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Carrack Jesus of Lübeck

Carrack Jesus of Lübeck


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Hvordan Englands første slavehandler lokkede afrikanere på sit ’Jesus’ skib og solgte dem til slaveri

Michael Eli Dokosi er journalist og en formidabel forfatter med ti års erfaring. Han er blogger, voice-over kunstner og MC. Dokosi er flydende med både mundtlig og skriftlig kommunikation. Han er for den afrikanske sag og regner med, at Afrika snart genvinder sin retmæssige plads i verdensanliggender.

Selvom englænderne senere blev bemærkelsesværdige afrikanske slaver, har handlen sin oprindelse i portugisernes og spanskens barm.

Den historiske optegnelse siger, at Juan de Córdoba i Sevilla i 1502 blev den første købmand til at sende en afrikansk slave til den nye verden. Da det kun var i sine tidlige faser, fik købmænd tilladelse af de spanske myndigheder til kun at sælge en til tre slaver afrikanere.

I 1504 tog en lille gruppe afrikanere, sandsynligvis slaver, der blev taget til fange fra et portugisisk fartøj, til retten for kong James IV af Skotland.


Indhold

engelsk carrack blev udlånt i slutningen af ​​1300 -tallet via gammelfransk karak, fra carraca, en betegnelse for et stort firkantet sejlskib, der bruges på spansk, italiensk og mellemlatin.

Disse skibe blev kaldt caravela eller nau på portugisisk og genoese, carabela eller nao på spansk, karak eller nef på fransk, og kraak på hollandsk.

Oprindelsen af ​​udtrykket carraca er uklart, måske fra arabisk qaraqir "handelsskib", selv af ukendt oprindelse (måske fra latin carricare "at laste en bil" eller græsk καρκαρίς "belastning af tømmer") eller det arabiske القُرْقُورُ (al-qurqoor) og derfra til den græske κέρκουρος (kerkouros) hvilket betyder cirka "lettere" (pram) (bogstaveligt talt "afskårne hale", en mulig henvisning til skibets flade hæk). Dens attestation i græsk litteratur er fordelt i to nært beslægtede lapper. Den første fordelingslob eller område forbinder den med visse lette og hurtige købmænd, der findes nær Cypern og Korfu. Den anden er en omfattende attestering i Oxyrhynchus corpus, hvor det oftest forekommer at beskrive de ptolemaiske faraoers Nilpramme. Begge disse anvendelser kan føre tilbage gennem fønikisk til akkadisk kalakku, der betegner en type flodpram. Det akkadiske udtryk antages at være afledt af et sumerisk forløb. [2] En moderne refleks af ordet findes på arabisk og tyrkisk kelek "tømmerflådebåd". [3]

I slutningen af ​​middelalderen blev tandhjulet og tandhjulslignende firkantede fartøjer udstyret med et ror i hæksten meget udbredt langs Europas kyster, fra Middelhavet til Østersøen. I betragtning af betingelserne i Middelhavet blev fartøjer af kabysstype i vid udstrækning brugt der, ligesom forskellige to mastede fartøjer, herunder karavellerne med deres sejlsejl. Disse og lignende skibstyper kendte portugisiske sejlere og skibsfolk. Da portugiserne gradvist udvidede deres handel stadig længere sydpå langs Afrikas Atlanterhavskyst i løbet af 1400 -tallet, havde de brug for større, mere holdbare og mere avancerede sejlskibe til deres lange oceaniske ventures. Efterhånden udviklede de deres egne modeller af oceaniske karakker fra en fusion og ændring af aspekter af de skibstyper, de kendte, der opererede i både Atlanterhavet og Middelhavet, og generaliserede deres brug i slutningen af ​​århundredet til inter-oceanisk rejse med en mere avanceret form af sejlrigning, der tillod meget forbedrede sejlegenskaber i Atlanterhavets kraftige vinde og bølger og en skrogform og størrelse, der tillod større laster. Ud over den gennemsnitlige tonnagekvalme blev der også bygget nogle store kvaler (karakker) i regeringstiden for Johannes II af Portugal, men var først udbredt efter århundredskiftet. De portugisiske karakker var normalt meget store skibe for deres tid, ofte over 1000 tons [ præcisering nødvendig ], [4] og have den fremtidige store kvalme i Indien -løb og handel med Kina og Japan, også andre nye designformer.

En typisk tremastet carrack som f.eks São Gabriel havde seks sejl: bowsprit, forsejl, storsejl, mizzensail og to oversails.

I midten af ​​1500 -tallet blev de første galions udviklet fra karakken. Galionsdesignet kom til at erstatte karakternes, selvom karakker stadig var i brug så sent som i midten af ​​1600 -tallet på grund af deres større lastkapacitet.

Fra og med 1498 indledte Portugal for første gang direkte og regelmæssige udvekslinger mellem Europa og Indien - og resten af ​​Asien derefter - gennem Cape Route, en rejse, der krævede brug af større fartøjer, såsom karakker, på grund af sin hidtil usete længde , cirka 6 måneder.

I gennemsnit forbandt 4 carracks Lissabon til Goa med guld for at købe krydderier og andre eksotiske varer, men hovedsageligt peber. Fra Goa gik en karak til Ming Kina for at købe silke. Fra 1541 begyndte portugiserne at handle med Japan og udvekslede kinesisk silke med japansk sølv i 1550. Den portugisiske krone begyndte at regulere handelen til Japan ved at lease den årlige "kaptajn" til Japan til den højestbydende i Goa, hvilket i realiteten giver eksklusiv handel rettigheder for en enkelt carrack på vej til Japan hvert år. I 1557 erhvervede portugiserne Macau for at udvikle denne handel i partnerskab med kineserne. Denne handel fortsatte med få afbrydelser indtil 1638, hvor det blev forbudt af Japans herskere med den begrundelse, at skibene smuglede katolske præster ind i landet. Japanerne kaldte portugisiske karakker for "sorte skibe" (kurofune), der henviser til farven på skibets skrog. Dette udtryk ville i sidste ende komme til at referere til ethvert vestligt fartøj, ikke kun portugisisk.

    , hvor Christopher Columbus foretog sin første rejse til Amerika i 1492., flagskib i Vasco da Gama, i den portugisiske ekspedition fra 1497 fra Europa til Indien ved at sejle rundt i Afrika.
  • Flor do Mar eller Flor de la Mar, som det blev kaldt, tjente over ni år i Det Indiske Ocean og sank i 1512 med Afonso de Albuquerque efter erobringen af ​​Malacca med et kæmpe bytte, hvilket gjorde det til en af ​​de legendariske tabte skatte. , det første skib i historien til at omgå kloden (1519 til 1522) og den eneste overlevende fra Magellans ekspedition til Spanien.
  • La Dauphine, Verrazzanos skib for at udforske Atlanterhavskysten i Nordamerika i 1524.
  • Grande Hermine, hvor Jacques Cartier først sejlede i Saint Lawrence -floden i 1535. Det første europæiske skib, der sejlede på denne flod forbi Golfen.
  • Santo António, eller St. Anthony, kong John III af Portugals personlige ejendom, ødelagde ved Gunwalloe Bay i 1527, hvis bjærgning af hvis last næsten førte til en krig mellem England og Portugal.
  • Store Michael, et skotsk skib, på et tidspunkt det største i Europa.
  • Mary Rose, Henri Grâce à Dieu og Peter Granatæble, bygget under Henry VIII's regeringstid - engelske militærkarakker som disse blev ofte kaldt store skibe.
  • Grace Dieu, bestilt af Henry V af England. Et af de største skibe i verden dengang.
  • Santa Catarina do Monte Sinai, et krigsskib bygget i Indien af ​​portugiserne
  • Julemanden Anna, et særligt moderne design bestilt af Knights Hospitaller i 1522 og undertiden hyldet som det første pansrede skib.
  • Jesus af Lübeck, chartret til en gruppe købmænd i 1563 af dronning Elizabeth. Jesus af Lübeck blev involveret i den atlantiske slavehandel under John Hawkins.
  • Madre de Deus, som blev beslaglagt af Royal Navy ud for Flores Island. Bygget i Lissabon i løbet af 1589, var hun et af verdens største skibe. Hun blev fanget af englænderne i 1592 med en enormt værdifuld last fra Østindien, der stadig betragtes som den næststørste skat, der nogensinde er fanget.
  • Cinco Chagas formodes at have været det største og rigeste skib, der nogensinde har sejlet til og fra Indien indtil da, eksploderede og sank det ved Faials handling i 1594., portugisisk carrack, der blev beslaglagt af det hollandske østindiske kompagni ud for Singapore i 1603.
  • Nossa Senhora da Graça, Portugisisk carrack sank i et japansk angreb nær Nagasaki i 1610
  • Peter von Danzig, skib i Hansaforbundet i 1460'erne-1470'erne.
  • La Gran Carracca, skibet af St. John's Order under deres herredømme over Malta. [5]

Berømt nau Frol de la Mar (lanceret i 1501 eller 1502), i det 16. århundrede "Roteiro de Malaca"


Indhold

Datoerne for skibe før 1485 er sandsynligvis angivet ved hjælp af den nutidige engelske konvention om årets første dag den 25. marts (Lady Day).

I afsnittene, der viser krigsskibe i den engelske/kongelige flåde fra 1485 og frem, er datoerne blevet citeret ved hjælp af årets moderne konvention fra den 1. januar, hvor disse oplysninger er tilgængelige. Alle datoer er angivet i den julianske kalender ("gammel stil").

Den følgende liste er i vid udstrækning baseret på den, der findes i Michael Oppenheims Historien om administrationen af ​​Royal Navy og i bind 1 af William Laird Clowes Royal Navy: En historie fra de tidligste tider til 1900.

  • Treenighed - Demonteret c. 1409, materialer brugt til Trinity Royal
  • God tak (ca. 1400)
  • Le Carake (ex-genoeseSancta Maria & amp; Sancta Brigida, fanget 1409)
  • Christopher 5 (1410/12) - Holk (ligner en tandhjul)
  • Trinity Royal (1416)
  • Jesus (ca. 1416)
  • George (ex-genoese carrack?, fanget 1416) - Til Venedig 1424
  • Marie Hampton (ex-genoese carrack ?, fanget 1416)
  • Marie Sandwich (ex-genoese carrack ?, fanget 1416)
  • Agase (ex-genoese carrack ?, fanget 1416) - Ødelagt på vadehav c. 1418
  • Andrew (ex-genoese carrack Galeas Negre, fanget 1417)
  • Peter (ex-genoese carrack ?, fanget 1417)
  • Paul (ex-genoese carrack Vivande, fanget 1417)
  • Christopher Spayne (ex-genoese Pynele . fanget 1417) - Solgt 1423
  • Marie Spayne (ex-spansk ?, fanget 1417)
  • Holigost Spayne [Helligånden i Spanien] (eks-spansk Santa Clara, fanget 1417)
  • Grace Dieu (1418) - Lyn og ild, 1439
  • Grace Dieu (1449) - ombygget 1473, BU c. 1487
  • Peter - Forladt 1462
  • Mary 48
  • George
  • Edward Howard (c. 1466, tidligere portugisisk ?, fanget 1479)
  • Guvernør (1485)

Listerne for Tudor -perioden er primært taget fra Arthur Nelsons Tudor Navy og David Childs Tudor Sea Power (citeret i referencer i slutningen af ​​denne artikel).

Hvor det er relevant, følger antallet af hovedpistoler navnet (se Rating Navy of the Royal Navy). Bemærk, at skibe med lang levetid kunne genoprustes flere gange. Mange tidligere skibe gennemgik periodiske reparationer og ombygninger (mange nu ikke -registrerede), hvor deres dimensioner og deres bevæbning ændrede sig betydeligt.

Henry VII (tilføjelser 1485–1509) Rediger

Antallet af kanoner, der er angivet i forskellige kilder, er ikke rigtig relevant. Det meste af det store antal, der er citeret i nutidige optegnelser, var små antipersonelle våben, og antallet af disse ville variere fra tid til anden (ændringer normalt ikke-registrerede). Derfor er tallene udeladt.

  • Carvel of Ewe (købt 1487) - sidst nævnt 1518
  • Regent (eks.Grace Dieu) (bygget 1488) - brændt i slaget ved St. Matthieu, 1512
  • Suveræn (eks.Trinity Sovereign) (bygget 1488) - genopbygget 1509, sidst nævnt 1525
  • Michael (1488, en præmie taget fra skotterne for ikke at forveksle med den meget større skotske karak Michael) - sidst nævnt 1513
  • Margaret (1490, en præmie taget fra skotterne) - slettet før 1509
  • Mary Fortune (prototype galleass bygget 1497) - omdøbt Sluge da genopbygget 1512, slettet 1527
  • Konkurrence (prototype galleass bygget 1497 i Portsmouth, hvad der af nogle menes at være Storbritanniens første tørdok.) - slettet 1527

Henry VIII (tilføjelser 1509–1547) Rediger

Tunge (bronze) kanoner monteret på vogne dukkede kun op under denne regeringstid. Konceptet med at skære skydeport ned i det nederste dæk opstod tidligt i perioden, og relativt få tunge kanoner blev båret. Selv den største ville kun have tunge kanoner nummereret i enkeltfigurer, resten var små antipersonelle våben.

Skibe Rediger

Disse blev ganske enkelt beskrevet som skibe, de fleste var sandsynligvis karakker)

    • Mary Rose (1509)-genopbygget 1536, sank 1545, rester på styrbord side genvundet 1982 og bevaret i Portsmouth
    • Peter Granatæble (1510) - genopbygget 1536, slettet 1552
    • Jennet Prywin (eks-skotske Andrew Barton, fanget 1511, oprindeligt dansk)-slettet 1514
    • Løve (eks-skotsk privateerpris, fanget 1511)-solgt 1513
    • Anne Gallant (bygget 1512) - ødelagt 1518
    • Kristus (eks Kristus af Lynn, købt 1512) - fanget af Barbary pirater 1515
    • Trække på (bygget 1512) - sidst registreret 1514
    • John Baptist (købt 1512) - ødelagt 1534
    • Mary George (eks Mary Howard, købt 1512) - sidst registreret 1526
    • Mary James (eks James af Hull, købt 1512) - sidst registreret 1529
    • Firben (købt 1512) - sidst registreret 1522
    • Store Nicholas (eks Nicholas Reede, købt 1512) - slettet inden 1522
    • Stor bark 63 (bygget 1512) - solgt 1531
    • Lille Barbara eller Barbara af Greenwich (1512) - sidst registreret 1514
    • Sort bark eller Christopher (1513) - sidst registreret 1514
    • Henry Hampton (købt 1513) - hulked 1521 og ikke senere optaget
    • Mary Imperial (1513) - sidst registreret 1525
    • Henri Grâce à Dieu ("Store Harry") 186 (1514) - genopbygget 1539, omdøbt Edward 1547, men ved et uheld brændte 1553.
    • Store Elizabeth (eks Salvator von Lübeck, købt 1514) - ødelagt 1514.
    • Stor kabys (bygget 1515) - genopbygget 1542 som et skib og omdøbt Stor bark
    • Mindre Bark (1517) - genopbygget 1536 og omdøbt Lille bark, sidst registreret 1552
    • Mary Gloria (købt 1517) - sidst registreret 1522
    • Katherine Bark (bygget 1518) - sidst registreret 1525
    • Bullen af ​​Bullen (fanget 1522 fra franskmændene) - sidst registreret 1525
    • Bark af Murless (eks Bark af Morlaix, fanget 1522 fra franskmændene) - sidst registreret 1530
    • Magdeline (eks Mawdlyn fra Deptford, 1522) - sidst registreret 1525
    • Mary og John (Spansk galeon) - sidst registreret 1528
    • John af Greenwich (fanget 1523) - sidst registreret 1530
    • Primrose (bygget 1523) - genopbygget 1538, solgt 1555
    • Minion (bygget 1523) - genopbygget 1536, givet væk 1549
    • Mary Guildford (bygget 1524) - sidst registreret 1539
    • Treenighed Henry (1530) - solgt 1558
    • Konkurrence (bygget 1535) - fordømt 1559
    • Mary Willoughby (bygget 1535) - fanget af skotterne 1536 men genoptaget 1547, genopbygget 1551, solgt 1573
    • Matthew (eks Matthew Gonson, købt 1539) - sidst registreret 1558
    • Stedmoderblomst (bygget 1543) - fordømt 1558
    • Artigo (eks Ferronière, fanget 1543 fra franskmændene) - solgt 1547
    • Jesus af Lübeck (eks-HansestadskarrkenJesus von Lübeck, købt 1544) - nedsænket af spansk 1568
    • Marryan (ex-Hanseatic Morian Murryan, købt 1544) - solgt 1551
    • Struss (ex-Hanseatic Struktur af Dawsky, købt 1544) - solgt 1552
    • Mary Hambrough (ex-Hanseatic, købt 1544)-solgt 1558
    • Christopher af Bream (købt 1545) - solgt 1556
    • Mary Thomas (fanget 1545) - sidst registreret 1546
    • Mary James (fanget 1545) - sidst registreret 1546
    • Mary Odierne (fanget 1545) - sidst registreret 1546
    • Treenighed (fanget 1545) - sidst registreret 1546
    • Sacrett (fanget 1545) - fordømt 1559
    • Hope Bark (1546) - sidst registreret 1548
    • George 28 (købt 1546)

    Carracks Rediger

    Disse blev specifikt nævnt som sådanne, selvom de fleste af "skibene" ovenfor sandsynligvis også var karakker.

      • Gabriel Royal (ex Genoese, købt 1512)
      • Katherine Fortune (ex Genoese Katarina Fortileza, købt 1512)
      • Mary Loret (ex Genoese Maria de Larreto, rekvireret 1514, men vendte tilbage senere samme år)
      • Store Barbara (eks Mawdelyn, købt 1513) - sidst registreret 1524

      Galleys Rediger

        • Henry Galley (bygget 1512) - tabt 1513
        • Rose Galley (1512) - sidst registreret 1521
        • Kateryn Galley (1512) - sidst registreret 1527
        • Galley Subtile (bygget 1543) - opført som en gallease 1546, fordømt 1560
        • Havfrue (eks Bygning Blanchard, fanget 1545) - sidst registreret 1563

        Galleasses Rediger

        Galeasen var et kompromis mellem kabines slanke linjer og undervandsform og karrierens brede kanoner i denne forstand, at den var forgængeren til galionsen. Primært sejlende krigsskibe, med årer som hjælpemiddel til fremdrift. Tolv blev bygget til Henry VIII i tre grupper mellem 1536 og 1546, og yderligere to fartøjer af denne type blev fanget fra den skotske flåde og tilføjet til den engelske flåde. Da årerne viste sig at forringe deres sejlads, blev de fjernet ved Henrys død, og i 1549 blev alle fjorten galleaser omklassificeret som 'skibe'. Dem i god stand blev genopbygget som små galeoner i 1558 (seks) eller 1570 (to).

        Første gruppe Disse fire fartøjer var tremastede galeaser, hver med et lavt forløb og tre par skudsport langs roningækket.

        • Løve (1536) - delt i stykker 1552
        • Jennet (1539) - genopbygget som en galeon 1558
        • Trække på (1542) - delt i stykker 1552
        • Greyhound (1545) - genopbygget som en galeon 1558

        Anden gruppe De fire skibe, der blev bygget til denne type (sammen med to lignende fartøjer fanget fra skotterne) var firemastede galeaser med en højere spids. De havde også tre eller fire par skudsport på nederste dæk, men også et par mindre par på halvdækket ovenfor.

        • Ny bark (1543) - genopbygget som en galeon 1558
        • Sluge (1544) - genopbygget som en galeon 1558
        • enhjørning (fanget 1544 fra Royal Scots Navy) - taget i stykker 1552
        • Salamander (bygget 1537 i Frankrig og erobret 1544 fra Royal Scots Navy) - fordømt 1559
        • Grand Mistress (1545) - sol at tage i stykker 1552
        • Anne Gallant (1545) - gået i 1560

        Sidste gruppe Disse var også firemastede, og de var flush-decked fartøjer, hvor forlygten var forbundet til halvdækket for at danne et kontinuerligt øvre dæk.

          (1546) - genopbygget som en galeon 1558 38 (1546) - genopbygget som en galeon 1558 26 (1546) - genopbygget som en galeon 1570 (1546) - genopbygget som en galeon 1570

        Andre små fartøjer Rediger

        Disse blev klassificeret som tinder

          • Stor Zebra (1522) - sidst registreret 1525
          • Mindre zebra (1522) - sidst registreret 1525
          • Mary Grace (en hoyMary af Homflete, fanget 1522 fra franskmændene) - sidst registreret 1525
          • Stor Pinnace (1544, men kan have været Stor Zabra omdøbt) - sidst registreret 1545
          • Mindre Pinnace (1544, men kan have været Mindre Zabra omdøbt) - sidst registreret 1549
          • Falk (1544) - opført som et skib fra 1557, sidst registreret 1578
          • Roo (bygget 1545) - fanget af franskmændene 1547
          • Marlion eller Martin (fanget fra franskmændene 1545) - sidst registreret 1549
          • Saker (bygget 1545) - opført som et skib fra 1557, sidst registreret 1565
          • Hind (bygget 1545) - opført som et skib fra 1557, solgt 1557
          • Brigantine (bygget 1545) - fanget af franskmændene 1552
          • Hare (bygget 1545) - solgt 1573
          • Phoenix (købt 1546) - opført som skib fra 1557, genopbygget 1558 og solgt 1573
          • Trego Ronnyger (1546) - sidst registreret 1549

          Også i 1546 blev der bygget tretten bevæbnede rækker på 20 tons hver - Dobbelt Rose, Flower de Luce (fanget af franskmændene i 1562), Sol, Harpe, Sky i solen, Hawthorne, Tre strudsfjer, Falk i Fetterlock, Portcullis, Rose i solen, Maidenhead, Roseslip og Gillyflower. De tre første af disse blev genopbygget i 1557–58 og klassificeret som tinder, de næste fem ovennævnte blev solgt i 1548–49 (for 154,4,0 pund hver) og de sidste fem blev fordømt i 1552.

          Edward VI (tilføjelser 1547–1553) Rediger

          På trods af det betydelige antal mindre tilføjelser nedenfor blev der tilføjet få betydelige fartøjer under denne korte regeringstid, og størstedelen af ​​dem, der blev tilføjet, er præmier. Bortset fra hvor en skæbne er angivet nedenfor, blev alle følgende kun opført som kongeskibe i året citeret i parentes, og blev ikke efterfølgende optaget i optegnelser.

            • Sort nål 17 (1548)
            • Spansk Shallop 7 (1548)
            • Stor bark Aiger (1549)
            • Sort kabysse (fanget 1549) - genoptaget af franskmændene i samme år
            • Swift (1549) - opført til 1558
            • Måne 12 (1549) - ødelagt 1553 ud for Vestafrika
            • Syv stjerner (1549) - opført til 1558
            • Mary Norwell (1549)
            • John (fanget 1549)
            • Løve (ex-Royal Scots Navy, fanget 1549)
            • Margaret (1549)
            • Nicholas (fanget 1549)
            • Katherine (fanget 1549)
            • Lille svale (1549)
            • Bullen af ​​Bullen (1550) - givet væk i 1553
            • Jer Falcon (1550) - fordømt 1558
            • Edward Bonaventure (1551) - ødelagt 1556 ved Aberdeen.

            Mary I (tilføjelser 1553–1558) Rediger

            I modsætning til den efterfølgende elisabethanske propaganda om, at Marias regeringstid forsømte flåden, så denne korte regeringstid tilføjelsen af ​​de første rigtige gallions (alle Henrys nye eller ombyggede store skibe havde været karakker) - de tre første detaljeret nedenfor - og genopbygningen af ​​seks tidligere galeaser til galions -konceptet, samt begyndelsen på et større fartøj bestilt under navnet Edward, som skulle lanceres som Elizabeth Jonas i de første måneder af Elizabeths regeringstid.

              Galleoner
                38 (1554) 38 (1556) (eller bare Løve) 38 (1557) (genopbygget i 1558 fra galleass af 1539) - slettet 1589 (genopbygget i 1558 fra galleass af 1543) - fordømt 1565 (genopbygget i 1558 fra galleass af 1544) - genopbygget igen 1580 (genopbygget i 1558 fra galleass af 1545 ) - ødelagt 1563 (genopbygget i 1558 fra galleass af 1546) - slettet 1568 (genopbygget i 1558 fra galleass af 1546) - slettet 1568

              Bemærk, at antallet af kanoner, der er angivet ovenfor, er nominelt. De langt større tal, der normalt citeres, omfatter små/lette støbejernsvåben (anti-personale), mens tallene, der citeres her, afspejler det omtrentlige antal vognmonterede tunge bronzepistoler placeret på det nedre eller øverste dæk til skibsfart.

              Elizabeth I (tilføjelser 1558–1603) Rediger

              • Galleoner
                Bemærk, at Primrose og Sejr, der blev købt i 1560, blev oprindeligt klassificeret som "skibe" snarere end galeoner, men sidstnævnte blev genopbygget som en galeon i 1586.
                  56 (bygget 1557–1559) - genopbygget i 1597–98 34 (bygget 1559) - genopbygget i 1604 (bygget 1561) - genopbygget i 1595–96 40 (bygget 1564) - genopbygget i 1598–99 (købt 1567) - undertiden kaldet Elizabeth Bonaventure. Ombygget 1581 BU 1611. 37 (bygget 1570)-prototypen "race-bygget" galleon-BU 1604 (genopbygget i 1570 fra galleass af 1546)-slettet 1589 (genopbygget i 1570 fra galleass af 1546)-slettet 1605 41 (bygget 1573 ) - BU 1645 (bygget 1573) - genopbygget 1592 (bygget 1577) - sænket 1591 i aktion mod spansk (bygget 1588) - fanget af spanierne i juli 1594 (genopbygget i 1580 fra skib i 1562) - brudt op 1599 38 (genopbygget i 1582 fra skib i 1557) - genopbygget igen i 1609, da det blev omdøbt Rød løve (selvom hver version normalt blev kontraheret til Løve) 38 (genopbygget i 1584 fra Philip og Mary af 1556) - genopbygget 1603 igen og omdøbt Nonsuch. 40 (bygget 1586) - Ombygget 1617 [1] 40 (bygget 1586) - Ombygget 1615 [1] 44 (bygget 1587) - Bygget 1587 som Ark Ralegh som et privat foretagende for Sir Walter Ralegh, men købt til dronningen, mens han byggede og omdøbte Ark Royal. Ombygget 1608 ved omdøbning Anne Royal ødelagt 1636. (bygget 1587) - fordømt 1601. 38 (genopbygget 1589 fra skib i 1556) - fordømt 1618. 46 (bygget 1590) - genopbygget i 1614, solgt 1650 46 (bygget 1590) - sænket som en bølgebryder 1618
              • Svar 21 (bygget 1590) - solgt 1629
              • Fordel 18 (bygget 1590) - brændt 1613
              • Kran 24 (bygget 1590) - solgt 1629
              • Afslut 25 (bygget 1590) - fordømt 1618 39 (bygget 1590) - genopbygget 1612–15, solgt 1650 (bygget 1594) - BU 1645 40/48 (bygget 1595) - også kendt som Repulse ', genopbygget 1610 [1] 29 (bygget 1596) - konverteret til lettere 1635
              • Sankt Andrew 50 (spansk San Andreas, fanget 1596) - givet væk 1604
              • Den hellige Matthew 50 (spansk San Mateo, fanget 1596) - givet væk 1604
                • Speedwell (fanget 1560 fra franskmændene) - brudt op 1580
                • Trywright (fanget 1560 fra franskmændene) - brudt op 1579
                • Ellynore (præsenteret 1562 af franskmændene) - omdøbt Bonavolia 1584, solgt 1600
                • Kviksølv (bygget 1592) - solgt 1611
                • La Superlativa (bygget 1601) - fordømt 1618, solgt 1629
                • La Advantagia (bygget 1601) - fordømt 1618, solgt 1629
                • La Volatillia (bygget 1602) - fordømt 1618, solgt 1629
                • La Gallarita (bygget 1602) - fordømt 1618, solgt 1629
                • Sprite (fanget fra franskmændene 1558) - slettet 1559
                • Minion (købt 1558) - solgt 1570
                • Bullen af ​​Bullen (bygget 1669) - slettet 1578
                • Mary Grace (butik, fanget 1560) - slettet 1562 (1562) - genopbygget 1580 som en galion
                • Stolpe (brigantine, bygget 1562) - slettet 1566
                • Makeshift (brigantine, bygget 1563) - slettet 1564
                • Søg (brigantine, bygget 1563) - solgt 1564
                • Guide (brigantine, bygget 1563) - slettet 1563 (1573) - genopbygget 1580 fordømt 1603.
                • Sunne, 5-kanons nål, 1586. Første skib registreret bygget ved Chatham Dockyard [2] (bark, bygget 1586)-brudt op 1618
                • Hart 56
                • San Felipe (tidligere spansk San Felipe, fanget 1587) - blev ikke tilføjet til den engelske flåde
                • Sort hund (fanget 1590) - ikke opført efter 1590
                • Lion's Whelp (erhvervet 1590) - tabt til søs 1591
                • Primrose Hoy (hoy, bygget 1590) - fordømt 1618
                • Fransk fregat (pinnace, fanget fra franskmændene 1591) - omdøbt Primrose 1612, fordømt 1618
                • Pinnace, navn ukendt, c1592. Bevæbnet med sæt med 12 matchede kanoner, i modsætning til den blandede kanon, der normalt blev brugt på det tidspunkt. Websted opdaget og flere kanoner fundet i 2009 [3]
                • Flyvningen (bygget 1592) - ikke opført efter 1592
                • Madre de Dios (ex-portugisisk carrack Madre de Dios, fanget 1592) - blev ikke tilføjet til den engelske flåde
                • Ørn (hulk, eks Ørn af Lübeck, købt 1592) - solgt 1683
                • Flirt (erhvervet 1592) - ikke navngivet efter 1592
                • Høg (efterforskningsfartøj, erhvervet 1593) - ikke opført efter 1593
                • Minnikin (erhvervet 1594) - ikke opført efter 1595
                • Francis (efterforskningsfartøj, erhvervet 1595) - fanget af Spanien 1595
                • Glimrende (erhvervet 1597) - ikke opført efter 1597
                • Daisy (pink, erhvervet 1599) - ikke opført efter 1599
                • Bjørn (bygget 1599) - ikke opført efter 1599
                • Opdagelse (efterforskningsfartøj, erhvervet 1600) - slettet 1620
                • Lion's Whelp (ketch, købt 1601) - givet væk 1625

                Store skibe, der eksisterede i 1618 Rediger

                  Skibe royal alle de anførte skibe (undtagen Prins Royal) var ombygninger af tidligere skibe
                    55 (1610) [4] - som, mens det var et nyt skib, blev bygget som en erstatning for det tidligere Sejr. 51 [5] (1599)- Solgt 1629 40/44 (1615)- Solgt 1650 [4] 42 (1608)- ex-Ark Royal, ødelagt 1636, refloated og BU 1638? [4]
                    40/48 (1610) - også kendt som Afvisning, BU 1645 [4] 38/40 (1615) - Solgt 1650 [4] 29 (1596) - Havneservice (konverteret til lighter) 1635 [4] 38 (1609) - også kendt som Løve, ombygget 1640 [4] (1615) - Ombygget 1631 [4] 40 (1617) - Sunk at Sheerness 1680 [4] 38 (1603) - Solgt c. 1645 [4]
                    30/32 (1614)-BU 1648 [4] 42 (1607)-ex- 'Swiftsure, tabt 1624 [4] 34/38 (1618) - Brændt 1649 [4]

                  Nye og ombyggede skibe, James I (1603–1625) Rediger

                  For første gang blev der under Stuart -monarkiet indledt en opdeling af flåden i forskellige kategorier. Den største af store skibe blev kategoriseret som skibe royal, mens resten blev grupperet som mellemstore skibe eller små skibe.
                  Noter det skibe royal under Charles I ville blive den første rang (senere første sats) skibe på samme måde, store skibe ville blive anden rang (senere anden sats) skibe mellemstore skibe ville blive den tredje rang (senere tredje sats) skibe og små skibe ville blive den fjerde rang (senere fjerde sats) skibe-senere at blive yderligere underopdelt (ca. 1650) i fjerde, femte og sjette sats.

                    Skibe royal (senere, skibe i første rang)
                      40 kanoner (1608) - en genopbygning af Ark Royal af 1587. 51 kanoner (1610) - en erstatning for (ikke en genopbygning af) den Sejr af 1560. 40 kanoner (1615) - en ombygning af skibet fra 1590.
                      34 kanoner (1605) - en anden genopbygning af Håber af 1559. 32 kanoner (1605) - en genopbygning af Nonpareil af 1584 (selv en genopbygning af Philip og Mary af 1556. 32 kanoner (1609) - en anden ombygning af Guldløve af 1557. 34 kanoner (1610) - en genopbygning af skibet i 1596. 34 kanoner (1613) - en genopbygning af skibet fra 1590. 34 kanoner (1615) - en genopbygning af skibet fra 1586. 34 kanoner (1615) - en ombygning af skibet fra 1586. 42 (1619) - Tilsluttede royalister juni 1648, tabte september 1651. [4] 42 (1620) - Ombygget 1666. [4] 42 (1621) - Ombygget 1654. [4] 42 ( 1622) - Omdøbt George 1649 men genoptog navn St. George 1660, hulked 1687 og derefter sænket som et blokskib 1697. [4] 42 (1622) - Omdøbt Andrew 1649 men genoptog navn Sankt Andrew 1660, ødelagt 1666. [4] 42 (1623) - Solgt 1688. [4]
                      29 kanoner (1607) - en anden genopbygning af Swiftsure af 1592. 28 kanoner (1614) - en anden ombygning af skibet fra 1573. 30 kanoner (1618) - en anden ombygning af skibet fra 1546. 28 (1619) - Brændt 1658 ved et uheld. [4] 28 (1620) - Fanget af Holland i slaget ved Dungeness, 1652. [4] 30 (1621) - Blæste op og sank i slaget ved Leghorn, 1653. [4] 30 kanoner (1620) - bygget som Skæbne for Sir Walter Ralegh i 1616 og erhvervet af flåden i 1620 - solgt i Lissabon af royalisterne 1650.
                      18 kanoner (1613) - ikke nævnt efter 1624. 26 (1623) - ødelagt 1650. [4]

                    Nye og ombyggede skibe, Charles I (1625–1642) Rediger

                    Bemærk, at denne liste kun omfattede den første del af Karls regeringstid foregående den engelske borgerkrig (dvs. op til 1642), efterfølgende erhvervelser er anført i det følgende afsnit.

                      Første rang (skibe royal)
                        102 (1637) - Omdøbt Suveræn, omdøbt Royal Sovereign, genopbygget 1660 [4] First Rank, 70 (genopbygget 1641) - Oprustet til 80, genopbygget igen 1663 [4]
                        Anden rang, 40 (genopbygget 1629) - Oprustet til 56 kanoner i 1660, sænket som en bølgebryder 1680. Anden rang, 40 (genopbygget 1631) - Oprustet til 56, ødelagt, solgt 1667 [4] 44 (1632) - Omdøbt Frihed 1649, ødelagt 1650 [4] 42 (1633) - Omdøbt Paragon 1650, mistet 1655 [4] 48 (c. 1634) - oprustet som 60 kanoner i 1660, solgt 1682 [4] 46 (1634) - oprustet som 56 kanoner i 1660, solgt 1688 [4]
                        34 (1634) [4] 34 (1635) - Fanget af Holland 1653 [4] Tredje rang, 40 (genopbygget 1640) - Ombygget igen 1658 [4]

                      Mindre skibe Rediger

                        10 (1636) - kollision 1641 [4] 12 (1636) - sprængt i aktion 1656 [4] 14/30 (1637) - solgt 1667 [4] 14/30 (1637) - ødelagt 1668 [4]

                      Erobrede skibe, 1625–1636 Rediger

                        (ex-fransk, fanget 1625) 38 (ex-fransk, fanget 1625) (ex-fransk, fanget 1625) (ex-fransk, fanget 1626) (ex-fransk, fanget 1626) (ex-fransk, fanget 1627) 42 (ex-hollandsk, fanget 1627 fra fransk) (ex-Dunkirker, fanget 1635)-nedsænket 1638 6 (ex-Dunkirker, fanget 1636)-solgt 1657

                      Mellemregistret mellem henrettelsen af ​​Karl I i 1649 og genoprettelsen af ​​kongelig autoritet i 1660 oplevede skibets line-skib og dets ansættelse under den første engelsk-hollandske krig. I løbet af denne periode blev den engelske flåde teknisk set først Commonwealth Navy, senere Protectorate Navy og efterfølgende Commonwealth Navy igen er præfikset "HMS" således ikke gældende for ethvert engelsk krigsskib under Interregnum.

                      Følgende lister inkluderer linjens skibe, dvs. fartøjer af den første, anden, tredje og fjerde sats, som blev vurderet egnet til at stå i slaglinjen. Mindre krigsskibe i femte og sjette sats, og de endnu mindre uklassificerede fartøjer, vises i det efterfølgende afsnit.

                      Under kategoriseringen som ændret i slutningen af ​​1653 var satserne baseret på antallet af mænd i det etablerede supplement til et skib som følger:

                      • Førsteklasses, 400 mand og derover.
                      • Anden sats, 300 mand og op til 399.
                      • Tredje sats, 200 mand og op til 299.
                      • Fjerde sats, 140 mand og op til 199.

                      Der var imidlertid mange undtagelser, og skibe ændrede deres rating fra tid til anden.

                      Antal hovedpistoler følger navn (se Royal Navy rating system) De større skibe er angivet på side 159–160 af The Ship of the Line bind I, af Brian Lavery, udgivet af Conways, 1983, 0-85177-252-8 og mere fuldstændigt i Britiske krigsskibe i en sejltid: 1603–1714, af Rif Winfield, udgivet af Seaforth Publishing, 2009, 978-1-84832-040-6. Mindre krigsskibe ("under stregen") er taget fra A History of the Administration on the Royal Navy (sic!) 1509–1660, af Michael Oppenheim, udgivet af Bodley Head, 1896, samt fra Winfields bog. De fregatter, der er anført her, er ikke den fartøjstype, der kaldes fregatter i det 18. og 19. århundrede. Udtrykket i det 17. århundrede betød et hurtigt fartøj med lav overbygning for at give mere stabilitet.

                      Første og anden sats (skibe med tre dæk) Rediger

                      Et program bestående af fire andelshastigheder på 60 kanoner hver blev vedtaget i 1654. Af disse fire skibe var imidlertid Naseby blev afsluttet som en første sats, mens Richard was reclassed as a first rate in 1660 (and renamed).

                        First rate
                          80 (1655) – Renamed Royal Charles 1660, captured by the Netherlands, 1667, BU. [6]
                          70 (1658) – Renamed Royal James 1660, burnt 1667. [6] 64 (1656) – Renamed Henry 1660, rearmed to 82, burnt by accident in 1682. [6] 64 (1656) – Blown up by accident in 1665. [6]

                        Early frigates (fourth rates) Edit

                          The 'first' English frigate
                            32 (1645) built as a private venture she was hired by the Navy from 1646, and purchased outright in 1649 – BU 1666 for rebuild [6]
                            32 (1646) – Sold 1698 [6] 34 (1646) – BU 1688 for rebuild [6] 34 (1646) – Wrecked 1664 [6]
                            32 (1647) – BU 1690 for rebuild [6] 32 (1647) – Burnt 1667 [6] 32 (1647) – Captured by the Netherlands at the Battle of Elba, 1652, recaptured 1652, wrecked 1664 [6] 32 (1647) – BU 1681 for rebuild [6]

                          Later frigates (third and fourth rates) Edit

                            Great frigate (second rate)
                              56 (c. 1651) – Wrecked 1652 [6]
                              52 (c. 1650) – Burnt 1653 [6] 50 (c. 1650) – Renamed Mary 1660 [6]
                              48 (c. 1651) – Renamed Dunkirk 1660 [6]
                              48 (c. 1653) – Captured by the Netherlands at the Four Days Battle, 1666 [6] 50 (1654) – Rearmed to 54, rearmed to 60, wrecked 1682 [6] 52 (c. 1653) [6] 52 (c. 1654) – Renamed Dreadnought 1660, rearmed to 62, sank 1690 [6] 52 (c. 1654) – Renamed Hævn 1660, condemned 1678 [6] 52 (c. 1654) – Renamed Anne 1660, blew up 1673 [6] 52 (c. 1654) – Renamed Montague 1660 [6] 52 (c. 1654) – Renamed York 1660, wrecked 1703 [6] 50 (c. 1654) – Renamed Henrietta 1660, wrecked 1689 [6] 52 (c. 1653) – Wrecked 1674 [6] 50 (c. 1654) – Renamed Løsning 1660, burnt at the St. James' Day Battle, 1666 [6]
                              52 (c. 1659) [6]
                              34 (1650) – Blew up 1689 [6] 34 (1650) – Renamed Bonaventure 1660 [6]
                              34 (1650) – Wrecked 1698 [6] 34 (1650) [6] 34 (1650) [6] 34 (1650) [6] 34 (1650) – Burnt 1656 [6] 34 (1650) – Wrecked 1689 [6]
                              34 (1651) – Rearmed to 46, wrecked 1657 [6] 34 (1651) – Wrecked 1671 [6] 38/40 (1653) – Rearmed to 44 [6]
                              40 (1651) – Captured by France at the Battle at The Lizard, 1707 [6] 40 (1652) – Captured by France 1693 [6]
                              40 (1652) – Renamed Kent 1660, wrecked 1672 [6] 38/40 (1652) – Rearmed to 46, blew up 1653 [6] 40 (1653) – Burnt to avoid capture 1692 [6] 38 (1653) – Rearmed to 46 [6]
                              38/40 (1653) – Renamed Sluge 1660, wrecked 1692 [6] 40 (1653) – Renamed Antelope 1660, sold 1693 [6] 38/40 (1654) – Renamed Bredah 1660, wrecked 1666 [6] 38/40 (1654) – Captured by France 1691 [6] 40/48 (1654) – Renamed Mary Rose 1660, – Captured by France 1691 [6] 40 (1654) – Renamed krone 1660, rearmed to 48 [6] 40 (1654) – Rearmed to 48 [6]
                              44 (1653) – Wrecked 1703 [6] 44 (1653) – BU 1680 [6] 44 (1654) – Renamed Happy Return 1660, captured by France 1691 [6] 44 (1659) – Scuttled 1699 [6] 44 (1660) – BU 1680 [6]

                            Major rebuilds Edit

                              100 (1660) – Rebuilt 1685 [6] 60 (1654) – Captured by the Dutch 1667 [6] 48 (c. 1658) – re-armed at 60 by 1677. Sold 1698 [6]

                            Captures of the First Anglo-Dutch War Redigere

                            The following list covers only the major vessels, all taken from the Dutch and added to the Commonwealth Navy as fourth rates several dozen further small vessels were also captured from the Dutch during this war, and added to the Protectorate Navy, usually as fifth rate or sixth rate vessels.

                              36 (ex-Dutch, captured 1652) – captured by Dutch privateers 1654. 36 (ex-Dutch Hasewind, captured 1652) – hulked 1656 and sold 1660. 38 (ex-Dutch Prinses Royaal Maria, captured 1652) – wrecked 1658. 30 (ex-Dutch Dolfijn, captured 1652) – sold 1657. 38 (ex-Dutch Sophia, captured 1652) – sold 1667. 36 (ex-Dutch Ooievaar, captured 1652) – Hulked 1653 and sold 1663. 44 (ex-Dutch, captured 1652) – Hulked 1653 and broken up 1672. 36 (ex-Dutch, captured 1652) – Sold 1656. 36 (ex-Dutch, captured 1652) – Expended as fireship 1673. 32 (ex-Dutch, captured 1652) – burnt by fireship 1653. 36 (ex-Dutch Beer, captured 1652) – given to Ordnance Board 1666. 32 (ex-Dutch, captured 1652) – Sold 1657. 32 (ex-Dutch Samsun, captured 1652) – Sold 1658. 36 (ex-Dutch Fortun, captured 1652) – Sold 1658. 38 (ex-Dutch Zwarte Raaf, captured 1653) – Sold 1654. /Estridge (ex-Dutch Vogelstruys, captured 1653) – hulked 1653, and sunk as a breakwater 1679. 36 (ex-Dutch Vergulde Haan, captured 1653) – Sold 1656. 44 (ex-Dutch Groote Liefde, captured 1653) – recaptured by Netherlands 1665. 38 (ex-Dutch Gecroonde Liefde, captured 1653) – Sold 1656. 36 (ex-Dutch Elias, captured 1653) – Wrecked 1664. 38 (ex-Dutch Westergo, captured 1653) – foundered 1664. 38 (ex-Dutch Sint Mattheus, captured 1653) – Burnt by the Dutch 1667. 34 (ex-Dutch Halve Maan, captured 1653) – sold 1660. 32 (ex-Dutch Rozeboom, captured 1653) – hulked 1664 and sold 1668. 44 (ex-Dutch East Indiaman Roos van Amsterdam, captured 1654) – Sold 1660.

                            Captures from the Royalists Edit

                              30 (ex-Royalist Charles, captured 1649, ex-merchantman Guinea Frigate) – Sold 1667. 30 (ex-Royalist Crowned Lion, captured 1650) – Sold 1658. 32 (ex-Royalist Saint Michael, captured 1651, ex-merchantman Archangel San Miguel) – Sold 1667 42 (ex-Royalist Revenge of Whitehall, captured 1652, ex-merchantman Marmaduke) – sunk as a blockship 1667.

                            Captures from the Portuguese Edit

                              44 (ex-Portuguese, probably the Nossa Senhora da Natividade) – Captured October 1650. There is a small possibility that this may be the same ship as the earlier Convertine of 1620, which had been left behind in Lisbon by the Royalist fleet, but most experts are sceptical. Captured by the Netherlands 1666, and then retaken from the Netherlands by a Scottish privateer in 1667, but not returned to the Royal Navy.
          • A second Portuguese ship, the São Pedro de Lisboa, was also captured in October 1650, but was not added to the English Commonwealth Navy.
          • Captures from the French Edit

              38 (ex-French Jules) – captured 1650, renamed Old Success 1660 and sold 1662 36 (ex-French Croissant) – captured 1652 and sold 1656. 36 (ex-French Don de Dieu) – captured 1652 and expended as a fireship 1666. 36 (ex-French Fortunee) – captured 1652 and sold 1654.

            Other ships Edit

            For ships-of-the-line of the Royal Navy, successor to the Protectorate Navy after 1660, see List of ships of the line of the Royal Navy

            In principle, vessels with an established complement of fewer than 150 were classed (from late 1653) as fifth rate (with between 80 and 139 men), sixth rate (with between 50 and 79 men), or as unrated (with fewer than 50 men). However, there were numerous exceptions, and a large number of vessels changed categories during their service lives.

            • Purchased vessels of the 1640s.
              • Cygnet 18, purchased 1643, sold 1654.
              • Hector 22, purchased 1644, sold 1656.
              • Fellowship 28, captured from Royalists 1643, sold 1662.
              • Warwick 22, captured from Royalists 1643, sold 1660.
              • Globus 24, captured from Royalists 1644, sold 1648.
              • Swann 12, captured from Royalists 1645, wrecked 1653.
              • Satisfaction 20, purchased 1646, wrecked 1662.
                22, built 1651, sunk as a breakwater 1697. 22, built 1651, rebuilt 1689. 22, built 1651, wrecked 1656. 22, built 1651, wrecked 1674.
              • 14, built 1652, sold 1691. 14, built 1652, captured by the Dutch 1665. 14, built 1652, sold 1667.
          • 22, built 1654, sunk 1667. 22, built 1654, wrecked 1655. 22, built 1654, renamed Milford 1660, burnt 1673. 22, built 1654, renamed Ørn 1660, sunk as a breakwater 1694. 22, built 1654, renamed Guernsey 1660, taken to pieces 1693. 22, built 1654, renamed Garland 1660, sold 1698.
        • 22, built 1655, wrecked 1682. 22, built 1655, foundered 1667 after collision. 22, built 1655, wrecked 1690. 22, built 1656, renamed Speedwell 1660, wrecked 1676. 22, built 1656, renamed Richmond 1660, sold 1698. 22, built 1656, destroyed in explosion 1669.
      • 22, built 1657, destroyed in explosion 1672. 24, built 1658, renamed Success 1660, wrecked 1680.
  • (note these six were ketch-rigged, three being classed as sixth rates and three being unrated)


    The Slave Ship Jesus

    JESUS: Horror, despair, suffering, slavery, torture, captivity. The first British slave ship to reach the Americas was known as The Good Ship Jesus.

    King Henry VIII first purchased the 700-ton vessel, then christened Jesus of Lubeck, from Lubeck in Germany. In 1562, Queen Elizabeth agreed to let John Hawkins use the mouldering ship for his excursion.

    A deeply religious gentleman, Hawkins insisted that his crew “serve God daily” and “love one another” as he sailed his ship for Africa. In a short time he had gathered up over 300 Africans “partly by sword and partly by other means.” The other means included promising them free land and riches in the new world.

    Interesting, that. Hawkins had been granted permission to carry Africans to the Americas with the distinct understanding that it would only be “with their own free consent.” Still, he returned home with a handsome profit and ships laden with ivory, hides, and sugar. Queen Elizabeth was livid. She insisted Hawkins’ new business was absolutely detestable and would certainly “call down vengeance from heaven.” Until she realized how profitable it was, that is. Then she quickly changed her tune and joined Hawkins as a full partner. Soon the new slave ship became known as The Good Ship Jesus.

    In 1567, The Good Ship Jesus and five other ships on yet another slaving expedition came up against the Spaniards at St Juan d’Ulloa in New Spain (Mexico). Since the slave trade was still illegal, it was the habit of Spanish colonists to provoke the British ships into a charade of force. After a fair show, they would drop the pretense and buy slaves at a discount. But this time the Spanish attacked the British ships. The Good Ship Jesus, old and cumbersome, sank and the crew was slaughtered. Hawkins escaped with his cousin, Sir Frances Drake.

    Hawkins returned to England where he remained in the service of the Queen. In 1588, after gaining distinction for his pivotal role in defeating the Spanish Armada, he was knighted Sir John Hawkins.

    As for the British slave trade, the rest is bitter history.

    JESUS: Forgivingess. God with us.

    “Consenting to slavery is a sacrilegious breach of trust, as offensive in the sight of God as it is derogatory from our own honor.

    John Adams


    Jesus of Lübeck, the first slave ship to arrive in Africa in 1562

    Jesus of Lübeck, the first British slave ship to arrive in Africa. The ship was chartered by Queen Elizabeth I to a group of merchants in 1563.

    Jesus of Lübeck was an early 16th-century carrack built in the Free City of Lübeck. Around 1540 Henry VIII, King of England, bought the ship, which had previously been used for ceremonial purposes, to expand his fleet.

    During the 1545 French invasion of the Isle of Wight the ship saw action. In an unsuccessful attempt to raise the flagship of Henry VIII, Mary Rose, she and Samson were used after she created during the Battle of the Solent.

    Jesus of Lübeck | Picture by Pinterest

    She was later chartered by Queen Elizabeth I to a group of merchants in 1563. Jesus of Lübeck became involved in the Atlantic slave trade under John Hawkins, who organized four trips between 1562 and 1568 to West Africa and the West Indies.

    300-500 Africans in the Dominican Republic were dropped as slaves by the Jesus.

    Jesus encountered a Spanish fleet off San Juan de Ulúa (modern day Vera Cruz, Mexico) in September 1568 along with some other English ships on the last voyage.

    Jesus was captured by Spanish forces in the resulting battle. The badly damaged vessel later was sold to a local merchant for 601 ducats.




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    Ja. Sir John Hawkins had the dubious distinction of becoming the first slave-ship captain to bring Africans to the Americas. Hawkins was a religious gentleman who insisted that his crew “serve God daily” and “love another”. His ship, ironically called “the good ship Jesus,” left the shores of his native England for Africa in October 1562. He arrived at Sierra Leone, and in a short time he had three hundred blacks in his possession. Hawkins claimed to have acquired them “partly by sword and partly by other means.”

    The Good Ship Jesus | The Beginning of the British Slave Trade

    What has come to be referred to as "The Good Ship Jesus" was in fact the "Jesus of Lubeck," a 700-ton ship purchased by King Henry VIII from the Hanseatic League, a merchant alliance between the cities of Hamburg and Lubeck in Germany. Twenty years after its purchase the ship, in disrepair, was leant to Sir John Hawkins by Queen Elizabeth.

    Hawkins, a cousin of Sir Francis Drake, was granted permission from Queen Elizabeth for his first voyage in 1562. He was allowed to carry Africans to the Americas "with their own free consent" and he agreed to this condition. Hawkins had a reputation for being a religious man who required his crew to "serve God daily" and to love one another. Sir Francis Drake accompanied Hawkins on this voyage and subsequent others. Drake, was himself, devoutly religious. Services were held on board twice a day.

    John Hawkins Coat of Arms
    A bound slave adorns John Hawkins' coat of arms.
    Off the coast of Africa, near Sierra Leone, Hawkins captured 300-500 slaves, mostly by plundering Portugese ships, but also through violence and subterfuge promising Africans free land and riches in the new world. He sold most of the slaves in what is now known as the Dominican Republic. He returned home with a profit and ships laden with ivory, hides, and sugar. Thus began the British slave trade.

    On his return to England Queen Elizabeth, livid, assailed Hawkins charging that his endeavor, ", was detestable and would call down vengeance from heaven upon the undertakers." When Elizabeth became fully aware, however, of the profits to be made she joined in partnership with Hawkins and provided him with the "Jesus of Lubeck," a.k.a., "The Good Ship Jesus."

    A later slaving expedition in 1567, consisting of five ships and the "Jesus of Lubeck," met with resistance from the Spaniards at St Juan d'Ulloa in Mexico. Since the slave trade was illegal Spanish colonists usually required a charade of force from British ships, after which they would buy slaves at a discount. This time, however, the Spanish attacked the British ships and the "Jesus of Lubeck," cumbersome and difficult to maneuver, was sunk and the crew slaughtered. Hawkins escaped with Drake on a smaller ship.

    Hawkins, his piratic ambitions dashed, returned to England and remained there in the service of the Queen. He gained distinction for his pivotal role in defeating the Spanish Armada and was knighted in 1588.

    Imaginary being the keyword

    You do know that Jesus is a very common name in Latin America where this ship was headed?
    It has nothing to do with the name of Christ.

    Ironically one of the Portugese ships that Hawkins plundered for slaves was called the Madre De Deus (The Mother of God).

    i even hear say the ancient song ''amazing grace'' was first sung in a slave ship by a slave master/clergy whose slave ship was sinking and he was rescued by the slaves who obviously were wonder swimmers (those slaves may have been from the south south of naija )

    @pres-elect

    Another good one ! His name was Captain Newton and his ship was called the Grace of God.

    You guys are cracking me up.

    LMAO.

    Since the slave-master is an enemy of the slave, if the slave prays to the same God as the master, he is praying to the God that enabled the slavemaster to enslave him. Therefore, that God is the enemy of the slave or captive just as the slave-master is.

    Are we seriously supposed to solve this riddle Oya, give me one sec,
    * Getting down on my knees
    *closes eyes and proceeds to ask God
    *Opens one eye, looks up @Horus and whispers
    * Abeg hold on, am still waiting for reply

    When those slave ships park at a port with their mortars aimed at a village, their captain pops out and demands slaves. What do u expect the people to do?

    ''No we have no slaves'' could mean annihilation for them and their little village.

    The oyibo captain then says to their king. Here's a deal: I'll give you a thousand guns. Go capture slaves from the neighbouring village, or your village is history by tomorrow morning.

    Before you know it, katataka all over the land. The trade then spirals, as each town and village falls into the web of fear, greed, and inhumanity.

    i even hear say the ancient song ''amazing grace'' was first sung in a slave ship by a slave master/clergy whose slave ship was sinking and he was rescued by the slaves who obviously were wonder swimmers (those slaves may have been from the south south of naija )

    As these things go, the trade generally takes on a life of its own as more people and regions become dependent on its operation to maintain their power and position. Whatever you claim is happening today of course, is even less than a trickle in comparison to the ancient trade.

    These things have a way of not vanishing overnight. Instead steady reduction is often the way it goes.

    i will take your advise not to blame evil on religion, but why do people who claim to be religious throw away religion in their mind when they want to do evil? are thy truly religious, or they re mere pretenders? or should we blame them and or the religion that does no rehabilitate their mind firmly enough to remind them and stear them away from evil?

    i will be assume that these people were not christians, but only by lips and not from the heart.

    ^^ please do not be an irritant today.

    pres-elect:
    i even hear say the ancient song ''amazing grace'' was first sung in a slave ship by a slave master/clergy whose slave ship was sinking and he was rescued by the slaves who obviously were wonder swimmers (those slaves may have been from the south south of naija )

    U ar right. His name is JOHN NEWTON

    His name WAS John Newton, but he didn't sing it on a slave ship. He wrote it in 1772, many years after he had turned to God during that storm (1748), abandoned the slave trade(1754) and become a clergyman (1764).

    "Several retellings of Newton's life story claim that he was carrying slaves during the voyage in which he experienced his conversion, but the ship was carrying livestock, wood, and beeswax from the coast of Africa. (Aitken, p. 76.)

    While aboard the ship Greyhound, Newton gained notoriety for being one of the most profane men the captain had ever met. In a culture where sailors commonly used oaths and swore, Newton was admonished several times for not only using the worst words the captain had ever heard, but creating new ones to exceed the limits of verbal debauchery.[11] In March 1748, while the Greyhound was in the North Atlantic, a violent storm came upon the ship that was so rough it swept overboard a crew member who was standing where Newton had been moments before.[d] After hours of the crew emptying water from the ship and expecting to be capsized, Newton and another mate tied themselves to the ship's pump to keep from being washed overboard, working for several hours.[12] After proposing the measure to the captain, Newton had turned and said, "If this will not do, then Lord have mercy upon us!"[13][14] Newton rested briefly before returning to the deck to steer for the next eleven hours. During his time at the wheel he pondered his divine challenge.[12]

    About two weeks later, the battered ship and starving crew landed in Lough Swilly, Ireland. For several weeks before the storm, Newton had been reading The Christian's Pattern, a summary of the 15th-century The Imitation of Christ by Thomas à Kempis. The memory of the uttered phrase in a moment of desperation did not leave him he began to ask if he was worthy of God's mercy or in any way redeemable as he had not only neglected his faith but directly opposed it, mocking others who showed theirs, deriding and denouncing God as a myth. He came to believe that God had sent him a profound message and had begun to work through him.[15]" - Wikipedia

    Bastage: You do know that Jesus is a very common name in Latin America where this ship was headed?
    It has nothing to do with the name of Christ.

    Ironically one of the Portugese ships that Hawkins plundered for slaves was called the Madre De Deus (The Mother of God).

    Mother of God. that's ur Mary dude

    All surrounds ur Christian principles

    Christianity and Islam were crucial advocates of the slave trade

    Though offensive, this is the vid that brought me to this site (via my research & fact-checking).


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vLwUA3CHumk&list=UUtlfyd1Xs9CtxfBNP9_IgAw&index=55

    I know there's a rule against adverts, but I recommend Dusty Smith's YouTube channel, Cult Of Dusty. He destroys religion in very humourous ways, and he's in my top five YouTuber list. He's very, very controversial, vulgar, passionate and outspoken, and his presentation is hilarious. Give him a chance.

    Mother of God. that's ur Mary dude

    All surrounds ur Christian principles

    Christianity and Islam were crucial advocates of the slave trade

    Bastage: You do know that Jesus is a very common name in Latin America where this ship was headed?
    It has nothing to do with the name of Christ.

    Ironically one of the Portugese ships that Hawkins plundered for slaves was called the Madre De Deus (The Mother of God).

    I really wonder if people think before write.

    This is probably going to be the st.u.pid.est excuse this month or even this year.

    So, my friend, you are telling us here with your bare face that in the 1500s, Jesus was a very common name in what we now call Latin America

    And the naming of the first slaveship "The good ship Jesus" had nothing to do with Jesus ?

    Gosh! The lenght of stu.pi.dity that people go to just to defend a fake religion.

    I am embarrassed.
    Where did you go to school, by the way?
    Refunds are clearly overdue.

    I really wonder if people think before write.

    This is probably going to be the st.u.pid.est excuse this month or even this year.

    So, my friend, you are telling us here with your bare face that in the 1500s, Jesus was a very common name in what we now call Latin America

    And the naming of the first slaveship "The good ship Jesus" had nothing to do with Jesus ?

    Gosh! The lenght of stu.pi.dity that people go to just to defend a fake religion.

    I am embarrassed.
    Where did you go to school, by the way?
    Refunds are clearly overdue.


    Was “Jesus” the name of the first slave ship?

    The African Muslims, also known as Moors, even took Europeans as slaves for a time because they were Christians and would not convert to Islam. Christian Europeans would in turn enslave Moors when they captured Muslims during their battles. In fact, Christopher Columbus was aided by a Moor named Pedro Alonso Niño whose mother was a slave in Spain. After Columbus’ findings, a European Christian named John Hawkins sought to make a profit by trading slaves. He had a ship named “Jesus of Lubeck” which he used to transport slaves that he says he obtained “partly by the sword and partly by other means” into the Americas to trade with the Spaniards. Others realized Hawkins discovered a black gold mine. While Hawkins captured many of his slaves by battle with Moors, later European slave traders found it more profitable to trade goods with the Moors for their slaves. Valentim Fernandes even noted about trading alcohol when commenting on a group with Muslims in it saying, they were “drunkards who derive great pleasure from our wine.” This is when Hebrews who would not convert to Islam would have begun to be traded before this many of the slaves from Africa were Moors who were taken by Christians as prisoners of war. But when rum that came from the Americas was used, along with other alcoholic beverages, to obtain slaves the Moors began to trade Hebrew prisoners for goods from the Europeans. Just as it was prophesied by Joel.


    Jesus of Lübeck

    Fra Wikipedia den gratis encyklopædi

    Jesus of Lübeck was a carrack built in the Free City of Lübeck in the early 16th century. Around 1540 the ship, which had mostly been used for representative purposes, was acquired by Henry VIII, King of England, to augment his fleet. The ship saw action during the French invasion of the Isle of Wight in 1545. She along with Samson were used in an unsuccessful attempt to raise Henry VIII’s flagship, Mary Rose, after she foundered during the Battle of the Solent. She was later chartered to a group of merchants in 1563 by Queen Elizabeth I. Jesus of Lübeck became involved in the Atlantic slave trade and smuggling under John Hawkins, who organized four voyages to West Africa and the West Indies between 1562 and 1568. During the last voyage, Jesus, along with several other English ships, encountered a Spanish fleet off San Juan de Ulúa (modern day Vera Cruz, Mexico) in September 1568. In the resulting battle, Jesus was disabled and captured by Spanish forces. The heavily damaged ship was later sold for 601 ducats to a local merchant.


    Se videoen: Carrack!! (Juni 2022).