included food unheard of in the Old World, including potato, tomato, and maize. Modern indigenous Peruvian food often includes corn, potatoes, and chilies. There are now more than 3,000 kinds of potatoes grown on Peruvian terrain, according to Peru's Instituto Peruano de la Papa. [166] Modern Peruvian cuisine blends Amerindian and Spanish food with strong influences from Chinese, African, Arab, Italian, and Japanese cooking. [167] Common dishes include anticuchos, ceviche, og pachamanca. Peru's varied climate allows the growth of diverse plants and animals good for cooking. [168] Peru's diversity of ingredients and cooking techniques is receiving worldwide acclaim. [169]

Peruvian cuisine reflects local practices and ingredients—including influences from the indigenous population including the Inca and cuisines brought in with colonizers and immigrants. Without the familiar ingredients from their home countries, immigrants modified their traditional cuisines by using ingredients available in Peru. The four traditional staples of Peruvian cuisine are corn, potatoes and other tubers, Amaranthaceaes (quinoa, kañiwa and kiwicha) and legumes (beans and lupins). Staples brought by the Spanish include rice, wheat and meats (beef, pork and chicken). Many traditional foods—such as quinoa, kiwicha, chili peppers, and several roots and tubers have increased in popularity in recent decades, reflecting a revival of interest in native Peruvian foods and culinary techniques. It is also common to see traditional cuisines being served with a modern flair in towns like Cusco, where tourists come to visit. Chef Gaston Acurio has become well known for raising awareness of local ingredients.

Music Edit

Peruvian music has Andean, Spanish, and African roots. [170] In pre-Columbian times, musical expressions varied widely in each region the quena og tinya were two common instruments. [171] Spaniards introduced new instruments, such as the guitar and the harp, which led to the development of crossbred instruments like the charango. [172] African contributions to Peruvian music include its rhythms and the cajón, a percussion instrument. Peruvian folk dances include marinera, tondero, zamacueca, diablada and huayno. [173]

Peruvian music is dominated by the national instrument, the charango. The charango is member of the lute family of instruments and was invented during colonial times by musicians imitating the Spanish vihuela. In the Canas and Titicaca regions, the charango is used in courtship rituals, symbolically invoking mermaids with the instrument to lure the woman to the male performers. Until the 1960s, the charango was denigrated as an instrument of the rural poor. After the revolution in 1959, which built upon the Indigenismo movement (1910–1940), the charango was popularized among other performers. Variants include the walaycho, chillador, chinlili, and the larger and lower-tuned charangon.

While the Spanish guitar is widely played, so too is the Spanish-in-origin bandurria. Unlike the guitar, it has been transformed by Peruvian players over the years, changing from a 12-string, 6-course instrument to one having 12 to 16 strings in a mere four courses. Violins and harps, also of European origin, are also played.

Biograf Rediger

While the Peruvian film industry has not been nearly as prolific as that of some other Latin American countries, some Peruvian movies produced enjoyed regional success. Historically, the cinema of Peru began in Iquitos in 1932 by Antonio Wong Rengifo (with a momentous, initial film billboard from 1900) because the rubber boom and the intense arrival of foreigners with technology to the city, and thus continued an extensive, unique filmography, with a different style than the films made in the capital, Lima.

Peru also produced the first animated 3-D film in Latin America, Piratas en el Callao. This film is set in the historical port city of Callao, which during colonial times had to defend itself against attacks by Dutch and British privateers seeking to undercut Spain's trade with its colonies. The film was produced by the Peruvian company Alpamayo Entertainment, which made a second 3-D film one year later: Dragones: Destino de Fuego.

In February 2006, the film Madeinusa, produced as a joint venture between Peru and Spain and directed by Claudia Llosa, was set in an imaginary Andean village and describes the stagnating life of Madeinusa performed by Magaly Solier and the traumas of post-civil war Peru.

Llosa, who shared elements of Gabriel García Márquez's magic realism, won an award at the Rotterdam Film Festival. Llosa's second feature, The Milk of Sorrow ("La Teta Asustada"), was nominated for the 82nd Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Picture, the first Peruvian film in the Academy's history to be nominated. The Milk of Sorrow ("La Teta Asustada"), won the Golden Bear award at the 2009 Berlinale.



Because it has so many different ecosystems, Peru is home to a wider variety of plants and animals than most other countries on Earth. For many reasons, Peruvians have not had as much of an impact on their natural world as many other countries, and so much of these ecosystems have been undisturbed.

Did you know that in just one square kilometre of Peruvian rainforest, there are more than 6,000 kinds of plants? Amazing, huh? What’s more, the Amazon rainforest – which spans across Peru, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana – is home to hundreds of species that aren’t found anywhere else on Earth!

On the Pacific Coast, many interesting plant and animal species have adapted to the dry desert climate. Off the coast, the waters are cool and have a low salt content due to what’s known as the Peru Current (or Humboldt Current). These waters nourish huge numbers of small fish, which in turn provide food for bigger fish and seabirds.

Peru’s mountains support special types of grasses and plants, providing food for mammals like llamas, alpacas og vicuñas. One plant that grows in the Andes, the puya raimondi, grows for a hundred years before blooming!


Machu Picchu Today

A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1983 and designated one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in 2007, Machu Picchu is Peru’s most visited attraction and South America’s most famous ruins, welcoming hundreds of thousands of people a year. Increased tourism, the development of nearby towns and environmental degradation continue to take their toll on the site, which is also home to several endangered species. As a result, the Peruvian government has taken steps to protect the ruins and prevent erosion of the mountainside in recent years.


The Peruvian Highlands

Stretching out like the ridged back of a giant beast, the Andes mountain range separates the western and eastern flanks of the nation. Temperatures range from temperate to freezing, with snow-capped peaks rising up from fertile intermontane valleys.

The western side of the Andes, much of which sits in a rain shadow area, is dryer and less populated than the eastern flank. The east, while cold and rugged at high altitudes, soon plunges down into cloud forest and tropical foothills.

Another feature of the Andes is the altiplano, or high plains region, in the south of Peru (extending into Bolivia and northern Chile and Argentina). This windswept region is home to vast expanses of Puna grassland, as well as active volcanoes and lakes (including Lake Titicaca).

Before traveling to Peru, you should read up on altitude sickness. Also, check out our altitude table for Peruvian cities and tourist attractions.


Social Welfare and Change Programs

The Peruvian government has traditionally been involved with national health and social security benefits however, the government has had very limited success in providing Peruvian citizens with adequate care in both areas. In terms of national health programs, the lack of sufficient doctors and nurses, adequate hospital facilities, competent rural medicine agenda, and general funding has contributed to a deficient health system. Meanwhile, shortages of affordable housing, stable labor conditions, and retirement benefits has also impacted negatively with the increase of informal economy and the construction of shanty towns (pueblos jóvenes) around Lima. Modernization, which looks to privatize many of the social services provided by the Peruvian state, has also had a negative impact on social welfare programs.


Geography & Weather

Peru is divided into three regions: Costa, Sierra and Selva. Although the reality is far more rich and complex: in Peru, nature appears to adopt characteristics that make its mountain ranges, its plateaus, jungles and valleys into unique habitats. An extraordinary variety of eco-systems shelters diversity of animals and plants.

Extension:

With 1,285,215 km2, Peru is the third largest country in South America, after Brazil and Argentina, ranking it among the 20 largest countries in the world.
Peru is politically organized into 24 departments (Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junín, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima-Provinces, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco , Piura, Puno San Martin Tacna Tumbes and Ucayali), addition of Callao Constitutional Province.

Befolkning:

Peru is a country of mixed. Throughout its history, Peru has been the meeting point of different races and cultures. The indigenous population was joined, about 500 years ago, the Spanish.
Result of this encounter, and later enriched by the migration of blacks, Asians and Europeans, Peruvian man emerged as the representative of a nation whose rich ethnic mix is one of its most important features.
The population estimate by the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics (INEI) is 30 million of which 72.3% live in urban areas and 37.8% in rural areas.


3. The World's Worst Association Football Disaster Happened In Peru

On May 24, 1964, Peru was playing a football match with Argentina at the Estadio Nacional in Lima. During the match, the referee gave an unpopular decision that enraged the Peruvian fans who then decided to invade the pitch. To counter the unruly fans, the police fired tear gas into the crowd leading to extreme chaos. Many people were crushed against the steel shutters leading down to the street and died from asphyxiation or internal hemorrhaging. 328 deaths and 500 injuries were reported during this disaster which was termed the Estadio Nacional disaster.


Se videoen: ASMR Peru History and Geography Soft Spoken Map Pointing Page Turning (August 2022).