Historien

William Rastrick (barnefabriksarbejder)

William Rastrick (barnefabriksarbejder)


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William Rastrick havde arbejdet som overser på Shutes Silk Mill i Watford. Rastrick blev interviewet af Michael Sadler og hans Underhuskomité den 23. juli 1832.

Spørgsmål: Hvor unge har du kendt børn går i silkemøller.

Svar: Jeg har kendt tre på seks; men meget få i den alder.

Spørgsmål: Hvad var dine arbejdstimer?

Svar: Fra seks om morgenen til syv om natten.

Spørgsmål: Fandt det sig nødvendigt at slå børn for at holde dem oppe i deres beskæftigelse?

Svar: Bestemt.

Spørgsmål: Stigede tæsk mod aften?

Svar: Deres styrke slapper mere af hen mod aftenen; de bliver trætte, og de snor sig om på deres ben og står på siderne af deres fødder.

Spørgsmål: Som en overser fik du dem til at arbejde efter sværhedsgrad?

Svar: Min arbejdsgiver har bestemt altid betragtet dette som uundværligt.

Spørgsmål: Fandt du det ikke meget irriterende for dine følelser, at skulle tage disse midler til at tilskynde børnene til arbejdet?

Svar: Yderst så; Jeg har været tvunget til at tilskynde dem til at arbejde, når jeg vidste, at de ikke kunne holde det ud; men jeg var forpligtet til at få dem til at anstrenge enhver nerve til at udføre arbejdet, og jeg kan sige, at jeg har været forarget over mig selv og med min situation; Jeg følte mig nedbrudt og reduceret til niveauet for en slave-driver i sådanne tilfælde.

Spørgsmål: Er det ikke at binde de ødelagte ender eller at styre en beskæftigelse, der kræver stor aktivitet.

Svar: Ja.

Spørgsmål: Skærer materialet ikke ofte de fattige børns hænder?

Svar: Ofte; men nogle mere end andre. Jeg har set dem stå ved deres arbejde, med hænderne skåret, indtil blodet er løbet ned til enderne af deres fingre.

Spørgsmål: Kræves der mere arbejde af børnene, end der plejede at være, da du første gang kendte virksomheden?

Svar: Ja; på grund af den konkurrence, der eksisterer mellem mestre. Det ene understreger det andet; følgelig bestræber mesteren sig på at få en lige mængde arbejde udført for færre penge.


Den victorianske æra lønindtjener for forskellige job

I den victorianske æra kunne lønningerne variere dramatisk fra arbejdsgiver til arbejdsgiver i samme branche, ifølge Atack og Batemans rapport fra 2000. I den lave ende af spektret tjente produktionsarbejdere kun $ 8 om måneden, sammenlignet med de mere end $ 166 arbejdere hos de bedst betalende virksomheder ville tjene i samme periode i 1880.

Forfatterne tilskriver stigende lønforskelle i det 19. århundrede til dels det stigende antal arbejdere, der fandt job i meget store virksomheder, som generelt betalte langt mindre end deres mindre kolleger.


Hvorfor var den industrielle revolution så vigtig?

Den industrielle revolution havde et stort antal effekter, der transformerede det moderne samfund både i Europa og rundt om i verden. For kort sagt vil diskussionen om disse sociale virkninger stort set være begrænset til Storbritannien, hvor den industrielle revolution for alvor begyndte i slutningen af ​​det attende århundrede. De sociale effekter omfatter ændringer i arbejdsmetoder, levestandard, mad og ernæring, bolig, sanitet, vandforsyning og den generelle sociale struktur.

Levestandarder ændrede sig dramatisk under den industrielle revolution. Der er dog stadig debat om, hvorvidt standarder som helhed er forbedret eller faldet. Selvom reallønnen kan være forbedret, siger nogle, at industrialiseringen kun forbedrede sig mest for overklassen, mens arbejderklassen led, fordi den plyndrede merværdi. Andre siger, at det forbedrede livet for middelklassen ved at tilføre værdi og gøre forbrugsvarer mere tilgængelige for middelklassen. Nogle hævder, at der blev foretaget forbedringer allerede i 1810'erne, men andre siger, at intet blev set før i 1840'erne og 1850'erne.

Uanset hvilken side af spørgsmålet nutidens økonomer lander på, kan alle være enige om, at perioden var præget af en gennemgribende økonomisk og social forandring. Storbritannien forvandlede sig fra et landligt, agrarisk samfund til et, der flyttede af masserne til bycentre, hvor der var tilgængelig arbejdskraft. I byer voksede behovet for boliger, og lejemålet begyndte at dominere gaderne i Storbritanniens byindustrielle centre. Folk boede pakket ind i enkeltværelser, undertiden markeret med linjer på gulvet, hvor tusinder af mennesker boede i en række rækkehuse. Boliger havde udadvendte vinduer, men dem, der boede i indvendige rum, havde ingen adgang til vinduer eller ventilation. Derudover var rindende vand ikke tilgængeligt, og lejere delte fælles toiletter. Dem, der ville bade, kunne gøre det i fælles badeområder. Som et resultat bugnede der af uhygiejniske levevilkår. Affaldshåndtering var heller ikke endnu et fokus. Fast affald blev fundet i bunker tæt på boligkvarterer, og menneskeligt affald forurenede generelt drikkevandsforsyningen.

Arbejdsforholdene påvirkede også folkesundheden og livskvaliteten i massiv skala. Før den industrielle revolution blev arbejdet stort set udført hjemme på gårde frem for på fabrikker. Landbrugerlivet var hårdt og fuld af stridssvigt var afgrøder en regelmæssig forekomst på steder som det skotske højland og øen Irland. Takket være mekaniseringen og koncentrationen af ​​industrielle operationer i byerne flyttede hele familier i flok til familierne. Mænd, kvinder og børn arbejdede alle for lave lønninger, men kvinder og børn tjente kun halvdelen eller endda en sjettedel af hvad mænd tjente. Arbejdsforholdene var lige så dårlige som lønningerne lange, krævende timer blev forværret af grusomme disciplinære systemer. Fabriksarbejdere så deres løn forankret for overtrædelser som at bruge toilettet uden tilladelse eller chatte med deres nabo. Mange boede også i fabriksejede boliger, hvor de stod over for dobbeltbindingen af ​​lave lønninger og høje huslejer ud over dårlige, overfyldte levevilkår. Børnearbejdere havde særligt farlige job, de arbejdede lange timer med deres forældre, lavede mindst, og deres størrelse gjorde dem tilbøjelige til at blive overdraget de farligste job som at kravle ind i maskiner. Børn blev også udsat for de mest groteske straffe, som fabrikstilsynsmænd måske endda gik så langt som til at sømme ørerne til bordet som en straf for at være modige.

De frygtelige arbejdsforhold skulle ikke vare evigt. Dårlig behandling og voksende offentlig bevidsthed om udnyttelse førte til vækst i arbejderbevægelsen. Nye fagforeninger ville kæmpe for grænser for timer, sikkerhed på arbejdspladsen og en stigning i lønningerne. Det gav den største indvirkning på børnearbejde ved at begrænse antallet af timer, et barn kunne arbejde i løbet af dagen og forbedre lønninger og sikkerhed.

Fabriksloven af ​​1802 var den første af de formelle lovgivningsmæssige rettelser for arbejdsforhold. Det var imidlertid begrænset til engelske bomuldsfabrikker og flere andre faciliteter. Senere handlinger, herunder Factory Act fra 1819, Factory Act fra 1833 og Ten Hours Act fra 1847, gik alle videre for at forbedre forholdene for arbejdere i hele Storbritannien. Selvom disse handlinger bidrog med forbedringer, er det ikke at sige, at livet blev lettere. Mindsteløn, otte timers arbejdsdag og mere beskyttende love om børnearbejde var stadig langt væk.


Historie i fokus

Emnet for denne udstilling er børnearbejde og retten til barndom. Vores emne fandt primært sted i Chicago, Illinois. Vi valgte at fokusere på denne region, fordi det var regionen Jane Addams boede i fra 1889 til begyndelsen af ​​1900'erne, da hun var involveret i kampen mod børnearbejde, immigrationsreform, fredsaktivisme og kvinders stemmeret. Denne udstilling vil specifikt fokusere på Chicago Addams børnearbejdsaktiviteter, da den ville være for stor til at dække national børnearbejdsaktivitet. Derudover vil udstillingen identificere nogle af de store arbejdsgrupper og børnearbejdslove, der måske eller måske ikke har været fra Chicago, på grund af enten Jane Addams rolle i dem eller for yderligere kontekst.

Fjorten år gammel pige, der spinder bomuld i en mølle i West Texas. Fotograferet af Lewis Hine.

Fra landbrug til industri

Dette websted vedrører primært tidsperioden mellem den progressive æra i slutningen af ​​1800'erne og første verdenskrig. Kort fortalt er det vigtigt at forstå noget af historien før den progressive æra for yderligere at understrege den manglende beskyttelse af børnearbejde på stedet, og snarere hvordan denne bekymring var så hidtil uset før industrialderen. Før væksten og afhængigheden af ​​en industrialiseret økonomi var landbrug og handel den vigtigste økonomiske motor. Elite sydlige bønder var afhængige af arbejdet fra slaveri afrikanske amerikanere, og for mindre landbrug var det en familievirksomhed. Industrialderen ændrede denne afhængighed af afgrødeproduktion til en afhængighed af løn. Derudover har der siden nationens grundlæggelse været immigranter, men med industrialisme har hvordan de er blevet udnyttet ændret sig. Børnearbejde udviklede sig fuldt ud under den amerikanske industrielle revolution. Industrialiseringen tiltrak og krævede ofte, at mange arbejdere og deres familier flyttede fra gårde og landdistrikter til byrum og fabriksarbejde. På fabrikker og miner blev børn ofte foretrukket som ansatte, fordi ejerne betragtede dem som mere håndterbare, billigere og mindre tilbøjelige til at strejke.

Ni år gammel nyhedspige, der arbejder i Hartford CT. Foto taget af Lewis Hine i 1909.

Den nye børnearbejder

Børn sørgede for en endeløs forsyning af udnyttelig og engangsarbejde til fabrikker og virksomheder. Derudover var mange immigrantfamilier afhængige af, at hvert familiemedlem bidrog til husstandens indkomst. Skolen var derfor mindre bekymret og tjente nok penge til at lægge mad på bordet. I betragtning af disse omstændigheder måtte børnearbejdsaktivister ikke kun kæmpe med virksomheder, men også arbejde på at overbevise forældrene til børn om at sende deres børn i skole.

Jane Addams læser for børn.

Kvinders rolle

Der var mænd og kvinder, der kæmpede mod børnearbejde, men det, der gjorde dette emne særlig vigtigt for kvinder, var evnen til at gå ud over hjemmet. På baggrund af maternalisme kunne de argumentere for, at samfundet som kvinder tildelte dem at være de "moralske" vejledere og plejere, derfor havde kvinder ret til at arbejde ud over hjemmet i kampen for at bevare hjemmet og barnet.

Anti-børnearbejderbevægelsen var en direkte forlængelse af den progressive æra og andre sociale bevægelser i tiden. Andre store bevægelser, der fandt sted under denne progressive æra, omfattede Frances Willards temperance -bevægelse organiseret under Woman's Christian Temperance Movement. Denne bevægelse fulgte igen tanken om, at de som kvinder havde en moralsk forpligtelse til at være omsorgspersoner i samfundet. Salonen var den offentlige sfære, mænds sfære, men da disse mænd kom fulde hjem, påvirkede det derefter kvinders sfære, hjemmet. En anden stor bevægelse i æraen var kvindernes valgkampagne ledet af nøglefigurer, herunder Susan B. Anthony og Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Medlemskaber af mange af disse kvinder overlappede ofte i andre organisationer og kvindeklubber, hvilket illustrerer agenturet for dette komplekse netværk af kvinder. Det er imidlertid vigtigt at bemærke, at racisme inden for disse bevægelser vedvarede og undergravede en mere samlet indsats for alle kvinder. Mange af disse kvindegrupper eller organisationer optog kun en bestemt type kvinder, ofte dem, der havde tid, penge og statushvide kvinder fra mellemklassen til eliteklassen.

Retten til barndom

Udstillingens emne af interesse kan ikke komprimeres inden for de få årtier, der består af den progressive æra. Barndommens betydning er en værdi, der overskrider historien og noget at udforske gennem denne udstilling. I Chicago blev newsboys dårligt behandlet, og så begyndte et af Jane Addams mange projekter, hvor hun besluttede, at hendes hjælp skulle være. Disse børns arbejdsvilkår og oplevelser omfattede seksuelle overgreb, fjorten timers arbejdsuger og forventning om at arbejde i alle slags vejr. Børneskuespillere tjente som en anden rentabel ordning af teatre. Børneskuespillere eksisterer stadig i dag, men hvad med disse børn i det nittende og begyndelsen af ​​det tyvende århundrede gør deres oplevelse anderledes end børneskuespillerne et århundrede senere? Udstillingen bestræber sig på at forbinde denne fortid med fremtiden, fordi den fortsat er en relevant og relatabel dialog for at forstå, hvorfor vi holder vores barndom så vigtig, en virkelighed, som folk for flere årtier siden ikke kunne fatte.

Skroghuskort og papirer. Kort over nationaliteter i Hull House -kvarteret i Chicago, IL.

Jane Addams ’s Hull House

Et regionalt aspekt, udstillingen gerne vil udforske, er kvarteret Hull House. Takket være Florence Kelleys, Jane Addams 'arbejde og andre beboere i Hull House vil udstillingen være i stand til at udnytte Skrog og kort for en dybere analyse af en del af Chicago -kvarteret. Metoden, hvor disse kvinder kortlagde dette overvejende immigrantkvarter efter indkomst og nationalitet, giver betydelig indsigt. Kortene, der blev konstrueret gennem deres forskning, var en relativt ny teknik, og deres emner, fattige immigrantholdninger, var særligt unikke. Dette kort ville sandsynligvis være mindre nyttigt, hvis det var af en mere elitær demografisk overklasse, da de lettere havde råd til, at deres børn kunne gå i skole. Udstillingen vil ikke kun gerne sammenligne disse kort fra det nittende århundrede med Google maps i nutidens Hull House -kvarter, men også berøre lønningerne for hver husstand. Det Skroghuskort og papirer tilbyder to kort, det ene viser husstandens indkomst for hvert hjem og den anden farvekoder bygningerne efter nationalitet. Indkomstkortet giver en visuel analyse, hvor man kan sammenligne, hvor meget af denne indkomst et barn kunne have tjent. Når vi undersøger gennemsnitsindkomsten for en avisdreng eller pige, barneskuespiller, børnefabriksarbejder osv., Kan vi derefter sammenligne dette med husstandens indkomst fra indkomstkortet.


Rigsarkivet

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  • NRA 32903 Engelsk National Board for Nursing, Jordemoder og sundhedsbesøg
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Familieøkonomier

I det nittende og første halvår af det tyvende århundrede forbandt en karakteristisk familieøkonomi byarbejderfamilier i Europa og Nordamerika. Voksne mænd var ideelt set og normalt i praksis de vigtigste lønmodtagere deres koner, især når børn begyndte at blive født, sjældent arbejdede for lønninger regelmæssigt uden for hjemmet børn fandt lønnet arbejde, så snart de var i stand til, eller så snart som loven tillod, og overgav størstedelen af ​​deres indtjening til deres mødre til familiebrug. I Belgien bidrog børn for eksempel med 22 procent af familieindkomsten i 1853 og 31 procent i 1891. I USA mod slutningen af ​​det nittende århundrede, da den voksne mand i en familie var i halvtredserne, var børn bidrog med omkring en tredjedel af familiens indkomst i Europa, var det ret mere: 41 procent. Den dybt rodfæstede antagelse, arvet fra en landbrugsøkonomi, var, at børn skulle bidrage til familieøkonomien så hurtigt som muligt. Fabrikslove og love, der håndhæver skolegang, hævede startalderen over tid, men der er meget tegn på, at børn selv følte sig stolte over at kunne begynde at yde et bidrag til familiens velfærd. Deres mødre, den eneste alternative lønmodtager i familien, var fuldt ud engageret i børneopdragelse, husholdning og undertiden indbragte yderligere indkomst gennem tilfældigt arbejde eller indkvartering. Ingen kunne være i tvivl om, at børns indtjening forbedrede familiens økonomiske stilling, og børn, der måske havde fortsat i skolen, tog ofte ikke chancen, bevidste om familiens behov for indkomst.

Størstedelen af ​​arbejderklassens børn i det vestlige samfund levede i familier, hvis økonomi var struktureret på denne måde. Der var naturligvis mange forskelle fra land til land, og inden for dem var de mest synlige i USA, hvor immigrant- og etniske samfund havde forskellige traditioner og forskellige reaktioner på den ændrede økonomiske situation. Italienske immigrantfamilier i New York, for eksempel, brugte meget mere børnearbejde end jødiske immigranter, dels på grund af traditioner i de lande, de kom fra, men måske hovedsageligt fordi indtjeningskraften hos italienske voksne mænd var mindre end hos Jødiske: ekstra indkomst var nødvendig, og børn var den oplagte kilde til det. Det samme argument gælder for Philadelphia i slutningen af ​​1800 -tallet: børn af irske og tyske immigrantfamilier var mere tilbøjelige end indfødte hvides til at være i arbejdsstyrken, men det var hovedsageligt fordi fædre i disse familier tjente mindre end dem fra indfødte hvide. Efterhånden som indvandrerfamiliernes indkomstniveauer steg, faldt afhængigheden af ​​børnearbejde. I begyndelsen af ​​det tyvende århundrede blev en almindelig hvid amerikansk reaktion på den økonomiske situation tydelig: en stigende vægt på ønsket om, at den voksne mand skulle være den eneste lønmodtager, og at børn skulle være i skole. I hårde tider, for eksempel i depressionen i 1930'erne, ville der være en tilbagevenden til brugen af ​​børnearbejde, men lovlige begrænsninger for brugen heraf slog sammen med værdier og normer, der gjorde børnearbejde uønsket. Situationen for sorte familier var temmelig anderledes. I Philadelphia, for eksempel, var sorte børn mindre tilbøjelige til at blive ansat end immigrant irske eller tyske børn, ikke fordi deres familier havde det bedre, men på grund af etnisk strukturering på arbejdsmarkedet, der nægtede adgang til sorte. Dels af denne grund, dels fordi sorte familier tilsyneladende har lagt en højere værdi på deres børns uddannelse end immigrantfamilier, var sorte gifte kvinder i en række amerikanske byer mellem fire og femten gange mere tilbøjelige til at blive ansat end immigrant hustruer. I modsætning til hvide samfund, hvad enten de er indfødte eller immigranter, lægger sorte familier vægt på mødre frem for børn som de vigtigste supplerende lønmodtagere.


Virkningerne af individuelle og nationale niveauer på holdninger til børnemishandling ☆

Der mangler viden om, i hvilket omfang nationale normer og politikker, der har til formål at beskytte mindreårige, påvirker individuelle holdninger til mishandling af børn. Med udgangspunkt i kultursociologiens principper undersøger vi, om orienteringen af ​​en nation påvirker individuelle holdninger til mishandling af børn. Konkret tolererer nationer med større økonomisk og politisk stabilitet mere selvekspressive værdier med fokus på individuel autonomi og forbedring af livskvaliteten. Omvendt støtter nationer med en survivalistorientering, ofte præget af større økonomisk usikkerhed, mindre adfærd, der kan resultere i yderligere ustabilitet. Den nuværende undersøgelse bygger på eksisterende forskning ved at undersøge virkningerne af nationale normer og politikker og individuelle holdninger og karakteristika på individuelle holdninger til børnemishandling (N = 66.391) i 53 udviklings- og udviklede lande. Vi analyserer data fra World Values ​​Survey ved hjælp af hierarkisk generaliseret lineær modellering. Samlet set forekommer lande med en større survivalistorientering mindre tolerante over for børnemishandling. Desuden er større støtte til vold generelt på både nationalt og individuelt niveau forbundet med mere støttende holdninger til børnemishandling. Politiske konsekvenser og lovgivningsreform diskuteres.


Møller og miner

Møllerne havde deres egne jernbanesider ved Sowerby Bridge Station.

Møllerne brændte ned i 1965, og bygningerne blev revet ned kort tid efter

Skabsarbejde, Brighouse Ref 15-1082
Mill Lane. Snedkerforretningen i Brighouse District Industrial Society Limited var på første sal i slagteriet ved The Lees omkring 1900

Møllen er registreret med 4 etager i den ene ende og 5 i den anden, 13 vinduer høje og 8 på tværs og beskæftiger over 300 mennesker.

Den lille gård/hældning til møllen er Snake Hill.

Den 29. januar 1909 blev møllen & ndash derefter besat af J. Cheetham & Sons Limited & ndash ødelagt af brand, der startede i tørrerummet. Efter branden købte Cheetham's den ledige Belle Vue Mills og kunne snart genoptage produktionen.

I 19. David Hepworth købte møllen og brugte den til sine virksomheder Stovit & Hepworth Domestics.

I 1977 blev møllen ødelagt ved en brand beskrevet som Brighouses største bål og den store Brighouse -brand i 1977.

Ejendommen blev solgt til Richard Binks fra Mill Royd Mill.

Hepworth -familien ejer stadig [2015] ejendommene på Princess Street, den næste gård på tværs

Det blev senere brugt til bomuldsspinding. I 1873 blev den beskadiget af brand. I 1904 blev det besat af Hardman's og blev ødelagt af brand

Ejere og lejere har inkluderet

Stedet blev en skrotplads. Stedet blev ryddet i 2001 og er nu en boligudvikling

I 1890 omfattede værkerne en række store 2 og 3-etagers bygninger og dækkede mellem 5 og 6 hektar.

Værkerne blev betjent af et reservoir på grunden til Birds Royd House

Den 24. oktober 1889 blev Rowland Holroyd dræbt i et tagfald ved værkerne

Calder House Mills, Mytholmroyd Ref 15-381
Besat af Ratcliffe Brothers Limited, da den blev ødelagt af brand 16. november 1964

Calder Mill, Hebden Bridge Ref 15-C750
Stubbing Holme. Aka Co-op Mill. En dampdrevet bomuldsmølle bygget i 1863.

  • Hebden Bridge Cotton & Commercial Company [1874]
  • John Horsfall & Sons [1874]
  • Richard Thomas & Sons [1905]
  • Abraham Robertshaw & Sons [1905, 1947, 1949]
  • Robertshaw & Company [1950'erne]
  • Calder Metal Company [1972]

I 1906 blev det påvirket af fustian væverstrejken.

Det blev hårdt beskadiget af brand den 3. november 1964

I 1894 købte Fairburns møllen og kombinerede den med Victoria Works, Rastrick

Etableret af Thomas Berry & Sons omkring 1831

Bygningen blev bygget som en bomuldsmølle i 1824 og blev efterfølgende omdannet til et farvestof. Bygningen på 5 etager blev forøget med 2 etager.

Den 300 fod høje skorsten fra 1842 siges at være den højeste i distriktet

I 1960’erne blev møllen revet ned og 2 huse bygget på stedet.

[2006] Pladsen skal ryddes og 8 nye huse bygges.

Yorkshire Plastic Wires flyttede hertil fra Normanton omkring 1982.

Bygningen blev revet ned i 2001/2002. Webstedet er nu besat af forskellige detailforretninger

Aka Charlestown Mill, Roddins Mill.

Oprindeligt en vanddrevet bomuldsmølle. Dette var den største mølle i Charlestown.

En uldmølle er registreret i 1786. Den blev bygget af Christopher Rawdon og Rawdon -familien.

Omkring 1825 tog Ashworth -familien en lejekontrakt på møllen.

Omkring 1830 blev møllen hårdt beskadiget af brand og lå nedlagt i mange år.

Rawdons flyttede derefter til Liverpool og efterlod hr. Sam på Roddins i spidsen.

I 1839 solgte Ashworths og James og Christopher Rawdon noget af jorden til opførelse af jernbanen.

I 1861 var det ejet af familien Lacy.

I 1906 blev liget af forfatteren James Henry Ogden fundet her.

Der var brand ved møllen den 9. januar 1922.

I 1926 blev det Cords Limited, der ejes af Shepherd og Tattersall. Virksomheden producerede bomuldsdækstof ved hjælp af en proces patenteret af hr. Shepherd, som blev brugt til fremstilling af slangeløse dæk. Virksomheden lukkede i 1971.

Det tidlige 1800 -tals vandlås og overløbssump er angivet

6-etagers mølle, som var en af ​​de største møller lokalt.

Det blev hovedsædet for John Edwards & Sons.

Da det var ejet af Sir Henry Edwards, protesterede han mod forurening og ndash se Edwards-Wainhouse Feud & ndash og lod alle skorstene på møllen rive bortset fra en kort skorsten. Han installerede Jukes patentapparat i kedelhuset for at fjerne meget af det synlige kulstof fra røgen.

Det blev ødelagt af brand den 20. april 1980.

Møllen blev bygget i 1840'erne af John Lord og hans sønner.

I 1859 blev møllen oversvømmet.

Der var en eksplosion den 21. januar 1875, da 6 mennesker blev dræbt og andre såret. Dette betragtes stadig som en af ​​byens værste industrikatastrofer.

Der var yderligere brande i 1884 og i 1886.

Bygningen blev solgt i 1987.

Møllen blev beskadiget af et katastrofalt brandattentat i 1990. Møllen åbnede igen i 1991, og besøgscenteret bød på mange attraktioner for turisten.

Da produktionen ved møllen stoppede, fortsatte den som en turistattraktion, indtil den blev opgivet.

Det har været tomt og brændt op siden 2003.

I december 2005 blev der givet byggetilladelse til at en del af møllen blev revet ned, og at resten blev omdannet til 32 lejligheder.

I september 2007 blev det foreslåede design & ndash, der var blevet revideret for 51 lejligheder og 75 parkeringspladser & ndash, afvist af rådsplanlægningsmedarbejdere, der besluttede, at det

ville være skadeligt for karakteren og udseendet af et så fremtrædende sted

og

. på grund af design, parkeringsproblemer, risiko for oversvømmelse og støj

Den 1. august 2019 var der en stor brand ved den nedlagte mølle, som forlod bygningen

Motoren & ndash en vandret enkeltcylindret dampmaskine & ndash blev uskadt af branden og blev ført til Gordon Riggs Garden Center, Walsden


20 Ulovlige babynavne, som vi ikke kan tro på, at folk faktisk forsøgte at navngive deres børn

De er genstand for intens eftertanke for hver ny forælder. Det navn, du giver dit barn, følger jo dem hele deres liv. Nogle navne, især kendte som Blue Ivy eller Apple, er utvivlsomt særprægede. Så er der de navne, der bare er ulovlige.

1. Amerika - Messias

I 2013 afgjorde en dommer i Texas, at en baby ved navn Messias skal ændre sit navn til Martin, fordi "det er en titel, der kun er tjent på én person ... Jesus Kristus." Dommen blev senere ophævet.

2. Amerika - Adolf Hitler

I 2009 blev en treårig New Jersey -beboer genstand for strid, da en bager nægtede at dekorere en kage til sin fødselsdag. Hvorfor? Han hed Adolf Hitler Campbell.

3. Amerika - 1069

Det er absolut ulovligt at sætte numeriske symboler i dit barns navn. Du kan f.eks. Ikke navngive et barn 1069, som en person i North Dakota forsøgte at gøre.

4. Amerika - navne med accent

I Californien kan du ikke have accenter på din babys navn, så navne som Élodie er udelukket.

5. Storbritannien - Monkey

I Storbritannien kan du ikke give din baby et navn, der kan opfattes som racistisk eller fornærmende. Af denne grund kan du ikke kalde dit barn "Monkey".

6. Malaysia - Chow Tow

Chow Tow betyder ildelugtende hoved. Det er naturligvis ikke et meget flot navn at give et barn, men vi går ud fra, at nogen har forsøgt, hvorfor det er forbudt i Malaysia.

7. Frankrig - Nutella

Et fransk par forsøgte engang at navngive deres datter Nutella, fordi de håbede, at hun ville være lige så sød som den sukkerholdige hasselnøddepålæg. En fransk dommer var imidlertid ikke sød ved ideen, og parret blev tvunget til at ændre navnet til Ella.

8. New Zealand - Anal

Nogen forsøgte faktisk at navngive deres barn dette. En dommer i New Zealand sagde heldigvis nej. Ikke sejt, hvem det nu var, der gjorde dette. Ikke sejt.

9. Japan - Akuma

Akuma betyder djævel på japansk, og en eller anden (japansk) person forsøgte at navngive deres barn dette. De japanske domstole havde ikke det, og navnet blev forbudt.

10. Amerika - III

Nogen i Californien forsøgte at navngive deres barn dette - udtales "Tre". Ikke overraskende sagde dommeren nej, da dette var et symbol frem for et navn.

11. New Zealand - Talula gør hulen fra Hawaii

New Zealand er ikke have det med disse lyssky babynavne, for da nogen forsøgte at navngive deres datter dette, overtog regeringen værgemål for barnet for at sikre, at der blev fundet et bedre navn til hende.

12. USA - Misteri Nigger (det andet 'jeg' i Misteri er tavs)

Det er klart, at en dommer i Californien sagde nej, for navnet udgjorde i bund og grund "kampord". Forestil dig for eksempel den tumult, det ville forårsage, hvis nogen råbte disse ord på tværs af gaden.

13. Tyskland - Osama Bin Laden

Et par i Köln, Tyskland følte sig bevæget til at navngive deres barn dette meget brændende navn. En dommer følte sig bevæget til at bestemme nr.

14. Mexico - Robocop

Nogen i Sonora i Mexico syntes, det var en smart idé at navngive deres barn Robocop, formentlig efter filmen fra 1987. Heldigvis blokerede en dommer deres forsøg.

15. USA - julemand

Da Robert William Handley fra Ohio forsøgte at omdøbe sig til julemanden, nægtede en dommer, fordi:

16. New Zealand - Chef Maximus

Chief er et solidt navn, og det er Maximus også, så hvorfor ikke sætte dem sammen, begrundede en potentiel forælder. New Zealand -dommeren sagde selvfølgelig nej og forbød navnet helt.

17. Kina - @

One Chinese couple tried to name their child the @ symbol, pronounced “ai-ta" in Chinese, which sounds very close to the words "love him." A judge ruled yes, but the Chinese government ruled no. Many countries have bans on naming children symbols.

18. Mexico - Circumcision

We're going to give this parent from Sonora, Mexico the benefit of the doubt and say they just didn't understand what this name meant. Either way, it's been banned.

19. Sweden - Metallica

Parents can love heavy metal all they want but they can't, however, name their children after heavy metal bands. This is according to a court in Sweden.

20. "." (Pronounced "full stop")

Some couple in New Zealand thought it would be cool to name their baby a punctuation symbol. A judge said nah, and sent them on their way.


Historical Inaccuracies in Assassin's Creed Series contd.: The Renaissance according to Assassin's Creed II.

Previously I covered Unity, then I went backward and started with AC1, and now I am going to do look at the historical backdrop of Assassin's Creed II and see how it measures up to history.

AC2 is a much bigger game than AC1. It has a story that covers forty years of a man's life which is actually pretty unique. It makes the game feel like a long historical novel the way few open-world games manage. That is to its credit. In AC1, you had 7 historical figures on-screen (Al Mualim/Rashid ad-din Sinan, Robert de Sable, Garnier de Nablus, William of Montferrat, Sibrand, Jubair, King Richard I) balanced with other fictional characters who have the most screen-time (namely Altair and Malik). AC1 had at most 10-12 real monuments. Til sammenligning, AC2 has some 20-odd historical figures. An even greater number of monuments, art-works and so on. You have the database here for the first time. More than that, while these games are mainly the story of the fictional Auditore family, the side-missions and optional conversations really emphasize supporting characters and villains more than the first game did. So there's a lot more to cover here.

SOURCES listed at the end. So let's begin.

Assassin's Creed II

Indstilling: Italy during the City State era between 1459-1507 - The Florentine Republic, Tuscany, Romagna, the Republic of Venice, and the Papal States.

Pop-Culture View of The Renaissance: The Renaissance is interesting because there really isn't one big movie about the period. Most people's idea of Renaissance is based on Tudor England, which was basically the last major European country to participate. Most people's idea of the Renaissance is based on the Da Vinci Code, on Machiavelli's Prince, Harry Lime's famous Cuckoo-Clock speech in The Third Man, and also stuff like Gudfaderen where the Mafia are treated as princes, and people assume that the Renaissance feudal families were like mob-bosses based on that. That line in Godfather III, where Michael Corleone says, "We're back to the Borgias" clinches it.

MAIN CAMPAIGN

Sequences 1-3: This is Ezio's Origin story. 1476-1478.

Ezio was born in 1459 (we see his birth in a short scene) and then we meet him and his brother in a street fight with Vieri Pazzi in the year 1476. Vieri de'Pazzi is a fictional character, but his dad and Uncle were real. Street fights like the one you saw there weren't uncommon except that noblemen like Ezio and Vieri were unlikely to fight each other themselves. It was more likely for them to hire bravos (i.e. mercenary thugs with short swords) to do it for them. The Auditore family is wholly fictional as is their villa. In the course of the entire story of their downfall and Ezio killing Uberto and then going to Monteriggioni, we learn that the Auditore are an up-jumped recently ennobled family aligned with Lorenzo de'Medici before being framed by the Templar puppet Gonfalioniere (something like Mayor) Uberto Alberti (also fictional). The entire idea of a Gonfalioniere independently executing someone without Medici approval is absolutely unlikely given the way the Medici corrupted the city government and manipulated appointments.

The stuff about Monteriggioni's history that Mario Auditore talks to Ezio, about them fighting Florence in wars and so on, is accurate. What isn't accurate the town itself. There's no Villa Auditore at the center, and while it is a tiny walled town, it isn't as small as what you see in the game here. We also get generic architecture when the real Monteriggioni had famous churches which we don't see here.

We meet Leonardo Da Vinci her. Og han looks right for his age. and he is described as the handsome magnetic guy his contemporaries described him as. We also get a reference to him dissecting cadavers when he asks Ezio to leave one of his victims in his study. The period and choice of 1476 is interesting because in that year Leonardo was accused of sodomy and investigated, and there's a huge gap in his life between 1476-1478. Patrice Desilets, developer of AC2, pointed out that the sodomy charge was going to be in this game but the bosses wanted it out.

Sequences 4-6: This is the Pazzi Conspiracy sequence. 1478-1480.

The conspirators are all real figures (Francesco de'Pazzi, Jacopo de'Pazzi, Bernard de Barnoncelli, Stefano Bagnone, Archbishop Salviati, Antonio Maffei). We also get our first looks at Lorenzo de'Medici and Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia here. One surprising change is the fact that the Conspiracy's main backer, Pope Sixtus and especially his nephew Girolamo Riario (Caterina Sforza's husband) isn't mentioned here. We later meet Caterina Sforza anyway and her husband died in 1488 making him a more logical Templar Grandmaster than the one they chose.

One of the major problems with a game that spans 40 years is that aging up characters as time passes becomes an issue of realism. By 1478, the year of the Pazzi Conspiracy, Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia was a youngish man, 45 years of age, noted to be handsome, friendly, and kind in person. completely different from the cackling fatso we see throughout the game. He put on weight in his later years. They kind of cover this by making him wear a hood throughout his pre-papal era. Likewise, at this time Rodrigo was Cardinal in a Roman suburb and wasn't anywhere close to the Pazzis and Florence.

There's a similar problem with Lorenzo de'Medici. If Ezio was born in 1459, then Lorenzo (born in 1449) was ten years older than him. Lorenzo became de-facto head-of-state in 1469, but he looks older. He should look like Ezio's older brother. His characterization as this dignified and fierce statesman is nothing like the real guy. Lorenzo was known to be a playboy and a guy who put on pageants and expensive shows, someone who wasn't all that interested in government. But yeah, he was held in respect and esteem and was quite charismatic so that part is fair here.

The Pazzi attack on the Medici didn't happen outside il Duomo, it happened inside it. Lorenzo hid in the sacristry of the Church. The part where the entire city goes on alert and panic when the Medici are attacked is accurate however. Francesco de'Pazzi, Archbishop Salviatti, and Bernardo Baroncelli were all hanged from the windows of Palazzo Vecchio, rather than just Francesco de'Pazzi as we see in this game. The conspirators didn't flee to San Gimignano. They went to nearby villages and towns, were caught, identified and brought back to Florence and executed in public, in very graphic and gruesome fashion. That happened especially in the case of Jacopo de'Pazzi who was caught in Castogna, sent back to Florence, tortured and attacked by a mob, who then cut up his body and attached his head as a door-knocker to his own mansion. Also the game's narrative spacing implies that the conspirators were hunted over a long period of time. In real life, the main conspirators were killed in a matter of days, and the Medici purge of the Pazzi lasted for another three months.

One thing the game doesn't deal with, was that the Pazzi Conspiracy was a much bigger event than what we see. In the two months that followed the attack, 80 people were executed. So it wasn't a case that Ubisoft ran out of targets or historical figures to kill. The real thing was way bloodier and gorier. Whereas in the game it's just the main conspirators. The murder of the Archbishop wasn't like in the game, attacking him in a secret villa at San Gimignano, it was publicly done and it had consequences, with the Pope excommunicating the entire city, and the city's clergy backing Lorenzo and then excommunicating the Pope, and with Naples declaring war on Florence on behalf of the Pope with the entire city in panic of being invaded and occupied. Lorenzo il Magnifico actually personally went to Naples and sweet-talked a peace deal. The bit about Lorenzo de'Medici wiping out the Pazzi. That actually did happen, but Lorenzo also went out of his way to spare a few of them. He also made sure that Riario's relations, a cousin of his lived. So he wasn't as bad as Lucrezia Borgia in Brotherhood made him out to be, though his retribution was significantly more brutal than what we see.

Sequence 6-12. Forli, Venice, and Barbarigo Conspiracy. 1480-1488

This is a short bridging sequence where Ezio and Leonardo had to Venice. The year is now 1480. We also meet Caterina Sforza at Forli. Caterina Sforza looks way older than she should be. She was born in 1463, which means she's younger than Ezio but she looks his age/a little older somehow. She was around 17 or 18 in 1481, which means that Ezio should be more than a little creepy in hitting on a woman so much younger than him (albeit married with children. Caterina Sforza married at the age of 13, and gave birth to a kid in 15. so I think it's clear why Ubisoft felt they had to change that). Leonardo is located in Venice for most of this sequence. At this time, he should be in Milan. He did go to Venice but that was intermittent and in the 1490s. His biggest association was working at Milan between 1482-1499. The game conveys the impression that Leonardo's career was Florence-then-Venice, when that wasn't the case at all.

The Barbarigos were a real-life Venetian family and they were among the top 40 prominent families who divided the Dogeship for three centuries. Emilio Barbarigo, your first Venetian target is fictional, as is Silvio Barbarigo who you kill later at Lɺrsenale. But Marco Barbarigo, the Doge you attack at the Carnevale is real, and he did die in 1486 but he wasn't publicly assassinated like in this game. His replacement Agostino Barbarigo is real too, and yeah he did replace Marco. The Doge whose assassination you fail to prevent, Doge Mocenigo, also real and he died in the same year at thee Ducal Palace, and yeah there were rumors that he was poisoned, so that part is justified. Ezio's allies in Venice include the Thieves Gield (Antonio, Rosa) who are fictional, and the mercenary Bartolomeo dɺlviano who is a real-life figure and a mercenary in service to Venice, and who later did align with anti-Borgia families like the Orsini, so that part is fair. We meet Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia at Venice at the end. At this time, he was administrator at Cartagena, Spain.

We also get to see Niccolo Machiavelli who in 1488 was about 19 years of age, but he looks younger than Ezio so there's that. At this point he should still be a student and early careerist in Florence, and not in Venice and Forli.

Sequence 13-15: Battle of Forli DLC and Bonfire of the Vanities DLC and Finale in Rome 1488-1499.

These two sequences were originally released as DLC but subsequently reinserted into the GOTY release in its natural place (and thats how I played it first time). Ludovico and Ceccho Orsi were real figures, but the entire order of their real actions and their activities here are inverted. The Orsis assassinated Girolamo Riario, Caterina Sforza's husband. There's no evidence in real life that she was the one who ordered her husband's hit as the game implies. The Orsis holding Caterina's children hostage and that exchange between her and them, is based on rumors but is credible enough but that happened after her husband's assassination. And if anything, the Orsis were allied with the Medici rather than the Borgia, since Girolamo Riario was the last of the Pazzi conspirators, and the main mastermind more-over. We also see a big siege of Forli and a castle battle that didn't happen at this time. The combat and style doesn't look convincing, too few soldiers and meagre equipment and whatnot.

We also see Savonarola at the end. He's presented as this unknown nobody. Men by 1485, Savonarola was already known in Florence for his sermons and speeches. He wasn't as unknown and secret as the game presents it. The portrayal of Florence under Savonarola has him converting it into some kind of theocracy, with the Apple of Eden manipulating a few people to serve as his puppets. In actual fact, Lorenzo de'Medici was responsible for Savonarola. Lorenzo il Magnifico's final years in the 1480s, saw Medici Bank collapse, with branches in London and Bruges shut down. Lorenzo also started running out of wealth, so he started using state funds to live out his lavish lifestyle, his pageants, and parties. The entire Pazzi crisis and the years of paranoia and siege that followed, also saw an economic downturn in the city. Savonarola became popular precisely because his message coincided with that weak economy and political corruption. In the game, Savonarola's rise is blamed on Lorenzo's son Piero (who is unseen) but in fact it was Lorenzo's own fault.

Savonarola actually founded a more democratic republic than under the Medici. He negotiated in person with the King of France and prevented a sacking of the city. This made him personally popular. In the game when Ezio returns the crowd chatters about things went worse under him, but that would not have been the opinion then. He was fully supported by Pico della Mirandola, and by Sandro Botticelli. In the game he governs via a police state with bonfire burnings across the city, but the bonfires were special events and had wide public support. The major one happened just once in 1497. Savonarola was certainly quite repressive and tried to pass more puritanical laws as time went on. Så I am not saying he was really some good guy who got a bad hand. But in the DLC, Ezio's targets are either manipulated stooges or cynical hucksters who joined with Savonarola for base motives, as if nobody had pure reasons for believing in him and supporting him. It was Rodrigo Borgia, Pope Alexander VI since 1492, who moved against Savonarola and conspired for his death and execution. In the game Ezio gets that.

This is actually the end of the Florentine part of the story (aside from some flashbacks in Brotherhood side missions). I always felt that it was a major weakness of AC2 for the climax to downplay Florence by the finale. There's a reason why in GTA San Andreas, you returned to Los Santos after going to Las Venturas. I think that AC2 would have been better served if rather than Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia, you had Girolamo Riario and then Savonarola as the main villains. Because the Auditore family and the Medici are the main focus of the first section of the game and so Florence is the center of AC2. The fact that the Medici and by extension the Auditore were potentially complicit in Savonarola's rise makes for a better story than what the game told. After all Giovanni Auditore, Ezio's Dad, is a banker who works with Lorenzo de'Medici, he had to know of his corruption and miserliness, and so on.

The finale of the game is obviously fictional. But yeah Rodrigo Borgia became Pope Alexander VI in 1492 and by 1499, when Ezio pays him a visit, he was settled in and was becoming quite a powerful and competent administrator. The portrayal of the Sistine Chapel that we see here, is accurate. No Michelangelo's ceiling because that is forever associated with Pope Julius II. Michelangelo was 24 in 1499 and in Florence, and that was the period when he sculpted David. To be absolutely clear, looking at the game now with all this detail, I am not sure why Rodrigo Borgia is really the bad guy in AC2. I mean yeah he's a name figure and everything. But most of the game takes place in Florence and Venice, and not in Rome. Nothing about his actions in AC2 has anything to do with the real shady stuff he did in history. So I will deal with the Borgia in Brotherhood.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

- For a while now, I have been thinking about and bothered with what I think is Ubisoft's Double Standard. Returning to Assasin's Creed II after playing AC3, Black Flag, Freedom Cry, Rogue, Unity, Syndicate, I can't help but notice a pattern, whereby the Assassin's Creed games seems to imply that stuff like racism, slavery, and discrimination happens only in America and the New World and ikke I Europa. The games basically emphasize Europe's architecture and other cities in a very touristy way, without any hint of the ugliness that was part of that time.

- Europe in the Middle Ages and especially in the Mediterranean practised slavery. The slaves were mostly Eastern European at first but by the end of the 14th Century started including Africans. In fact the word slave comes from "slav" as in the Slavic people, a group that is today Europe's most populous ethnicity. Most slaves of this time were Russians, Tartars, Greeks, Bulgarians, basically the Balkan peoples. Most of these slaves were women and well their enslavement in households were obviously exploitative, and the business in time became glorified human trafficking with all the horrible nastiness you can think of. Slaves were of any religion, Christian, Muslim, and Jewish. Slavery was more common in Venice than Florence, but even then the Medici owned slaves as did many other Florentine families. It was considered a status symbol to own slaves in Europe, and it was a mark of privilege to do so. Marco Polo who the game's lore reveals to be an Assassin was a slaveowner albeit someone who freed his slaves in his will. Games like Asssassin's Creed III, Black Flag, Liberation, and Freedom Cry, and even Rogue, acknowledged slavery in America and the New World, and that is right and proper but it's kind of weird that the developers didn't touch on this because this is mentioned in virtually any book of Venice I found, and it's a widely known fact about it. The scale of research done for Assassin's Creed II is such that the developers absolutely had to come across these facts when reading up on Venice, Florence and other places. In AC1, because the focus on the crusades was so razor-thin and narrow, the leaving out details was justifiable and it made sense, but the expansion of scope and greater ambition means, that what is excluded sticks out even more so in AC2. The only thing close to slavery in AC2 is the case of Dante Moro but there it's more of a fantastic and baroque thing rather than an actual institutional evil that something even average people do.

[EDIT: I scanted in this post, the presence and attitudes to prostitution in the game. But luckily for you all, u/Chamboz has put a detailed post on this: https://www.reddit.com/r/badhistory/comments/73xces/assassins_creed_ii_and_the_erasure_of_womens/ brought to my attention by u/cuc_AOE ].

- I mentioned above that Leonardo da Vinci in 1476 was accused of sodomy and that originally developer Patrice Desilets wanted to include it but Ubisoft told him no. Had Leonardo been tried and found guilty of that charge, he would have been sentenced and burnt at the stake. Homophobia was especially bad under Savonarola who enforced those laws more than the Medici did. Though again there is no evidence that he actually sentenced anyone to death, but this led to more persecution and pressure and exile.

- The big elephant in the room is of course Anti-Semitism and the complete lack of Jewish characters. The Renaissance is one of the most important periods for Jewish history. Jews in Florence were prominent supporters of the Medici and were protected by Lorenzo il Magnifico from fanatical clerics. Jews faced persecution and orders of expulsion under Savonarola, which isn't mentioned in the game once. Jews in Venice had better treatment compared to other places, but even then Jews were only allowed to work in Venice and not live there, could be evicted from a moment's notice, and had to wear a yellow band in public. In 1515, years after the game, the Republic of Venice ordered that Jews could stay in a special area, a foundry scrap heap called "getto", from which we get the word ghetto, of which the Venetian ghetto is the first of its kind, for any group anywhere. But even in the 1480s, you still had a prominent presence of Jewish people in Venice, they were doctors, physicians, merchants, and scholars, exactly the kind of people Ezio hangs out with for most of the game. The big problem with making Rodrigo Borgia the bad guy is precisely because one of his most notable actions as Pope, was allowing Jews exiled from Spain and Portuga 1492 to settle in Rome without fears of conversion. He did that for pragmatic rather than entirely altruistic reasons, and some of that would be reversed under Cesare Borgia, but he did do it.

- AC2 has more side-missions with narrative than AC1. Most of it is silly and deals with fictional characters. This includes the tombs, most of which is set inside famous landmarks but has weird mechanisms and so on that never existed in the real place. The exception is the Basilica di San Marco in Venice where the interiors reflect the real one inside well. The Database in AC2 is generally reliable and informative. So I don't think there are too many issues there, except again the lack of mention of the racism, slavery, and homophobia that was part of daily life.

- In terms of costumes, I think AC2 looks stagey. Ezio's outfit in particular strikes me as being inappropriate for his rank. He's a nobleman and aristocrat and later he becomes a fugitive, so that means that when he is blending in "rich areas" and so on, he should wear the proper clothing and in poor areas, he should dress accordingly. This is a problem with all the games going forward, since historically, until the modern contemporary area (and even today it still counts), costumes and clothing were primary indicators of rank, class, and station. In addition to not dealing with the other stuff, AC2 doesn't deal well with class either. The only time Ubisoft does this is in Liberation, the side-game and there the costumes are a gendered thing as if men of all classes and stations never had to deal with any of this at any time.

- Architecturally, the notable thing about AC2 compared to AC1 and later games is that it tries to avoid anachronism in a few notable instances. Rialto Bridge is wooden in Venice as opposed to the more refined one you see now. Sistine Chapel doesn't have Michelangelo's painting. This is of course unavoidable with stuff like Campanile of San Marco which in real life collapsed in an earthquake and was then reconstructed, and the Campanile here looks like that one rather than the real one. The towers and buildings are also quite obviously compressed to be made climbable with hand and foot-holds. San Gimignano should not be as easy to climb as it is in this game I think.

- AC2 also has you collect art items for your Palazzo which is Old Master stuff that you can have the fantasy you own. From what I see, all of them look like Museum pictures today rather than an attempt to simulate the look and colours of that time based on contemporary reports and modern research.

- In terms of language, AC2 has an English interspersed with Italian words and phrases. Most of it is swearing, and insults, but there doesn't seem to be any attempt at differentiation with dialect, when this was a big issue in Italian history. The Florentine dialect (which is the one that contemporary Italian is based on) versus Venetian, versus Romagna, and Rome. I have been told that the Italian is very bad and cliched, and laughable to native speakers.

A major problem in retrospect with AC2 is that where in AC1, the Assassins and Templars played historical roles during the Crusades. Here they become metaphors. And those metaphors come from pieces of history and it's based on cliches. The major cliche of Renaissance Italy is proto-mafia feuding families, so now the Assassins and Templars are Italian feuding families, the game is mostly about good noble families like the Auditores/Medici/Sforza versus the Borgia/Pazzi/Barbarigo. What this means is that Assassin's Creed can't claim any neutrality about history. They pronounced judgment and decided that X is Good, and Y is Bad, and they do that, without giving good historical reasons to make that call. This is problematic when you consider the real history of the Renaissance, which is that for Italy, this was a period of never-ending constant warfare. The game focuses on small-scale assassinations but in actual fact many of these Italian families and local city-states would ally with rival powers to attack their own neighbours. Florence for instance allied with France for safety against the Pope, who in turn tried to get the Holy Roman Empire, Spain and Portugal on board. All these feuding families ultimately screwed over Italy and in the next century, many of the artists, and artisans would leave Italy and work in safer climates outside. The whole idea of there being a good family is ridiculous.

So that's that, I've finished UNITY, gone back to AC1, and now AC2. AC2 took longer than I thought it would. I am going to do AC3 next, then Syndicate, and Origins. I am going to skip Brotherhood and Revelations because most of the games there have very slight historical content being largely fictional, mostly the "Borgia while not good weren't as bad". They are also shorter. And most of the complaints I said about the portrayal of Renaissance Europe (the downplaying of slavery, racism, class, and so on) would be repeating what I wrote here. The main thing would be the architecture of Rome and Constantinople which is too specialized for me. BLACK FLAG is in my opinion the most accurate game but it's also a game like AC1 which doesn't have a lot to get wrong and most of my criticisms and complaints about the ship combat in Black Flag is true for the naval component of AC3, so I will discuss that there. ROGUE is not a game I like but it's also entirely fictional and lore-related in its game having little to do or say about the Seven Years War, which I will deal with in AC3 anyway.

Not sure which order I will do it. I think I will do Syndicate, and then AC3. After that, Origins. Need to read up for all of those games but I know quite a bit about it. Or I can do it chronological.

That's that. Let me know what you think.

Florence: A Portrait. Michael Levey. Harvard University Press. 1996.- Pg. 211. Lorenzo became head of state at the age of 20 in 1469.- Pg. 213. Lorenzo's time was seen as the most stable in Florence.- Pg. 233. Pazzi Conspirators were hunted down, there was a ringing of a palazzo bell.- Pg. 234. Lorenzo de'Medici used state funds for personal use because Medici Bank was closing down.- Pg. 234. Lorenzo de'Medici summoned Savonarola to meet him on his deathbed.

The Medici: Power, Money, and Ambition in the Italian Renaissance. Paul Strathern. Pegasus Books. 2016.- Pg. 48-49 In 1400s Florence, slaves, mostly women, would be distributed among wealthy families.- Pg. 168-169 Lorenzo il Magnifico had 100 galley slaves sailing with him.- Pg. 160-166 The Pazzis attacked Lorenzo and his brother inside il Duomo and not outside the Church as in the game. The Pazzis were arrested and brought down by an angry mob. Jacopo de'Pazzi wasn't killed in San Gimignano, but he was brought back to Florence, tortured/killed/mutilated/put on display in pieces before his house.- Pg. 166. The Pope excommunicated Florence, and in response Florentine priests excommunicated the Pope.- Pg. 189. Leonardo was accused of sodomy, and risked getting burnt at the stake.- Pg. 206. Under Lorenzo, Medici Bank collapsed and went under. Branches in London and Bruges closed down.- Pg. 218-223. Savonarola came to power after Lorenzo's death. He cut a smooth deal with the King of France, prevented the city from being sacked. Installed a democratic government, provided amnesty to enemies, tax reforms, he also got the support from Pico della Mirandola, Poliziano, and Sandro Botticelli.

The Family Medici: The Hidden History of the Medici Dynasty. Mary Hollingsworth. Pegasus Books. 2018.- Pg. 180-181. The Medici myth of the patron of arts. With many stories of patronage attributed to them years after the fact via folklore and propaganda.- Pg. 185-187. Lorenzo il Magnifico corruption. Used state funds for personal use.- Pg. 187. Pazzi wars drained the city and affected the economy. Medici bank collapsed. And final years was actually quite lean.

Venice: History of the Floating City. Joanne M. Ferraro. Cambridge University Press. 2012.- Pg. 30-37. Venice was a city that depended on slave trade.- Pg. 69. Barbarigo one of 40 families that shaped the dogeship between 1383-1612.- Pg. 48. Jews were treated like a foreign community.- Pg. 90. Jews were required to wear a yellow star, played a vital part in all aspects of Venetian society as finance managers, physicians, scholars.- Pg. 91. World's first Jewish ghetto, or any ghetto, was founded in 1515- Pg. 78-106. Venice depended on slave trade. Sold slaves and imported slaves from Eastern Europe, Caucasian regions, mostly Slavs, Turks, Tartars, and even Russians. Also Catholics including Greeks in Aegean islands. From the Late 1400s, African slaves displaced European slaves.

Venice: Pure City. Peter Ackroyd. Tilfældigt hus. 2009- Pg. 48. Venice became a haven for Jews exiled from Spain and Portugal.- Pg. 113. Venice's slave trade from the 12th Century surpassed that of other cities, Rialto Market was a slave market, they sold Russians and Eastern Europeans to Saracens. No patrician family was without 5 slaves. Artisans owned slaves. Marco Polo owned a slave, Peter the Turk, who was freed in his will. By 1580, there were at least 3000 slaves in the city.

The Borgias: The Hidden History. G. J. Meyer. Bantam Books. 2013.- Pg. 106. Rodrigo Borgia/Pope Alexander VI welcomes Jews exiled from Spain and Portugal and settled them in Rome, and allowed them religious tolerance.


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