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Charter Of Rhode Island [1663] - Historie

Charter Of Rhode Island [1663] - Historie


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JCharles den anden ...: der henviser til, at vi er blevet informeret af den ydmyge begæring fra vores troværdige og elskede emne, John Clarke, på vegne af Benjamine Arnold, William Brenton, William Codington, Nicholas Easton, William Boulston, John Porter, John Smith, Samuell Groton, John Weeks, Roger Williams, Thomas Olnie, Gregorie Dexter, John Cogeshall, Joseph Clarke, Randall Holden, John Greene, John Roome, Samuell Wildbore, William Ffield, James Barker, Richard Tew, Thomas Harris og William Dyre og resten af ​​køberne og gratis indbyggere på vores ø, kaldet Rhode Island og resten af ​​kolonien i Providence Plantations, i Narragansett Bay, i New England, i Amerika, som de forfulgte med fredelige og loyale sind, deres ædru, alvorlige og religiøse hensigter, om at opbygge sig selv og hinanden i den kristne tro og worshipp, da de blev overbevist: sammen med overtagelsen og omvendelsen af ​​de fattige uvidende indianere atives, i de dele af Amerika, til den oprigtige profession og lydighed af den samme tro og tilbedelse, gjorde det ikke kun ved samtykke og god opmuntring fra vores kongelige forfædre, transporterede sig ud af dette kongedømme i England til Amerika, men også, siden deres ankomst der, efter deres første bosættelse blandt andre vores undersåtter i disse dele, for at undgå discorde og de manieevner, der sandsynligvis ville følge af, at nogle af disse vore emner ikke var i stand til at bære i disse fjerntliggende partes, er de forskellige bekymringer i religiøse bekymringer, og i forlængelse af de foresayd ender, forlod de igen deres ønskværdige stationer og beboelser, og med overdreven arbejdskraft og rejse, fare og ladning, transplanterede de sig ind i de mellemste af de indiske indfødte, som, som wee er informeret, er de mest potente fyrster og mennesker i hele det land; hvor de ved Guds gode Tilsyn, fra hvem Plantageerne har taget deres Navn, på deres Arbejde og Industrier ikke først har bevaret dem til Beundring, men er tiltaget og fremgang og beslaglagt og besat ved Køb og Samtykke fra sagde indfødte, til deres fulde indhold, af sådanne jorder, øer, floder, havne og gader, som det er meget bekvemt, både for plantager og også for opbygning af skibe, mængder af typestænger og andre varer; og som lutter meget rigtigt, i mange henseender, for handel og for at imødekomme vores sydlige plantager, og meget kan fremme handelen med dette vort rige og meget kunne udvide dets områder; de har, i nærheden af ​​naboskab til og venligt samfund med Narragansett -indianernes store bodie, givet dem opmuntring af deres egen akkorde, til at underkaste sig selv, deres folk og Andes, for os; hvorved der som håbet i rette tid ved Guds velsignelse over deres bestræbelser kan være et sikkert fundament for lykke for hele Amerika: Og hvorimod de i deres ydmyge adresse frit har erklæret, at det er meget på deres hjerter (hvis de måtte få lov), til at fremføre et livelie -eksperiment, at en mest blomstrende civill -stat kan stå og bedst bibeholdes, og det blandt vores engelske undersåtter med fuld frihed i religiøse bekymringer; og at den sande fromhed med rette er baseret på evangeliske principper, vil give suverænitetens bedste og største sikkerhed og vil lægge i menneskers hjerter de stærkeste forpligtelser over for ægte loyalitet: Nu ved du, at vi vil være med til at opmuntre til et håbefuldt foretagende af vores sagde loyale og elskede emner, og for at sikre dem i fri motion og nydelse af alle deres civill og religiøse rettigheder, der tilhører dem, som vores kærlige undersåtter; og for at bevare dem, som libertye, i den sande kristne tro og gudstjeneste, som de har søgt med meget travaill og med fredelige billeder og loyale underkastelse til vores kongelige stamfædre og os selv, for at nyde; og fordi nogle af mennesker og indbyggere i den samme koloni ikke kan; i deres private meninger, i overensstemmelse med den offentlige religionsudøvelse i henhold til liturgien, formerne og ceremonierne i Englands Kirke, eller aflægge eller abonnere på de eder og artikler, der er lavet og etableret i denne side; og derfor vil det samme, på grund af de fjerne afstande mellem disse steder, (som vi håber) være noget brud på enhed og unifformitie, der er etableret i denne nation:. gør hermed. erklære, at vores royale vilje og fornøjelse er, at en eller anden person inden for den nævnte koloni, i enhver tid herefter, skal blive klogt på nogen måde klogt, straffet, bekymret eller kaldet i tvivl om eventuelle meningsforskelle i spørgsmål om religion og gør faktisk ikke forstyrre borgerfreden i vores sagt koloni; men at alle og enhver person og personer kan fra timme til timme og i det hele taget timerne herefter frit og fuldt ud have og nyde hans og deres egne domme og samvittigheder i spørgsmål om religiøse bekymringer i hele den herom nævnte lande; de opfører sig fredeligt og stille, og bruger ikke denne frihed til Icentiousnesse og profanenesse, ej heller til civill skade eller ydre forstyrrelse af andre; enhver lov, statut eller klausul, der bestrider, eller skal bee contayne, brug eller pleje af dette rige, tværtimod herom, på nogen måde uanset. Og at de kan være bedre i stand til at forsvare sig selv, i deres retfærdige rettigheder og friheder mod alle fjender af den kristne tro og andre i alle henseender. yderligere . erklære, at de skal have og beordre fordelen ved vores sene skadesløs handling og fri benådning, som resten af ​​vores undersåtter i andre vores herredømme og territorier har; og at skabe og gøre dem til en bodye politique eller virksomhed med de kræfter og privilegier, der i det følgende er nævnt. Og i overensstemmelse hermed. wee. doe ordeyne, konstituerer og erklærer, at de, sagde William Brenton. [og andre] . og alle andre, som nu er, eller herefter skal bee optages og gøres gratis af selskabet og samfundet i vores samling af Providence Plantations, i Narragansett Bay, i NewEngland, skal bi, fra timme til timme, og for evigt herefter, en bodie virksomhed og politik,. ved navn The Governor and Company of the English Collonie of Rhode Island og Providence Plantations i New England i Amerika ... og yderligere, wee ... doe erklære. at . der skal være en guvernør, en deputy guvernør og ti assistenter, der skal bi fra timme til timme. valgt, ud af frimændene i det nævnte selskab, til timmen, på den måde og i den form, der er beskrevet i de følgende gaver; . og. wee doe. fortalte den førnævnte Benedict Arnold at være de første og nuværende guvernører i sayd Company, og William William Brenton til at være viceguvernøren og William Boulston, John Porter, Roger Williams, Thomas Olnie, John Smith, John Greene, John Cogseshall , James Barker, William Ffeild og Joseph Clarke, for at være de mange nuværende assistenter for den nævnte Companye .... og videre, wee. doe ordeyne. at guvernøren i det nævnte selskab, for timen eller, i hans fravær,. viceguvernøren,. skal og kan fra timme til timme ved alle lejligheder give ordre til sammensætningen af ​​det nævnte selskab og kalde dem sammen for at konsultere og rådgive om virksomheden og forholdene i det nævnte selskab. og det for evigt herefter, to gange om året, det vil sige hver første onsdag i maj måned og hver sidste onsdag i oktober eller oftere, hvis det er nødvendigt, assistenterne og sådanne Frimænd i virksomheden, ikke overstige seks personer til Newport, fire personer for hver af de respektive byer Providence, Portsmouth og Warwicke, og to personer for hinanden sted, slæb eller by, hvem der skal være, fra timme til timme, derpå valgt eller deputeret af den store del af frimændene i de respektive byer eller steder, for hvilke de skal vælges eller deputeres, skal have en generalforsamling eller forsamling der og da for at rådgive, rådgive og bestemme i og om affærer og forretninger af det nævnte selskab og plantager. og videre, wee doe. gribede til den sagde Governour og Company. at guvernøren. [eller viceguvernør]. ., Assistenterne og sådanne fra Frimændene i det nævnte Kompagni, som skal bee soe som ovennævnte valgt eller deputeret, eller ville mange af dem, som skal være tilstede ved et sådant Møde eller Assemblye, som afforesayde, skal kaldes General Assemblye; og at de, eller den største del af dem, der er til stede, hvoraf guvernøren eller vicestatsguvernøren og seks af assistenterne, i det mindste for at være syv, skal have. fuld magt [og] autoritet. at ændre, ændre og ændre sådanne dage, tider og møder og generalforsamlinger, som de skal tænke på; og videre. .wee doe. ordeyne, den årgang, ...: den ovennævnte onsdag i maj og ved bugten i Newport eller andre steder, hvis det haster med lejlighed, kræver det, guvernøren, stedfortrædende guvernør og assistenter i det nævnte selskab og andre officerer i det nævnte selskab, eller sådanne af dem, som generalforsamlingen skal tænke ffitt, skal i den nævnte generaldomstol eller forsamling, der skal holdes fra den dag eller den tid, nyvalgt for året, der følger af en sådan større del af det nævnte selskab, for timen være, som skal være der og da til stede; . Ikke desto mindre er vores vilje og glæde, og vi erklærer hermed over for resten af ​​os (Collonies i NewEngland, at det ikke vil være lovligt for denne vores sagt Collony. At invadere de indfødte, der bor inden for grænserne og grænserne af deres sayed Collonies uden de andre Colloniers viden og samtykke. Og det erklæres herved, at det ikke må være lovligt for eller for resten af ​​Collonies at invadere eller forulempe de indfødte indianere eller andre indbyggere, der bor inden for grænserne og Iymitts herefter nævnt (de har underkastet sig os, ahd blev taget af os i vores særlige beskyttelse), uden kendskab og samtykke fra guvernøren og kompagniet i vores koloni af Rhode-øen og Providence Plantations .... Og videre, kender I, at vi. giver, støtter og bekræfter den sigte guvernør og kompagni og deres efterfølgere, alt det parti af vores herredømmer i New-England, i Amerika, der konstituerer Nahantick og Nanhyganset Bay, og countryes og partes tilstødende, afgrænset mod vest eller vestlig, til midten eller kanalen af ​​en flod der, almindeligvis kaldet og kendt under navnet Pawcatuck, alias Pawcawtuck river, og soe langs sayd floden, som den større eller midterste streame deraf når eller Iyes vpp ind i det nordlige land, nordpå, til dens hoved, og derfra, ved en streight Iyne ​​drawne ret nord, indtil den møder South Iyne ​​i Massachusetts Collonie; og mod nord eller nordpå ved den ovennævnte sydlige eller sydlige lyne af Massachusetts Collony eller Plantation og strækker sig mod øst eller mod øst tre engelske miles mod øst og nordøst for de mest østlige og nordøstlige dele af den ovennævnte Narragansett -bugte, som den sigte bugt lyder eller strækker sig fra havet mod syd eller mod syd til flodmundingen, der løber mod forsynets slæb, og derfra langs østsiden eller banken af ​​Sayden flod (højere kaldet ved navnet Seacunck -flod), op til ffalerne kaldet Patuckett ffalls, der er den mest vestlige Iyne ​​i Plymouth Collony, og soe fra sayd Falls, i en streight lyne, nordpå, indtil den møder ovennævnte lyne fra Massachusetts Collony; og afgrænset mod syd af havet: og især landområderne tilhørende byerne Providence, Pawtuxet, Warwicke, Misquammacok, alias Pawcatuck og resten på det _maine land i ovennævnte traktat sammen med RhodeIsland, Blocke-Island , og alle resten af ​​øerne og bredderne i Narragansett -bugten, og der grænser op til kysten af ​​den nævnte kanal (Ffisher's Island undtaget kun),. ethvert problem eller en klausul i en sen graunt, til Governour og Company i Connecticutt Collony, i. Amerika, modsat dette på nogen måde uanset; . og endvidere er vores vilje og glæde, at det i alle spørgsmål om offentlig kontrovers, der kan falde ud mellem vores Collony of Providence Plantations, og resten af ​​vores Collonies i New-England, skal og kan være lovligt for og for guvernøren og Selskab af den nævnte Collony of Providence Plantations for at gøre deres appeller deri til os. ., for oprejsning i sådanne tilfælde, inden for dette vores rige i England: og at det skal være lovligt for og for indbyggerne i den nævnte koloni. ., uden udlejning eller overgreb, at passere og omplacere med frihed, til og gennem resten af ​​de engelske kollonier, ved deres lovlige og borgerlige lejligheder, og for at tale og holde handel og handel med sådanne af indbyggerne i vores andre engelske Collonies som vil være villige til at indrømme dem derfor, de opfører sig fredeligt blandt dem ....


Rhode Island History Tidslinje

Omkring 6000 fvt ankommer de første mennesker, der bebo den geografiske region, der senere ville blive Rhode Island, efter at de var vandret over landbroen mellem Asien og Nordamerika. I tusinder af år før europæisk ankomst omfatter indianerne, der bor i regionen, stammerne Nipmuc, Pequot, Wampanoag og Narragansett.

Rhode Island, der kun måler cirka 48 miles lang og 37 miles bred, er den mindste af de amerikanske stater.

17. århundrede Rhode Island History tidslinje

1614 - Den hollandske opdagelsesrejsende Adriaen Block besøgte den ø, der nu er opkaldt efter ham.
1634 - William Blackstone var den første bosætter på Rhode Island.
1636 - Providence blev grundlagt som en bosættelse på Rhode Island af Roger Williams.
1638 - Portsmouth -kompakten blev underskrevet. Et billede af plaketten i Founders Park, Portsmouth taget i maj 1997 af Elliot J. Wilcox (98 kb).
1639 - Newport Compact, der dannede grundlaget for forliget, blev underskrevet i april af John Clarke, William Coddington, William Dyer, Nicholas Easton, John Coggeshall, William Brenton, Henry Bull, Jeremy Clarke og Thomas Hazard.
1643 - Samuel Gorton grundlagde Shawomet, Rhode Islands fjerde bosættelse. Byen fik navnet Warwick et par år senere til ære for jarlen af ​​Warwick.
1643-44 - Navnet på Aquidneck ændret til "øen Rhodos eller Rhode Island."
1652 - Første registrering af afrikanske slaver.
1663 - Charles II bevilgede chartret fra Rhode Island & amp; Providence Plantations 8. juli. Det forblev forfatningen indtil 1842.
1664 - Segl af kolonien "Mottoe, Rhode Island og Providence, med ordet HOPE over hoved på anker."
1675 - Det afgørende slag i Kong Filips Krig blev udkæmpet mod Narragansetten.

18. århundrede Rhode Island History tidslinje

1708 - Første folketælling foretaget befolkning 7.181.
1724 - Rhode Island etablerede ejendomsretskvalifikationer for vælgere.
1730 - Folketælling optaget befolkning 17.935.
1748 - Folketælling foretaget befolkning 32.773.
1755 - Folketælling optaget 40.414.
1772 - Britiske handelsrestriktioner gjorde kolonisterne vrede. De brændte de britiske indtægtskuttere Liberty og Gaspee. Se også Gaspee Historical Archives
1774 -

  • Folketælling foretaget befolkning 57.707.
  • Connecticut- og Rhode Island -kolonierne forbød yderligere import af slaver.

1776 - 4. maj - Kolonien erklærede sin uafhængighed.
1776-1779 - Newport blev besat af briterne.
1778 - Generalerne John Sullivan og LaFayette vandt en delvis sejr, men det lykkedes ikke at afvise briterne.
1779 - Britiske styrker evakuerede Rhode Island i oktober af revolutionskrigen.
1780-1781 - Franske tropper under general Rochambeau var stationeret i RI.
1782 - Folketælling optaget befolkning 52.347.
1784 - Emancipationslov vedtaget, der muliggør gradvis afskaffelse af slaveri. Alle børn født efter 1. marts 1784 var gratis.
1786 - Landmænd slog til mod købmænd, der har nægtet at acceptere de afskrevne papirpenge.

  • Statehood, 29. maj 1790 (13. af de oprindelige 13 stater til at ratificere forfatningen)
  • Den første succesrige amerikanske bomuldsmølle etableret af Samuel Slater og David Wilkinson.

Rhode Island History Tidslinje fra 1800 -tallet

1812 - Rhode Island nægtede at deltage i krigen i 1812.
1840 - Befolkning over 100.000.
1841 - Forsvarsadvokat Thomas Wilson Dorr grundlagde et Folkeparti for at liberalisere Rhode Island -chartret fra 1663. Han forelagde en ny, liberal forfatning for at udvide stemmeretten i staten til dem, der ikke ejede ejendom.
1842 - Dorr's Rebellion i Rhode Island tvinger statens konservative til at afskaffe chartret fra 1663 og udvide stemmeretten.
1843 - Den nuværende statsforfatning blev vedtaget.
1877 - Statens flag etableret.
1897 - Nyt statsflag vedtaget.

Rhode Island History Tidslinje fra det 20. århundrede

1910 - Befolkning over 540.000.

1930 - America's Cup Yacht Race afholdt Newport

1935 - "Blodløs revolution" - Demokrater erstattede republikansk dominans i hus og senat

1936 - Rhode Island fejrede 300 års jubilæum

1938 - Orkanen dræbte omkring 600, forårsagede betydelige skader

1954 - Orkanen Carol ramte, 19 dræbte, 3.800 hjem mistede, over $ 90.000.000 i skader

1955 - Alvorlige oversvømmelser forårsagede tab af ejendom

1968 - Statens første lukkede, klimakontrollerede indkøbscenter åbnede

1969 - Newport Bridge åbnede mellem Jamestown og Newport

1976 - Rhode Island var vært for Tall Ships Regatta

1978 - Snestorm med 78 værste snestorm i historien, 21 tabte liv

1980 - Claudine Schneider første kvinde valgt til kongressen

1989 - World Prodigy, 500 fods tankskib, spildte millioner liter brændstof nær Newport

1996 - Slæbebugsering pram gik i brand, millioner af liter brændselsolie spildte nær South Kingstown

21. århundrede Rhode Island History tidslinje

2003 - Natklubbrand i West Warwick, 100 døde

2009 - Prostitution forbudt

2010 - Regnvejr forårsagede oversvømmelser, tvang tusinder fra hjem, ejendomsskade over 200 millioner dollars


Efter restaureringen af ​​det kongelige styre i 1660 i 1660 var det nødvendigt at få et kongeligt charter fra den nye konge, som var Karl II af England. Charles var dengang en katolsk sympatisør i trofast protestantisk England og godkendte koloniens løfte om religionsfrihed. Han imødekom anmodningen med Royal Charter fra 1663, hvilket gav Koloni af Rhode Island og Providence Plantations en valgt guvernør og lovgiver. I de følgende år bosatte mange forfulgte grupper sig i kolonien, især kvakere og jøder.

Selvom Rhode Island forblev i fred med indianerne, var forholdet mellem de andre New England -kolonier og indianerne mere anstrengt og førte undertiden til blodsudgydelse, på trods af forsøg fra Rhode Island -ledelsen på at mægle fred. Under King Philip's War (1675 �) krænkede begge sider regelmæssigt Rhode Islands neutralitet. Krigens største slag fandt sted på Rhode Island, da en styrke fra Massachusetts, Connecticut og Plymouth -milits under general Josiah Winslow invaderede og ødelagde den befæstede indiske landsby Narragansett i Great Swamp i det sydlige Rhode Island, den 19. december 1675. Ε &# 93 Narragansetten invaderede og nedbrændte også flere af byerne på Rhode Island, herunder Providence, selvom de tillod befolkningen at forlade først. Også i en af ​​krigens sidste aktioner jagtede og dræbte tropper fra Connecticut "King Philip", som de kaldte Narragansett-krigslederen Metacom, på Rhode Islands område.


Følgende mennesker boede på Rhode Island før kolonial bosættelse: [1]

    , stammeleder, mødte pilgrimme i Plymouth, søn af Massasoit, blev stammeleder ved fars død, men døde kort tid efter, søn af Massasoit, efterfulgte sin bror, da stammelederkolonister gav ham navnet Philip, efter hans anmodning tilskyndede kong Filips Krig

Narragansett -mennesker boede i hele kolonien i Rhode Island

    , chief sachem, gerede jorden til Roger Williams, hvor han etablerede Providence Plantations, nevø af Canonicus, solgte Samuel Gorton og andre jorden for at etablere Warwick, Rhode Island, søn af Miantonomo, ledede Narragansets under den store sumpkamp og accepterede hans egen død ved afslutningen af ​​kong Filips krig
  • Pumham, mindre sachem i Kent County, Rhode Island
  • Soconoco, mindre sachem af samme område som Pumham

Niantiske mennesker boede omkring Pawcatuck -floden i det sydvestlige hjørne af Rhode Island

Nipmuc -folk vandrede inden for Rhode Island Colony, mest fra nord

Roger Williams blev forvist fra Massachusetts Bay Colony i oktober 1635, men fik lov til at blive i sit hjem i Salem, Massachusetts indtil slutningen af ​​vinteren, forudsat at han ikke prædikede. Imidlertid besøgte hans tilhængere ham i hans hjem i store mængder, og myndighederne anså dette for at være forkyndelse. De planlagde at fange ham med magt og satte ham på et skib til England i januar 1636, men dommer John Winthrop advarede ham privat, og han gled væk fra Salem om vinteren for at finde ly hos Wampanoags. Han købte en jordstykke i Seekonk fra Wampanoag sachem Massasoit, som lå i den vestlige kant af Plymouth -kolonien (nu Rehoboth, Massachusetts). I en erklæring fra 1677 omtalte Williams de fire, der var sammen med ham i Seekonk. De fem medlemmer af gruppen var: [3] [4] [5]

I foråret 1636 plantede Williams og hans firma afgrøder i Seekonk, men blev informeret i et blidt brev fra guvernør Edward Winslow fra Plymouth om, at de var inden for Plymouths jurisdiktion, og dette ville medføre vanskeligheder hos Massachusetts -myndighederne. Uden hastende foreslog Winslow, at Williams og hans gruppe flyttede over Seekonk -floden til Narragansetts område, hvor ingen koloni havde krav. Joshua Verin skrev en erklæring i 1650 og nævnte "vi seks, der kom først til Providence", hvilket tyder på, at han var den næste, der sluttede sig til de oprindelige fem. [6] Også Benedict Arnold skrev senere: "Memm. Vi kom til Providence for at bo den 20. april 1636". Selvom den traditionelle dato for afregningen af ​​Providence er blevet opgivet omkring den 20. juni 1636, tager dette ikke hensyn til Arnold -rekorden. Nyere analyse af bosættelsen af ​​Providence tyder på, at Williams sandsynligvis forhandlede med Narragansetts om jord i marts 1636, og at Williams og hans parti sammen med familien Arnold faktisk bosatte jorden i april 1636. [7] Det er sandsynligt, at følgende folk krydsede floden fra Seekonk i Plymouth -kolonien til et sted ved Moshassuck -floden i Narragansett -område, som Williams navngav Providence Plantations: [8]

    (hans kone Mary og døtrene Mary og Freeborn kom sandsynligvis senere) (hans kone Susannah og sønnen Andrew kom sandsynligvis senere)
  • John Smith (hans kone Alice og børnene John Jr. og Elizabeth kom sandsynligvis senere)
  • Francis Wickes (a minor) (a minor)
  • Joshua Verin (hans kone Jane er muligvis kommet senere)

Arnold -festen, herunder:

    med hustru Christian, datter Joanne og sønner Stephen og Benedict med kone Elizabeth (datter af William Arnold)
  • William Mann med hustru Frances Hopkins (niece til William Arnold) [9], stadig mindreårig, nevø til William Arnold (og stamfader til guvernør Stephen Hopkins)

Flere unge mænd blev optaget som indbyggere i Providence, før forliget var et år gammelt, men de var utilfredse med deres holdning og ønskede at kunne stemme og ellers have lighed med de ældre nybyggere. Den følgende beslutning blev vedtaget i et bymøde den 20. august 1637 og kaldes undertiden den "civile kompakt". 1637 -datoen stod på de originale byregistre, men da de blev transskriberet i 1800, manglede siden med denne dato. Beslutningsteksten er som følger:

Vi, hvis navne er herunder, og som ønsker at bo i Providence, lover at underkaste os aktiv eller passiv lydighed for alle sådanne ordrer eller aftaler, der skal indgås til gavn for vores krop på en ordnet måde af større samtykke fra de nuværende indbyggere, herre over familier, inkorporeret sammen i et byfællesskab og andre, som de kun må indrømme for dem i civile ting. [10]

Dem, der er navngivet i en skøde fra Roger Williams, dateret omkring den 8. oktober 1638: [11]


Charles II tildelt Rhode Island New Charter

For baptistpræst John Clarke stavede denne dag, den 8. juli 1663, slutningen på en lang ventetid. Tolv år tidligere havde han sejlet til England fra Rhode Island for at lobbye kongen på vegne af plantagen. Nu, med en elskværdig gestus, imødekom kong Charles II anmodningen.

Uden tvivl åbnede John straks sit eksemplar og læste igen de ord, han så inderligt havde ønsket. Dokumentet var et nyt charter for Rhode Island. Heri oplyste Charles II ved andragendet om vores troværdige og elskede emne John Clarke "kolonisterne en række rettigheder.

Rhode Island var blevet grundlagt af Roger Williams, en fortaler for "sjælsfrihed" (samvittighedsfrihed), efter at han flygtede fra religiøs forfølgelse i Massachusetts. Charles roste udholdenheden af ​​Rhode Islanders.

Sproget i hele chartret var stort set religiøst. Det anerkendte, at nybyggerne var taget til Amerika for at forfølge "med fredelige og loyale sind, deres ædru, seriøse og religiøse hensigter om guddommeligt at opbygge sig selv og hinanden i den hellige kristne tro og tilbedelse, som de blev overtalt sammen med de fattige uvidende indianers indkomst.

Det påkaldte Guds velsignelse over deres bestræbelser og anerkendte kolonisternes påstand om, at "sand fromhed, med rette baseret på evangeliets principper, vil give suverænitetens bedste og største sikkerhed og vil lægge i menneskers hjerter de stærkeste forpligtelser til ægte loyalitet . "

Men det afsnit, der må have betydet mest for John Clarke, lå længere nede i dokumentet. I 1651 var han blevet beslaglagt i Massachusetts og fortalte, at han skulle betale en bøde på 20 pund eller blive pisket. Grunden? Han havde undervist i ting, der ikke var i overensstemmelse med den officielle statslære.

Under dette charter burde den slags aldrig ske i Rhode Island. For Charles erklærede, at det var hans kongelige vilje og fornøjelse ", at ingen personer inden for den nævnte koloni på noget tidspunkt i det følgende vil blive klogt, chikaneret, straffet, foruroliget eller kaldet i tvivl om eventuelle meningsforskelle i spørgsmål om religion, og faktisk ikke forstyrre borgerfreden i vores nævnte koloni, men at alle og enhver person og personer fra tid til anden og til enhver tid herefter frit og fuldt ud kan have og nyde sine og deres egne domme og samvittigheder, i spørgsmål om religiøse bekymringer, i hele den landområde, der i det følgende er nævnt, opfører de sig fredeligt og stille. "

Rhode -øboerne havde nu mere samvittighedsfrihed end englænderne selv. Dette var en rød brevdag i historien om religionsfrihed, for frihederne på Rhode Island blev gradvist normen i hele USA. Mærkeligt nok opererede Rhode Island under dette charter i næsten to hundrede år, selv efter afslutningen på den revolutionære krig.


Historie & amp Betydning

Rhode Island ’s Colonial Charter har en unik plads i udviklingen af ​​menneskerettigheder i den moderne verden. Da kong Charles II godkendte chartret i juli 1663, markerede det første gang i moderne historie, at en monark underskrev et charter, der garanterede, at enkeltpersoner i et samfund var fri til at udøve den religion, de valgte uden indblanding fra regeringen. Denne frihed var ekstremt radikal i en tidsalder præget af religionskrige og forfølgelse af mennesker for religiøs overbevisning.

Ligesom uafhængighedserklæringen var Rhode Island ’s Charter et produkt af en fantastisk sammenflydning af stædige beslutsomhed, diplomatisk dygtighed og evne til at udnytte et øjebliks lejlighed. Roger Williams havde sikret sig et charter fra parlamentet i 1644, da monarkiet blev styrtet, men dette charter blev annulleret af kong Charles II, da monarkiet blev restaureret i 1660. John Clarke, der havde været i England siden 1651 og tjente som agent for at beskytte Rhode Island ’s interesser mod de nærliggende koloniers forsøg på at splitte og undergrave kolonien, var i stand til at få et nyt charter til Rhode Island trods store forhindringer og modstand. Hans charter var enestående i sin tildeling af “frihed for religiøse bekymringer ” og dets sprog ekko hurtigt i chartre fra andre kolonier. Det ’s principper blev efterfølgende skrevet ind i USAs forfatning, Bill of Rights og FN ’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Charteret ankom til Newport i november 1663, hvor det forblev indtil det blev fjernet til det nye statshus i Providence, da det blev besat i 1900.

Professor emeritus, Rhode Island College

Del dette:

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6 kommentarer til & ldquo Historie & amp Betydning & rdquo

Forfatteren undlader at behandle, hvordan religionsfriheden blev til ved, at William Dyer's kone, Mary Dyer, blev martyr i Boston for sagen, og William og andre tog til England for at protestere mod hendes død ved at hænge. Kong Charles 2 var forarget over, at en guvernør ville bestå kropsstraf uden godkendelse fra England.
Tak Mary Dyer for inkluderingen af ​​religionsfrihed i chartret. Besøg hendes statue i Capitol -bygningen i Boston og en statue til minde i Philadelphia.
Ja, en kvinde viste modet. Vis hende den respekt, hun skylder i dette 350 -års jubilæum for Royal Charter of Rhode Island.

Dette er en fantastisk side. den har alt hvad du behøver at vide. Jeg brugte oplysningerne til at skrive et oplæg og præsentere det foran min klasse.

Meget interessant. Jeg er en efterkommer af John Clarke og stolt over, at han kæmpede for religionsfrihed.


Rhode Island

Rhode Island, der kun måler cirka 48 miles lang og 37 miles bred, er den mindste af de amerikanske stater. På trods af sit lille område kan Rhode Island, kendt som “Ocean State, ” prale af over 400 miles kystlinje. Rhode Island blev grundlagt af Roger Williams i 1636, som var blevet forvist fra Massachusetts -kolonien for sit fortaler for religiøs tolerance og adskillelse af kirke og stat. I kolonitiden var Newport et vigtigt knudepunkt for skibsfart og handel og i Rhode Island fra 1800-tallet var i spidsen for den industrielle revolution og etableringen af ​​kraftdrevne tekstilfabrikker. Rhode Island var vært for det første National Lawn Tennis Championship i 1899 og er hjemsted for Tennis Hall of Fame. Berømte Rhode Islanders inkluderer romanforfatterne Cormac MacCarthy og Jhumpa Lahiri, skuespilleren James Woods, tv -personligheden Meredith Vieira og den amerikanske hærs officer Ambrose Burnside.

Dato for statsledelse: 29. maj 1790

Kapital: Forsyn

Befolkning: 1,052,567 (2010)

Størrelse: 1.545 kvadratkilometer

Kaldenavn (e): Ocean State Little Rhody Plantation State Mindste stat Land Roger Williams Southern Gateway i New England


Fra chartrets tekst: Overdragelse af guvernør, viceguvernør og assistenter

"Og for bedre udførelse af vores kongelige fornøjelse heri tildeler, navngiver, konstituerer og udnævner vi ovennævnte Benedict Arnold til den første og nuværende guvernør for det nævnte selskab og nævnte William Brenton to be the Deputy-Governor, and the said William Boulston, John Porter, Roger Williams, Thomas Olney, John Smith, John Greene, John Cogeshall, James Barker, William Field and Joseph Clarke, to be the ten present Assistants of the said Company, to continue in the said several offices, respectively, until the first Wednesday which shall be in the month of May now next coming."

"And further, we will, and by these presents, for us, our heirs, and successors, do ordain and grant that the Governor of the said Company, for the time being, or, in his absence, by occasion of sickness or otherwise, by his leave and permission, the Deputy-Governor, for the time being, shall and may, from time to time, upon all occasions, give order for the assembling of the said Company, and calling them together, to consult and advise of the business and affairs of the said Company."


Anne Hutchinson

Anne Hutchinson and her husband as well as their followers came to Rhode Island and settled the colony in what is now called Portsmouth after they were exiled from Massachusetts Bay.

Her husband, William Coddington, and others colonized Newport, Rhode Island in 1639.

Anne Hutchinson is often known as one of the first feminists for challenging the cultural norm. At a time when women were not given the same opportunities as men, she questioned some of the most powerful men in the colony.


Charter of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations

Charles the Second , by the grace of Gud, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c., to all to whome these presents shall come, greeting: Whereas wee have been informed, by the humble petition of our trustie and well beloved subject, John Clarke, on the behalf of Benjamine Arnold, William Brenton, William Codington, Nicholas Easton, William Boulston, John Porter, John Smith, Samuell Gorton, John Weeks, Roger Williams, Thomas Olnie, Gregorie Dexter, John Cogeshall, Joseph Clarke, Randall Holden, John Greene, John Roome, Samuell Wildbore, William Ffield, James Barker, Richard Tew, Thomas Harris, and William Dyre, and the rest of the purchasers and ffree inhabitants of our island, called Rhode-Island, and the rest of the colonie of Providence Plantations, in the Narragansett Bay, in New-England, in America, that they, pursueing, with peaceable and loyall mindes, their sober, serious and religious intentions, of godlie edifieing themselves, and one another, in the holie Christian ffaith and worshipp as they were perswaded together with the gaineing over and conversione of the poore ignorant Indian natives, in those partes of America, ​ to the sincere professione and obedienc of the same ffaith and worship, did, not onlie by the consent and good encouragement of our royall progenitors, transport themselves out of this kingdome of England into America, but alsoe, since their arrivall there, after their first settlement amongst other our subjects in those parts, ffor the avoideing of discorde, and those manie evills which were likely to ensue upon some of those oure subjects not beinge able to beare, in these remote parties, theire different apprehensiones in religious concernements, and in pursueance of the afforesayd ends, did once againe leave theire desireable stationes and habitationes, and with excessive labour and travell, hazard and charge, did transplant themselves into the middest of the Indian natives, who, as wee are infformed, are the most potent princes and people of all that country where, by the good Providence of God, from whome the Plantationes have taken their name, upon theire labour and Industrie, they have not onlie byn preserved to admiration, but have increased and prospered, and are seized and possessed, by purchase and consent of the said natives, to their ffull content, of such lands, islands, rivers, harbours and roades, as are verie convenient, both for plantationes and alsoe for buildinge of shipps, suplye of pypestaves, and other merchandize and which lyes verie commodious, in manie respects, for commerce, and to accommodate oure southern plantationes, and may much advance the trade of this oure realme, and greatlie enlarge the territories thereof they haveinge, by neare neighbourhoode to and friendlie societie with the greate bodie of the Narragansett Indians, given them encouragement, of theire owne accorde, to subject themselves, theire people and landes, unto us whereby, as is hoped, there may, in due tyme, by the blessing of God upon theire endeavours, bee layd a sure ffoundation of happinesse to all America:

And whereas, in theire humble addresse, they have ffreely declared, that it is much on their hearts (if they may be permitted), to hold forth a livlie experiment, that a most flourishing civill state may stand and best bee maintained, and that among our English subjects, with a full libertie in religious concernements and that true pietye rightly grounded upon gospell principles, will give the best and greatest security to sovereignetye, and will lay in the hearts of men the strongest obligations to true loyaltye: Now know yee, that wee beinge willinge to encourage the hopefull undertakeinge of oure sayd loyall and loveinge subjects, and to secure them in the free exercise and enjoyment of all theire civill and religious rights, appertaining to them, as our loveing subjects and to preserve unto them that libertye, in the true Christian ffaith and worshipp of God, which they have sought with soe much travaill, and with peaceable myndes, and loyall subjectione to our royall progenitors and ourselves, to enjoye and because some of the people and inhabitants of the same colonic cannot, in theire private opinions, conforms to the publique exercise of religion, according to the litturgy, formes and ceremonyes of the Church of England, or take or subscribe the oaths and articles made and established in that behalfe and for that the same, by reason of the remote distances of those places, will (as wee hope) bee noe breach of the unitie and unifformitie established in this nation: Have therefore thought ffit, and doe hereby publish, graunt, ordeyne and declare, ​ That our royall will and pleasure is, that noe person within the sayd colonye, at any tyme hereafter, shall bee any wise molested, punished, disquieted, or called in question, for any differences in opinione in matters of religion, and doe not actually disturb the civill peace of our sayd colony but that all and everye person and persons may, from tyme to tyme, and at all tymes hereafter, freelye and fullye have and enjoye his and theire owne judgments and consciences, in matters of religious concernments, throughout the tract of lande hereafter mentioned they behaving themselves peaceablie and quietlie, and not useing this libertie to lycentiousnesse and profanenesse, nor to the civill injurye or outward disturbeance of others any lawe, statute, or clause, therein contayned, or to bee contayned, usage or custome of this realme, to the contrary hereof, in any wise, notwithstanding. And that they may bee in the better capacity to defend themselves, in theire just rights and libertyes against all the enemies of the Christian ffaith, and others, in all respects, wee have further thought fit, and at the humble petition of the persons aforesayd are gratiously pleased to declare, That they shall have and enjoye the benefitt of our late act of indempnity and ffree pardon, as the rest of our subjects in other our dominions and territoryes have and to create and make them a bodye politique or corporate, with the powers and priviledges hereinafter mentioned.

And accordingly our will and pleasure is, and of our especiall grace, certaine knowledge, and meere motion, wee have ordeyned, constituted and declared, and by these presents, for us, our heires and successors, doe ordeyne, constitute and declare, That they, the sayd William Brenton, William Codington, Nicholas Easton, Benedict Arnold, William Boulston, John Porter, Samuell Gorton, John Smith, John Weekes, Roger Williams, Thomas Olneye, Gregorie Dexter, John Cogeshall, Joseph Clarke, Randall Holden, John Greene, John Roome, William Dyre, Samuell Wildbore, Richard Tew, William Ffeild, Thomas Harris, James Barker, —— Rainsborrow, —— Williams, and John Nickson, and all such others as now are, or hereafter shall bee admitted and made ffree of the company and societie of our collonie of Providence Plantations, in the Narragansett Bay, in New England, shall bee, from tyme to tyme, and forever hereafter, a bodie corporate and politique, in ffact and name, by the name of The Governor and Company of the English Colony of Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations, in New-England, in America and that, by the same name, they and their successors shall and may have perpetuall succession, and shall and may bee persons able and capable, in the lawe, to sue and bee sued, to pleade and be impleaded, to answeare and bee answeared unto, to defend and to be defended, in all and singular suites, causes, quarrels, matters, actions and thinges, of what kind or nature soever and alsoe to have, take, possesse, acquire and purchase lands, tenements or hereditaments, or any goods or chattels, and the same to lease, graunt, demise, aliene, bargaine, sell and dispose of, at their owne will and pleasure, as other our liege people of this our realme of England, or anie corporation or bodie politique within the same, may be lawefully doe: And further, that they the sayd Governor and Company, and theire successors, shall and may, forever hereafter, have a common seale, to serve and use for all ​ matters, causes, thinges and affaires, whatsoever, of them and their successors and the same seale to alter, change, breake, and make new, from tyme to tyme, at their will and pleasure, as they shall thinke ffitt.

And further, wee will and ordeyne, and by these presents, for us, oure heires and successours, doe declare and apoynt that, for the better ordering and managing of the affaires and business of the sayd Company, and theire successours, there shall bee one Governour, one Deputie-Governour and ten Assistants, to bee from tyme to tyme, constituted, elected and chosen, out of the freemen of the sayd Company, for the tyme beinge, in such manner and fforme as is hereafter in these presents expressed which sayd officers shall aplye themselves to take care for the best disposeinge and orderinge of the generall businesse and affaires of, and concerneinge the landes and hereditaments hereinafter mentioned, to be graunted, and the plantation thereof, and the government of the people there. Og for the better execution of oure royall pleasure herein, wee doe, for us, oure heires and successours, assign, name, constitute and apoynt the aforesayd Benedict Arnold to bee the first and present Governor of the sayd Company, and the sayd William Brenton, to bee the Deputy-Governor, and the sayd William Boulston, John Porter, Roger Williams, Thomas Olnie, John Smith, John Greene, John Cogeshall, James Barker, William Ffeild, and Joseph Clarke, to bee the tenn present Assistants of the sayd Companye, to continue in the sayd severall offices, respectively, untill the first Wednesday which shall bee in the month of May now next comeing. And further, wee will, and by these presents, for us, our heires and successessours, doe ordeyne and graunt, that the Governor of the sayd Company, for the tyme being, or, in his absence, by occasion of sicknesse, or otherwise, by his leave and permission, the Deputy-Governor, ffor the tyme being, shall and may, ffrom tyme to tyme, upon all occasions, give order ffor the assemblinge of the sayd Company and callinge them together, to consult and advise of the businesse and affaires of the sayd Company.

Og det forever hereafter, twice in every year, that is to say, on every first Wednesday in the month of May, and on every last Wednesday in October, or oftener, in case it shall bee requisite, the Assistants, and such of the ffreemen of the Company, not exceedinge six persons ffor Newport, ffoure persons ffor each of the respective townes of Providence, Portsmouth and Warwicke, and two persons for each other place, towne or city, whoe shall bee, from tyme to tyme, thereunto elected or deputed by the majour parte of the ffreemen of the respective townes or places ffor which they shall bee so elected or deputed, shall have a generall meetinge, or Assembly then and there to consult, advise and determine, in and about the affaires and businesse of the said Company and Plantations. And further, wee doe, of our especiall grace, certayne knowledge, and meere motion, give and graunt unto the sayd Governour and Company of the English Colonie of Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations, in New-England, in America, and theire successours, that the Governour, or, in his absence, or, by his permission, the Deputy-Governour of the sayd Company, for the tyme beinge, the Assistants, and such of the ffreemen of the sayd Company as shall bee soe as aforesayd elected or deputed, or soe many of them as shall bee present att such meetinge or assemblye, as afforesayde, shall bee called the Generall ​ Assemblye and that they, or the greatest parte of them present, whereof the Governour or Deputy-Governour, and sixe of the Assistants, at least to bee seven, shall have, and have hereby given and graunted unto them, ffull power authority, ffrom tyme tyme, and at all tymes hereafter, to apoynt, alter and change, such dayes, tymes and places of meetinge and Generall Assemblye, as theye shall thinke ffitt and to choose, nominate, and apoynt, such and soe manye other persons as they shall thinke ffitt, and shall be willing to accept the same, to bee ffree of the sayd Company and body politique, and them into the same to admitt and to elect and constitute such offices and officers, and to graunt such needfull commissions, as they shall thinke ffitt and requisite, ffor the ordering, managing and dispatching of the affaires of the sayd Governour and Company, and their successours and from tyme to tyme, to make, ordeyne, constitute or repeal, such lawes, statutes, orders and ordinances, fformes and ceremonies of government and magistracye as to them shall seeme meete for the good nad wellfare of the sayd Company, and ffor the government and ordering of the landes and hereditaments, hereinafter mentioned to be graunted, and of the people that doe, or att any tyme hereafter shall, inhabitt or bee within the same soe as such lawes, ordinances and constitutiones, soe made, bee not contrary and repugnant unto, butt, as neare as may bee, agreeable to the lawes of this our realme of England, considering the nature and constitutione of the place and people there and alsoe to apoynt, order and direct, erect and settle, such places and courts of jurisdiction, ffor the heareinge and determininge of all actions, cases, matters and things, happening within the sayd collonie and plantatione, and which shall be in dispute, and depending there, as they shall thinke ffit and alsoe to distinguish and sett forth the severall names and titles, duties, powers and limitts, of each court, office and officer, superior and inferior and alsoe to contrive and apoynt such formes of oaths and attestations, not repugnant, but, as neare as may bee, agreeable, as aforesayd, to the lawes and statutes of this oure realme, as are conveniente and requisite, with respect to the due administration of justice, and due execution and discharge of all offices and places of trust by the persons that shall bee therein concerned and alsoe to regulate and order the waye and manner of all elections to offices and places of trust, and to prescribe, limitt and distinguish the numbers and boundes of all places, townes or cityes, within the limitts and bounds herein after mentioned, and not herein particularlie named, who have, and shall have, the power of electing and sending of ffreemen to the sayd Generall Assembly and alsoe to order, direct and authorize the imposing of law full and reasonable ffynes, mulcts, imprisonments, and executing other punishments pecuniary and corporal, upon offenders and delinquents, according to the course of other corporations within this oure kingdom of England and agayne to alter, revoke, annull or pardon, under their common seale or otherwyse, such ffynes, mulcts, imprisonments, sentences, judgments and condemnations, as shall bee thought ffitt and to direct, rule, order and dispose of, all other matters and things, and particularly that which relates to the makinge of purchases of the native Indians, as to them shall seeme meete whereby oure sayd people and inhabitants, in the sayd Plantationes, may be soe religiously, peaceably and civilly governed, as that, by theire good ​ life and orderlie conversatione, they may win and invite the native Indians of the countrie to the knowledge and obedience of the onlie true God, and Saviour of mankinde willing, commanding and requireing, and by these presents, for us, oure heires and successours, ordeyneing and apoynting, that all such lawes, statutes, orders and ordinances, instructions, impositions and directiones, as shall bee soe made by the Governour, deputye-Governour, Assistants and ffreemen, or such number of them as aforesayd, and published in writinge, under theire common scale, shall bee carefully and duely observed, kept, performed and putt in execution, accordinge to the true intent and meaning of the same.

Og these our letters patent, or the duplicate or exempliffication thereof, shall bee to all and everie such officer, superiour or inferiour, ffrom tyme to tyme, for the putting of the same orders, lawes, statutes, ordinances, instructions and directions, in due execution, against us, oure heires and successours, a sufficient warrant and discharge. And further, our will and pleasure is, and wee doe hereby, for us, oure heires and successours, establish and ordeyne, that yearelie, once in the yeare, forever hereafter, namely, the aforesayd Wednesday in May, and at the towne of Newport, or elsewhere, if urgent occasion doe require, the Governour, Deputy-Governour and Assistants of the sayd Company, and other officers of the sayd Company, or such of them as the Generall Assemblye shall thinke ffitt, shall bee, in the sayd Generall Court or Assembly to bee held from that daye or tyme, newely chosen for the year ensueing, by such greater part of the sayd Company, for the tyme beinge, as shall bee then and there present og if itt shall happen that the present Governour, Deputy-Governour and Assistants, by these presents apoynted, or any such as shall hereafter be newly chosen into their roomes, or any of them, or any other the officers of the sayd Company, shall die or bee removed ffrom his or their severall offices or places, before the sayd generall day of election, (whom wee doe hereby declare, for any misdemeanour or default, to be removeable by the Governour, Assistants and Company, or such greater parte of them, in any of the sayd publique courts, to bee assembled as aforesayd), that then, and in every such case, it shall and may bee lawfull to and ffor the sayd Governour, Deputy-Governour, Assistants and Company aforesayde, or such greater parte of them, soe to bee assembled as is aforesayde, in any theire assemblyes, to proceede to a new election of one or more of their Company, in the roome or place, roomes or places, of such officer or officers, soe dyeinge or removed, according to theire discretiones and immediately upon and after such electione or elections made of such Governour, Deputy-Governour or Assistants, or any other officer of the sayd Company, in manner and forme aforesayde, the authoritie, office and power, before given to the fformer Governour, Deputy-Governour, and other officer and officers, soe removed, in whose steade and place new shall be chosen, shall, as to him and them, and every of them, respectively, cease and determine:

Provided, allwayes, and our will and pleasure is, that as well such as are by these presents apoynted to bee the present Governour Deputy-Governour and Assistants, of the sayd Company, as those that shall succeede them, and all other officers to bee apoynted and chosen as aforesayde, shall, before the undertakeinge the execution ​ of the sayd offices and places respectively, give theire solemn engagement, by oath, or otherwyse, for the due and faythfull performance of theire duties in their severall offices and places, before such person or persons as are by these presents hereafter apoynted to take and receive the same, that is to say: the sayd Benedict Arnold, whoe is hereinbefore nominated and apoynted the present Governour of the sayd Company, shall give the aforesayd engagement before William Brenton, or any two of the sayd Assistants of the sayd Company unto whome, wee doe by these presentes give ffull power and authority to require and receive the same and the sayd William Brenton, whoe is hereby before nominated and apoynted the present Deputy-Governour of the sayd Company, shall give the aforesayed engagement before the sayd Benedict Arnold, or any two of the Assistants of the sayd Company unto whome wee doe by these presents give ffull power and authority to require and receive the same and the sayd William Boulston, John Porter, Roger Williams, Thomas Olneye, John Smith, John Greene, John Cogeshall, James Barker, William Ffeild, and Joseph Clarke, whoe are hereinbefore nominated apoynted the present Assistants of the sayd Company, shall give the sayd engagement to theire offices and places respectively belongeing, before the sayd Benedict Arnold and William Brenton, or one of them to whome, respectively wee doe hereby give ffull power and authority to require, administer or receive the same: and ffurther, our will and pleasure is, that all and every other future Governour or Deputy-Governour, to bee elected and chosen by vertue of these presents, shall give the sayd engagement before two or more of the sayd Assistants of the sayd Company ffor the tyme beinge unto whome wee doe by these presents give ffull power and authority to require, administer or receive the same and the sayd Assistants, and every of them, and all and every other officer or officers to bee hereafter elected and chosen by vertue of these presents, from tyme to tyme, shall give the like engagements, to their offices and places respectively belonging bofere the Governour or Deputy-Governour for the tyme being unto which sayd Governour, or Deputy-Governour, wee doe by these presents give full power and authority to require, administer or receive the same accordingly.

And wee doe likewise, for vs, oure heires and successours, give and graunt vnto the sayd Governour and Company and theire successours by these presents, that, for the more peaceable and orderly government of the sayd Plantations, it shall and may bee lawfull ffor the Governour, Deputy-Governor, Assistants, and all other officers and ministers of the sayd Company, in the administration of justice, and exercise of government, in the sayd Plantations, to vse, exercise, and putt in execution, such methods, rules, orders and directions, not being contrary or repugnant to the laws and statutes of this oure realme, as Have byn heretofore given, vsed and accustomed, in such cases respectively, to be putt in practice, untill att the next or some other Generall Assembly, special provision shall be made and ordeyned in the cases aforesayd. And wee doe ffurther, for vs, oure heires and successours, give and graunt vnto the sayd Governour and Company, and theire successours, by these presents, that itt shall and may bee lawfull to and for the sayd Governour, or in his absence, the Deputy-Governour, and majour parte of the sayd Assistants, for the ​ tyme being, att any tyme when the sayd Generall Assembly is not sitting, to nominate, apoynt and constitute, such and soe many commanders, governours, and military officers, as to them shall seeme requisite, for the leading, conductinge and trayneing vpp the inhabitants of the sayd Plantations in martiall affaires, and for the defence and safeguard of the sayd Plantations and that itt shall and may bee lawfull to and for all and every such commander, governour and military officer, that shall bee soe as aforesayd, or by the Governour, or, in his absence, the Deputy-Governour, and six of the sayd Assistants, and majour parte of the ffreemen of the sayd Company present att any Generall Assemblies, nominated, apoynted and constituted accordinge to the tenor of his and theire respective commissions and directions, to assemble, exercise in arms, martiall array, and putt in warlyke posture, the inhabitants of the sayd collonie, ffor theire speciall defence and safety and to lead and conduct the sayd inhabitants, and to encounter, expulse, expell and resist, by force of armes, as well by sea as by lande and alsoe to kill, slay and destroy, by all fitting wayes, enterprizes and meanes, whatsoever, all and every such person or persons as shall, att any tyme hereafter, attempt or enterprize the destruction, invasion, detriment or annoyance of the sayd inhabitants or Plantations and to vse and exercise the lawe martiall in such cases only as occasion shall necessarily require and to take or surprise, by all wayes and meanes whatsoever, all and every such person and persons, with theire shipp or shipps, armor, ammunition or other goods of such persons, as shall, in hostile manner, invade or attempt the defeating of the sayd Plantations, or the hurt of the sayd Company and inhabitants and vpon just causes, to invade and destroy the native Indians, or other enemyes of the sayd Collony. Neverthelesse, our will and pleasure is, and wee doe hereby declare to the rest of oure Collonies in New England, that itt shall not bee lawefull ffor this our sayd Collony of Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations, in America, in New-England, to invade the natives inhabiting within the boundes and limitts of theire sayd Collonies without the knowledge and consent of the sayd other Collonies. And itt is hereby declared, that itt shall not bee lawfull to or ffor the rest of the Collonies to invade or molest the native Indians, or any other inhabitants, inhabiting within the bounds and lymitts hereafter mentioned (they having subjected themselves vnto vs, and being by vs taken into our speciall protection), without the knowledge and consent of the Governour and Company of our Collony of Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations.

Alsoe our will and pleasure is, and wee doe hereby declare unto all Christian Kings, Princes and States, that if any person, which shall hereafter bee of the sayd Company or Plantations, or any other, by apoyntment of the sayd Governour and Company for the tyme beinge, shall at any tyme or tymes hereafter, rob or spoyle, by sea or land, or do any hurt, unlawfull hostillity to any of the subjects of vs, oure heires or successours, or any of the subjects of any Prince or State, beinge then in league with vs, oure heires, or successours, vpon complaint of such injury done to any such Prince or State, or theire subjects, wee, our heires and successours, will make open proclamation within any parts of oure realme of England, ffitt ffor that purpose, that the person or persons committing any such robbery or ​ spoyle shall, within the tyme lymitted by such proclamation, make full restitution or satisfaction of all such injuries, done or committed, soe as the sayd Prince, or others soe complaineinge, may bee fully satisfyed and contented and if the sayd person or persons whoe shall committ any such robbery or spoyle shall not make satysfaction, accordingly, within such tyme, soe to bee lymitted, that then wee, oure heires and successours, will putt such person or persons out of oure allegiance and protection and that then itt shall and may bee lawefull and ffree ffor all Princes or others to prosecute, with hostillity, such offenders, and every of them, theire and every of theire procurers, ayders, abettors and counsellors, in that behalfe Provided alsoe, and oure expresse will and pleasure is, and wee doe, by these presents, ffor vs, our heirs and successours, ordeyne and apoynt, that these presents shall not, in any manner, hinder any of oure lovinge subjects, whatsoever, ffrom vseing and exercising the trade of ffishing vpon the coast of New-England, in America butt that they, and every or any of them, shall have ffull and ffree power and liberty to continue and vse the trade of ffishing vpon the sayd coast, in any of the seas thereunto adjoyninge, or any armes of the seas, or salt water, rivers and creeks, where they have been accustomed to ffish and to build and to sett upon the waste land, belonginge to the sayd Collony and Plantations, such wharfes, stages and worke-houses as shall be necessary for the salting, drying and keepeing of theire ffish, to be taken or gotten upon that coast. And ffurther, for the encouragement of the inhabitants of our sayd Collony of Providence Plantations to sett vpon the businesse of takeing whales, itt shall bee lawefull ffor them, or any of them, having struck whale, dubertus, or other greate ffish, itt or them, to pursue unto any parte of that coaste, and into any bay, river, cove, creeke or shoare, belonging thereto, and itt or them, vpon sayd coaste, or in the sayd bay, river, cove, creeke or shoare, belonging thereto, to kill and order for the best advantage, without molestation, they makeing noe wilfull waste or spoyle, any thinge in these presents conteyned, or any other matter or thing, to the contrary notwithstanding. And further alsoe, wee are gratiously pleased, and doe hereby declare, that if any of the inhabitants of oure sayd Collony doe sett upon the plantinge of vineyards (the soyle and clymate both seemeing naturally to concurr to the production of wynes), or bee industrious in the discovery of ffishing banks, in or about the sayd Collony, wee will, ffrom tyme to tyme, give and allow all due and fitting encouragement therein, as to others in cases of lyke nature. And further, of oure more ample grace, certayne knowledge, and meere motion, wee have given and graunted, and by these presents, ffor vs, oure heires and successours, doe give and graunt vnto the sayd Governour and Company of the English Collony of Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations, in the Narragansett Bay, in New-England in America, and to every inhabitant there, and to every person and persons trading thither, and to every such person or persons as are or shall bee ffree of the sayd Collony, full power and authority, from tyme to tyme, and att all tymes hereafter, to take, shipp, transport and carry away, out of any of our realmes and dominions, for and towards the plantation and defence of the sayd Collony, such and soe many of oure loveing subjects and strangers as shall or will willingly accompany them in and ​ to their sayd Collony and Plantation except such person or persons as are or shall be therein restrained by vs, oure heires and successours, or any law or statute of this realme: and also to shipp and transport all and all manner of goods, chattels, merchandizes, and other things whatsoever, that are or shall bee vsefull or necessary ffor the sayd Plantations, and defence thereof, and vsually transported, and nott prohibited by any lawe or statute of this our realme yielding and paying vnto vs, our heires and successours, such the duties, customes and subsidies, as are or ought to bee payd or payable for the same.

And ffurther, our will and pleasure is, and wee doe, ffor us, our heires and successours, ordeyn, declare and graunt, vnto the sayd Governour and Company, and their successours, that all and every the subjects of vs, our heires and successours, which are already planted and settled within our sayd Collony of Providence Plantations, or which shall hereafter goe to inhabit within the sayd Collony, and all and every of theire children, which have byn borne there, or which shall happen hereafter to bee borne there, or on the sea, goeing thither, or retourneing from thence, shall have and enjoye all libertyes and immunityes of ffree and naturall subjects within any the dominions of vs, our heires or successours, to all intents, constructions and purposes, whatsoever, as if they, and every of them, were borne within the realme of England. And ffurther, know ye, that wee, of our more abundant grace, certain knowledge and meere motion, have given, graunted and confirmed, and, by these presents, for vs, our heires and successours, doe give, graunt and confirme, vnto the sayd Governour and Company, and theire successours, all that parte of our dominiones in New-England, in America, conteyneing the Nahantick and Nanhyganset Bay, and countryes and partes adjacent, bounded on the west, or westerly, to the middle or channel of a river there, commonly called and known by the name of Pawcatuck, alias Pawcawtuck river, and soe along the sayd river, as the greater or middle streame thereof reacheth or lyes vpp into the north countrye, northward, unto the head thereoof , and from thence, by a streight lyne drawn due north, vntill itt meets with the south lyne of the Massachusetts Collonie and on the north, or northerly, by the aforesayd south or southerly lyne of the Massachusettes Collony or Plantation, and extending towards the east, or eastwardly, three English miles to the east and north-east of the most eastern and north-eastern parts of the aforesayd Narragansett Bay, as the sayd bay lyeth or extendeth itself from the ocean on the south, or southwardly, vnto the mouth of the river which runneth towards the towne of Providence, and from thence along the eastwardly side or banke of the sajd river (higher called by the name of Seacunck river), vp to the ffalls called Patuckett ffalls, being the most westwardly lyne of Plymouth Collony, and soe from the sayd ffalls, in a streight lyne, due north, untill itt meete with the aforesayd line of the Massachusetts Collony and bounded on the south by the ocean: and, in particular, the lands belonging to the townes of Providence, Pawtuxet, Warwicke, Misquammacok, alias Pawcatuck, and the rest vpon the maine land in the tract aforesayd, together with Rhode-Island, Blocke-Island, and all the rest of the islands and banks in the Narragansett Bay, and bordering vpon the coast of the tract aforesayd (Ffisher’s Island only ​ excepted), together with all firme lands, soyles, grounds, havens, ports, rivers, waters, ffishings, mines royall, and all other mynes, mineralls, precious stones, quarries, woods, wood-grounds, rocks, slates, and all and singular other commodities, jurisdictions, royalties, priviledges, franchises, preheminences and hereditaments, whatsoever, within the sayd tract, bounds, landes, and islands, aforesayd, or to them or any of them belonging, or in any wise appertaining: to have and to hold the same, vnto the sayd Governour and Company, and their successours, forever, vpon trust, for the vse and benefitt of themselves and their associates, ffreemen of the sayd Collony, their heires and assignes, to be holden of vs, our heires and successours, as of the Mannor of East-Greenwich, in our county of Kent, in free and comon soccage, and not in capite, nor by knight service yeilding and paying therefor, to vs, our heires and successours, only the ffifth part of all the oare of gold and silver which, from tyme to tyme, and att all tymes hereafter, shall bee there gotten, had or obtained, in lieu and satisfaction of all services, duties, ffynes, forfeitures, made or to be made, claimes and demands, whatsoever, to bee to vs, our heires or successours, therefor or thereout rendered, made or paid any graunt, or clause in a late graunt, to the Governour and Company of Connecticutt Colony, in America, to the contrary thereof in any wise notwithstanding the aforesayd Pawcatuck river haveing byn yielded, after much debate, for the fixed and certain boundes betweene these our sayd Colonies, by the agents thereof whoe have alsoe agreed, that the sayd Pawcatuck river shall bee alsoe called alias Norrogansett or Narrogansett river and, to prevent future disputes, that otherwise might arise thereby, forever hereafter shall bee construed, deemed and taken to bee the Narragansett river in our late graunt to Connecticutt Colony mentioned as the easterly bounds of that Colony. And further, our will and pleasure is, that in all matters of publique controversy which may fall out betweene our Colony of Providence Plantations, and the rest of our Colonies in New-England, itt shall and may bee lawfull to and for the Governour and Company of the sayd Colony of Providence Plantations to make their appeales therein to vs, our heirs and successours, for redresse in such cases, within this our realme of England: and that itt shall bee lawfull to and for the inhabitants of the sayd Colony of Providence Plantations, without let or molestation, to passe and repasse with freedome, into and thorough the rest of the English Collonies, vpon their lawfull and civill occasions, and to converse, and hold commerce and trade, with such of the inhabitants of our other English Collonies as shall bee willing to admitt them thereunto, they behaveing themselves peaceably among them any act, clause or sentence, in any of the sayd Collonies provided, or that shall bee provided, to the contrary in anywise notwithstanding. And lastly, wee doe, for vs, our heires and successours, ordeyne and graunt vnto the sayd Governor and Company, and their successours, and by these presents, that these our letters patent shall be firme, good, effectuall and available in all things in the lawe, to all intents, constructions and purposes whatsoever, according to our true intent and meaning hereinbefore declared and shall bee construed, reputed and adjudged in all cases most favorably on the behalfe, and for the benefitt and behoofe, of ​ the sayd Governor and Company, and their successours although express mention of the true yearly value or certainty of the premises, or any of them, or of any other gifts or graunts by vs, or by any of our progenitors or predecessors, heretofore made to the sayd Governor and Company of the English Colony of Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations, in the Narragansett Bay, New-England, in America, in these presents is not made, or any statute, act, ordinance, provision, proclamation or restriction, heretofore had, made, enacted, ordeyned or provided, or any other matter, cause or thing whatsoever, to the contrary thereof in anywise notwithstanding. In witness whereof, wee have caused these our letters to bee made patent. Witnes our Selfe att Westminster, the eighth day of July, in the ffifteenth yeare of our reigne.


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Kommentarer:

  1. Mausida

    wonderfully, is the very valuable answer

  2. Pulan

    Bravo, hvilke ord ..., den storslåede tanke

  3. Demarcus

    I used to think differently, thanks for the explanation.

  4. Lyndsie

    Fantastisk, meget sjov information

  5. Porter

    Ja, alt kan være



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