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Sodoma & Gomorrah - Videnskabeligt bevis

Sodoma & Gomorrah - Videnskabeligt bevis


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Den bibelske historie om Sodoma og Gomorra er en af ​​de største masseødelæggelser, der er forårsaget af Gud. Spørgsmålet er stadig, om det er en sand historie eller ej? Bibelske arkæologer mener, at det er en sand historie, men enten indre jordgasser eller virkningen af ​​en asteroide har altid underbygget deres ræsonnement. Vi har allerede analyseret historien fra Bibelens perspektiv. Nu vil vi undersøge historien fra videnskabens perspektiv for at se, hvor sandheden kan ligge.

For at opsummere var mændene i Sodoma onde og ulydige mod Gud og trodsede hans magt og hans autoritet. Ødelæggelsen af ​​Sodoma og Gomorra var således resultatet af denne adfærd. Ifølge bibelske arkæologer må historien være sket nær Det Døde Hav eller 'slettens byer' som nævnt i Første Mosebog (13:12), da Abraham kunne se på de to forhistoriske byer i det gamle Israel fra Hebron -området.

Arkæolog Steven Collins brugte oplysninger fra Bibelen og arkæologiske beviser fra stedet for Tall el-Hammam i Jordan, foreslog, at han placerede Sodom nordøst for Det Døde Hav. Hans forslag er imidlertid ikke blevet accepteret af andre bibelske arkæologer af to grunde: a) geografisk fejlplacering og b) kronologisk fejlplacering. Derfor, hvis Tall el-Hammam virkelig er Sodoma, kan Bibelen derfor ikke som regel bruges til nøjagtige datoer og steder.

En anden, mere populær, opfattelse er, at byerne Bad dh-Dhra og Numeira, som er de eneste kendte beboede byer i området ved Det Døde Hav i tidsrummet mellem 3000 fvt og 1000 fvt, kunne være byerne Sodoma henholdsvis Gomorrah. Begge disse byer blev samtidigt ødelagt i slutningen af ​​den tidlige bronze III -periode af en enorm brand, der var så stor, at der skabtes affald, der var tre meter tykt. Spørgsmålet her er, hvad der kunne have forårsaget en sådan ødelæggelse? Udgravningerne i området peger på faldende brændende affald. Det er her, geolog Frederick Clapp antyder, at en frigivelse af det underjordiske stof kaldet bitumen (et derivat af råolie) under et jordskælv kan være årsag til snavs. Ifølge hans teori antændte det i luften og førte til et brusebad af flammende affald, der ødelagde begge byer.

En anden teori, der har skabt debat mellem arkæologer, er baseret på en assyrisk lertavle, der viser, at en asteroide kan have ødelagt de to byer. En sumerisk astronom indskrev denne Cuneiform lertavle omkring 700 fvt. Det viser sporet af en asteroide, der ramte Kofels i Østrig omkring 3000 fvt, hvilket også kan stå for ødelæggelsen af ​​Sodom og Gomorra.

I begge forslag kunne beskrivelser af sådanne begivenheder af gamle mennesker meget vel identificere sig med beskrivelsen i Første Mosebog:

Så regnede Herren over Sodoma og over Gomorra svovl og ild fra Herren ud af himlen. 1 Mosebog 19:24

Men indtil bestemt bevis fremlægges, må vi spørge os selv, om ødelæggelsen af ​​Sodoma og Gomorra kunne have været resultatet af 'Guds' handlinger?

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Lignende videoer


    Ny videnskab foreslår, at den bibelske by Sodoma blev slået ned af en eksploderende meteor

    Foden af ​​Mount Sodom, nær sletten, hvor den bibelske by med samme navn kan have været. [+] ødelagt.

    Ny forskning finder, at et kraftigt luftbrud fra en meteor, der kolliderer med atmosfæren, kan have udslettet en bronzealder -civilisation langs nordsiden af ​​Det Døde Hav for omkring 3.700 år siden. Mens fundene stammer fra udgravningen af ​​det arkæologiske sted Tall el-Hammam i Jordan, tror mange, at det samme sted engang var kendt som Sodoma.

    Ja, som i Sodom og Gomorra fra Bibelen, Torah og Koranen - syndens byer angiveligt ødelagt med svovl og ild sendt fra Gud.

    Arkæolog Phillip J. Silvia fra Trinity Southwest University i Albuquerque har arbejdet med et team, der har udgravet stedet i over 13 år og fremlagt deres rapport på det årlige møde i American Schools of Oriental Research i sidste måned.

    Prøver fra stedet viser, at en ekstremt varm, eksplosiv begivenhed udlignede et område på næsten 200 kvadratkilometer inklusive Middle Ghor - en cirkulær slette nord for Det Døde Hav.

    ". ikke kun at udslette 100 procent af byerne og byerne i middelalder bronzealderen, men også at fjerne landbrugsjord fra engang frugtbare marker," lyder abstractet fra konferencens præsentation.

    Forskerne teoretiserer, at de intense chokbølger fra eksplosionen også kan have dækket området "med en superopvarmet saltlage af Dødehavsanhydridsalte."

    Teamet siger også, at arkæologiske beviser viser, at det tog mindst seks århundreder for regionen at komme sig og for civilisationen at vende tilbage, takket være forureningen og ødelæggelsen af ​​jorden.

    Beviserne tegner et billede af en begivenhed, der ligner Tunguska -hændelsen i 1908, hvor en ildkugle på himlen blev fulgt af eksplosioner, og et stort skår af sibirisk skov blev fundet udjævnet.

    Man kan også forestille sig en meget mere kraftfuld version af boliden, der kolliderede med atmosfæren over Chelyabinsk, Rusland i 2013, hvilket skabte en chokbølge, der sprængte tusinder af vinduer.

    Arkæologer kan muligvis besvare nogle af de store spørgsmål bag historien om Sodoma, herunder om den virkelig fandtes, hvor den var, og hvad der faktisk ødelagde den, men selvom det viser sig, at Tall el-Hammam er Sodoma, og den blev ødelagt af et kosmisk luftbrud, er det største spørgsmål: Har nogen, måske en guddom, bestilt et asteroidehit på Sodoma?


    Bekræftede forskere lige den bibelske beretning om Sodoma og Gomorra?

    En nylig videnskabelig undersøgelse bekræftede, hvad studerende i Bibelen hele tiden har vidst: En katastrofe fra himlen ødelagde alt liv i Det Døde Hav for mange tusinde år siden.

    Efter et årti med gravering rapporterede arkæolog Phillip Silvian fra Trinity Southwest University i Albuquerque om sin forskning om Det Døde Hav i sidste uge på det årlige møde i American Schools of Oriental Research.

    Silvia førte udgravninger på fem store steder på den jordanske side af Jordanfloden. Ifølge Silvia var den 15 kvadratkilometer cirkulære Middle Ghor en frugtbar slette, befolket kontinuerligt i mindst 2.500 hundrede år. En eller anden form for katastrofe for 3.700 år siden bragte dette pludselig til ophør og udslettede alle de anslåede 40.000 til 65.000 mennesker, der beboede området dengang.

    Undersøgelser af resterne af 120 små bosættelser i regionen viste tegn på ekstrem, kollapsfremkaldende varme og vind. Keramik blev opdaget at have været udsat for varme så intens, at det smeltede i glas. Zirkonkrystaller i de glasagtige lag dannes inden for et sekund ved ekstremt høje temperaturer, måske lige så varme som solens overflade. Keramikfragmenter opdaget på Tall el-Hammam-stedet indeholdt små, sfæriske mineralkorn, der tilsyneladende regnede ned over området.

    Begivenheden var så katastrofal, at området forblev ubeboet i 600 år.

    Tegnene var klare, men katastrofens præcise karakter undgik forskere, indtil de vendte øjnene mod himlen.

    De mistænkte en enorm og kraftig meteorangreb, men manglen på et krater dæmpede dem. En effekt af denne intensitet ville helt sikkert efterlade tegn. Forskerne kom med et lidt andet scenario: et meteorisk luftbrud som et, der fandt sted for 100 år siden i Rusland.

    Tunguska er en tyndt befolket skovområde i Sibirien, Rusland. Om morgenen den 30. juni 1908 fladede en kæmpe eksplosion 770 kvadratkilometer skov. Eksplosionen tilskrives generelt en meteors luftbrud. Forskere konkluderede, at ødelæggelsen var et resultat af et luftbrud 3-6 miles over ødelæggelsesområdet. Udbruddet svarede til en 15-megaton atomeksplosion eller 1.000 gange mere kraftfuld end den første atombombe, der nogensinde blev lavet, og som blev kastet på Hiroshima 37 år senere. Der var ingen kendte menneskelige tab i Tunguska -begivenheden.

    "Ødelæggelsen ikke kun af Tall el-Hammam (Sodom), men også dens naboer (Gomorrah og de andre byer på sletten) var højst sandsynligt forårsaget af en meteoritisk luftbrud," slutter forfatterne.

    Silvia fandt også tegn på, at chokbølger fra eksplosionen skubbede en boblende saltlage af Dødehavssalte over engang frugtbare landbrugsjord.

    Den videnskabelige forklaring afspejler klart den bibelske beskrivelse af ødelæggelsen af ​​ondskabens tvillingbyer i samme område.

    Hashem regnede over Sodom og Gomorra svovlholdig ild fra Hashem ud af himlen. Han tilintetgjorde disse byer og hele sletten og alle byernes indbyggere og jordens vegetation. 1 Mosebog 19: 24-25

    Ligheden mellem deres konklusioner gik ikke tabt på forskerne. Medforfatter af forskningsartiklen, Dr. Steven Collins, skrev i en artikel i Biblical Archaeology Review-artiklen, at den bibelske beretning var et resultat af, at en reel begivenhed blev inkorporeret i det kollektive ubevidste og følgelig blev registreret i Bibelen.

    "Minderne om ødelæggelsen af ​​ha-kikkar med dens store befolkning og omfattende landbrugsjord blev bevaret i Første Mosebog og i sidste ende indarbejdet i en traditionel fortælling, der trak på det lag aske, der dækkede ødelæggelsen af ​​en af ​​dens større byer, huskede et sted, der blev fortæret af en brændende katastrofe fra 'ud af himlen', «skriver han. "Bibelen giver byens navn: Sodom."


    Videnskaben foreslår Sodom og Gomorra ødelagt af asteroider

    I Første Mosebog 19: 24-25 læser vi, ”Så regnede Herren brændende svovl ned over Sodoma og Gomorra - fra Herren ud af himlen. Således væltede han disse byer og hele sletten og ødelagde alle dem, der bor i byerne - og også vegetationen i landet. ”

    Mens teorien om et arkæologisk sted i Jordan kaldet Tall el-Hammam, der er byen Sodoma, stadig diskuteres heftigt, synes dens tilsyneladende ødelæggelse af "ild og svovl" at være mindre.

    Bliver ramt af en asteroide

    I løbet af den sidste uge offentliggjorde kristne nyhedsudsendelser artikler om teorien om, at de bibelske byer Sodoma og Gomorra blev ødelagt af et asteroideangreb.

    Efter mit sidste indlæg vedrørende opdagelsen af ​​"ruiner, der kan bevise udvandringen", var jeg lidt skeptisk. Ikke for at sige, at kristne kilder ikke kan stole på disse spørgsmål, men bibelsk arkæologi kan være modtagelig for "falske nyheder."

    For eksempel var der en historie, der cirkulerede rundt på sociale medieplatforme om "opdagelsen" af en gammel egyptisk hær på bunden af ​​Det Røde Hav. Det skete aldrig. Det er derfor, jeg altid kontrollerer opdagelser mod verdslige kilder.

    Tall el-Hammums ødelæggelse

    I løbet af de sidste 13 år har forskere studeret ruinerne ved Tall el-Hammum. Vores egen Nate Sala skrev et stykke om det, tilbage i 2015. Så selve siden har været kendt i et godt stykke tid.

    Selv tilbage i 2015 troede Dr. Stephen Collins, en arkæolog, der arbejdede på stedet, at det blev ødelagt af en begivenhed, der afspejlede Tunguska -begivenheden.

    Efter at have gennemsøgt internettet fandt jeg ud af, at videnskab fra sekulære kilder bakkede op om, hvad Dr. Collins foreslog for mange år siden.

    Ifølge Tech Times, ”En massiv asteroideeksplosion for 3.700 år siden udslettede de bibelske byer Sodom og Gomorra, der udslettede de tidlige civilisationer i det nordlige Dødehav, har arkæologer fundet. ”

    ”Ifølge forskningen viste mineraler fundet på stedet, at en stor, kraftig asteroideeksplosion var sket og udryddede de tidlige mennesker, der boede der. Forskere foretog også carbon dating for at estimere, hvornår den katastrofale hændelse var sket i Sodoma og Gomorra.

    Arkæolog Philip Silvia fra Trinity Southwest University og hans team har gravet stedet i over 10 år. De forklarede, at eksplosionen påvirkede cirka 500 km2, hvilket let ville have sprøjtet alle nærliggende byer og dræbt omkring 40.000 til 60.000 mennesker, der bor på det 25 kilometer brede sted. ”

    Det fortalte en Forbes -artikel om emnet “... fundene stammer fra udgravningen af ​​det arkæologiske sted Tall el-Hammam i Jordan, mange tror, ​​at det samme sted engang var kendt som Sodoma.

    Ja, som i Sodoma og Gomorra fra Bibelen, Torahen og Koranen - syndens byer angiveligt ødelagt med svovl og ild sendt fra Gud. ”

    Asteroid Strike Beviser Bibelen?

    For at være klar viser udsigten til, at Sodom og Gomorra blev ødelagt af "ild og svovl" som følge af et asteroideangreb ikke nødvendigvis, at Bibelens Gud eksisterer. Hvad jeg dog vil sige er, at det er endnu et lille, men betydningsfuldt bevis, der stemmer overens med den bibelske beretning.


    Arkæolog mener at have opdaget placeringen af ​​bibelsk Sodoma, men en ting forbliver et mysterium

    Efter 10 års gravearbejde mener arkæolog Steven Collins fra Trinity Southwest University of New Mexico og hans team, at de har opdaget placeringen af ​​Bibelsk Sodom i den sydlige Jordan -dal i Jordan, cirka 14 kilometer nordøst for Det Døde Hav. De kæmper dog for at løse et dybt mysterium.

    Byen med sine massive mure, paladser, administrative bygninger og det omkringliggende landbrugsområde blomstrede og dominerede regionen i 3.000 år. Baseret på beviser fundet på stedet for omkring 4.000 år siden blev hele området pludselig ubeboet i over 700 år. Arkæologer og forskere forsøger at finde ud af hvorfor.

    Mens han gravede ved udgravningsprojektet Tall el-Hammam, studerede Collins grundigt beretninger om Sodom og forklarede til Populær arkæologi, "Tall el-Hammam syntes at matche alle Sodom-kriterier, som teksten kræver."

    Vi ved meget lidt om bronzealderen i den sydlige del af Jordan River Valley. De fleste arkæologiske kort over området var tomme. Men det, vi har fundet, er en vigtig bystat, som var ukendt, før vores projekt begyndte, ”sagde han.

    ”Tall el-Hammam matcher beskrivelsen af ​​det område, hvor Sodom lå i henhold til Bibelen. Det siges at være den største by øst for Kikkar. Da vi udforskede regionen, var Tall el-Hammam et oplagt valg, da det var fem til ti gange større end de andre bronzealderbyer i hele regionen, også dem, der findes ud over Jordan. ”

    Et af de kendetegn ved Sodom, der er nævnt i Bibelen, er områdets utrolige rigdom. Lot, Abrahams nevø, der undslap Sodoma, da den blev ødelagt, valgte Jordan -dalen til denne særlige egenskab (1 Mosebog 13:10). Området Tall el-Hammam passer godt til den beskrivelse. Gårdene i området udnyttede den årlige oversvømmelse af Jordanfloden og plantede i det nyligt deponerede rige silt, da flodvandene trak sig tilbage.

    Sodom blev også noteret i Bibelen for homoseksualitet. Collins tilbyder en teori om at knytte sine fund til det aspekt af den bibelske fortælling, herunder arkæologiske beviser, der indikerer, at homoseksualitet var en accepteret del af Tall el-Hammam-kulturen.

    Den er ret stor og har et porthus med søjler, hvorigennem man ville komme ind i byen, forklarede Collins. Sådan en søjlearkitektur er mere Ægæer end kanaanitisk eller levantinsk, hvilket tyder på en forbindelse til minoernes og mykenæernes verden. ”

    Mange af de arkitektoniske og kunstneriske motiver, der findes i Tall el-Hammam, styrker denne kulturelle forbindelse. Ifølge Collins er der dokumenteret bevis på, at Creat Minoans praktiserede homoseksualitet som en del af deres kultur. Baseret på beviser, der indikerer den stærke kulturelle forbindelse mellem Creat Minoans med Tall el-Hammam, er det sandsynligt, at de også har anvendt denne praksis.

    Det Døde Hav, Israel. (Foto: xta11/ Wiki Commons)

    Stedet støder op til Det Døde Hav, som har en saltholdighed på 34 procent. Denne unikke egenskab dækker klipperne på kysten i tykke lag salt. Dette er i overensstemmelse med den bibelske beretning, der beskriver at Lots kone vender sig til en saltstøtte.

    Engang mellem 2000-1540 fvt blev byen og det omkringliggende område ubeboet. Indledende test viser, at der ikke eksisterede noget liv i det område i omkring 700 år, men det arkæologiske team har ikke fundet beviser for denne pludselige og varige øde.

    Ledetråde til dette mysterium kan også findes i bibelens fortælling. Ødelæggelsen af ​​Sodoma beskrives som at Gud regner ned med brændende svovl eller i andre oversættelser ild og svovl (1 Mos 19:24). På Tall -stedet blev der opdaget et lag aske, og resterne af et palads er farvet røde fra at brænde. Derudover viser keramikskår tegn på udsættelse for ekstremt høje temperaturer. Normalt er bevis på brand på sådanne steder resultatet af en militær aktion, men en militær erobring vil normalt blive fulgt af en besættelse, og det ville bestemt ikke stå for 700 års øde.

    Collins tilbyder sin egen teori bemærkelsesværdigt bibelsk. Ifølge Collins ville en enorm eksplosion over byen, som den forårsaget af en massiv meteor, stå for alle beviserne. Han beskriver det som et "luftbrud". Så fantastisk som det lyder, blev en lignende begivenhed dokumenteret i Mesopotamien omkring 2200 fvt og krediteret at have forstyrret denne civilisation.

    Tall el-Hammam Excavation Project er et eksempel på, hvordan forskere med succes bruger Bibelen som en autoritativ kilde til at lære mere om verden omkring os. I tilfælde af Sodom opdagede Steven Collins, at det, de fleste mennesker forstår som en bibelsk myte, faktisk var korrekt på de mest forbløffende måder.


    Bevis for asteroideffekt for Sodoma og Gomorra?

    En Cuneiform lertavle, der har forvirret forskere i over 150 år, menes nu at beskrive en asteroidepåvirkning i 3123 f.Kr. i Østrig. Forskere mener, at tabletten, der tilsyneladende beskriver en katastrofal hændelse, kan redegøre for den bibelske fortælling om Sodoma og Gomorra. Ingen omtale af saltstøtter på lertavlen.

    Geologer opdagede beviser for et kæmpe jordskred centreret i Köfels, Østrig tilbage i det 19. århundrede. Med en tykkelse på 500 meter og fem kilometer i diameter forsøgte dette jordskred mystificerede forskere at finde ud af, hvorfor en sådan hændelse opstod. Nogle forskere mente, at jordskredet kan have været forårsaget af en meteoritpåvirkning på grund af tegn på knusende pres og eksplosioner. Men der var intet krater, så det så ikke ud som et nedslagssted skulle, og virkningsteorien faldt i unåde. Men forskere vidste, at dette ikke bare var et almindeligt jordskred.

    Men ny forskning bringer effektteorien tilbage i spil. Den er centreret om et andet mysterium fra det 19. århundrede, en kileskriftstavle i British Museum, kendt som "Planisfæren". Det blev fundet i resterne af biblioteket på Royal Place i Nineveh og blev fremstillet af en assyrisk skriver omkring 700 f.Kr. Det er et astronomisk værk med tegninger af konstellationer, og teksten har kendte konstellationsnavne. Lertavlen har tiltrukket stor opmærksomhed, men indtil nu er der ikke kommet nogen med en overbevisende forklaring på, hvad det er.

    Alan Bond og Mark Hempsell fra Bristol University brugte computerprogrammer til at simulere baner og rekonstruere nattehimlen for tusinder af år siden for at fastslå, hvad Planisphere -tabletten refererer til. Det er en kopi af natbogen til en sumerisk astronom, da han registrerer begivenhederne på himlen før daggry den 29. juni 3123 f.Kr. (julianske kalender). Halvdelen af ​​tabletten registrerer planetens positioner og skydække, men den anden halvdel af tabletten registrerer et objekt, der er stort nok til, at dets form kan noteres, selvom det stadig er i rummet. Astronomen noterede sig nøjagtigt sin bane i forhold til stjernerne, hvilket med en fejl bedre end en grad er i overensstemmelse med en påvirkning på Köfels.

    Observationen tyder på, at asteroiden er over en kilometer i diameter, og den oprindelige bane om Solen var en Aten -type, en klasse af asteroider, der kredser tæt på jorden, og som er resonant med Jordens kredsløb. Denne bane forklarer, hvorfor der ikke er noget krater på Köfels. Den indkommende vinkel var meget lav (seks grader) og betyder, at asteroiden klippede et bjerg tæt ved byen Lengenfeld, 11 kilometer fra Köfels, og dette fik asteroiden til at eksplodere, før den nåede sit endelige slagpunkt. Da den rejste ned ad dalen, blev den til en ildkugle, cirka fem kilometer i diameter (jordskredets størrelse). Da det ramte Köfels, skabte det enorme pres, der pulveriserede klippen og forårsagede jordskredet, men fordi det ikke længere var et solidt objekt, skabte det ikke et klassisk slagkrater.

    Mark Hempsell, der antydede Sodoms og Gomorras mulige skæbne, tilføjede: “En anden konklusion kan drages af banen. Bagsiden fra eksplosionen (svampeskyen) ville blive bøjet over Middelhavet og igen komme ind i atmosfæren over Levanten, Sinai og det nordlige Egypten. Jordvarmen, selvom den er meget kort, ville være nok til at antænde ethvert brandfarligt materiale, herunder menneskehår og tøj. Det er sandsynligt, at flere mennesker døde under ruden end i Alperne på grund af nedslaget .â €

    Dette bevis ser ud til at falde sammen med den bibelske historie om de legendariske huler i vice (â € œDerefter regnede Herren brændende svovl ned over Sodoma og Gomorra – fra Herren ud af himlenâ € Genesis Genesis 19:24) men det & #8217s er aldrig blevet kategorisk bevist, at byerne faktisk eksisterede på deres mistænkte sted tæt på Det Døde Hav. Og historien om Lot ’s kone, der blev til en søjle af salt for at vende om for at overvære kaoset, er også bare bibelsk legende.

    Den fulde oversættelse af tabletten sammen med analysen, der understøtter disse konklusioner, findes i bogen "A Sumerian Observation of the Kofelsâ € Impact Event" af Bond og Hempsell.


    Bevis for atomkrig i en fjern fortid: ødelæggelsen af ​​Sodoma og Gomorra

    Som deltager i Amazon Services LLC Associates -programmet kan dette websted tjene på kvalificerede køb. Vi kan også optjene provision på køb fra andre detailwebsteder.

    Historien, der taler om Sodom og Gomorra, er meget interessant, ikke kun ved fortællinger om ødelæggelse, men også om de særegne personligheder, der er involveret som englene, der advarede Lot om at forlade de dødsdømte byer. Lot blev faktisk advaret om, at disse byer ville lide en katastrofal skæbne, noget som gamle astronautteoretikere har tolket som en advarsel, før byerne blev bombarderet af udenjordiske væsener med højteknologiske våben.

    Sodoma og Gomorra er sandsynligvis to af de mest berygtede byer, der har eksisteret på planeten Jorden. Disse byer er gået tabt i årtusinde, og først i de senere år er lokaliteterne foreløbigt blevet identificeret af forskere, der har foreslået snesevis af forskellige teorier om de historiske byer.

    Det Døde Hav er indeholdt i en nedsænket blok, der er begrænset af to parallelle geologiske fejl, en konfiguration, der ifølge forskere angiver en katastrofal oprindelse. Denne mærkelige depression var ikke forårsaget af vand, og Det Døde Hav er faktisk ikke et hav, men er snarere en sø, der ikke har nogen udgange. Ifølge almindelig videnskab forårsagede de naturlige processer i løbet af Miocene -perioden (fra 7 millioner til 26 millioner år siden) brud, der følgelig dannede depressionen i Det Døde Hav. Ødelæggelsen af ​​Sodoma og Gomorra menes ikke at have været en isoleret begivenhed.

    Nogle forskere er kommet frem og antyder, at Sodom og Gomorra, er Hiroshima og Nagasaki fra en fjern fortid, for over 4000 år siden.

    Her er hvad Bibelen siger:
    (1 Mosebog 18:20 19: 24-26,28)
    24 Så regnede Herren brændende svovl ned over Sodoma og Gomorra - fra Herren ud af himlen. 25 Således væltede han disse byer og hele sletten og ødelagde alle dem, der bor i byerne - og også vegetationen i landet. 26 Men Lots kone så tilbage, og hun blev en søjle af salt.

    27 Tidligt næste morgen stod Abraham op og vendte tilbage til det sted, hvor han havde stået for Herren. 28 Han så ned mod Sodoma og Gomorra, mod hele slettens land, og han så tæt røg stige op af landet, som røg fra en ovn.

    Vi ved, at Det Døde Havs overflade og kyster er 429 meter (1.407 fod) under havets overflade, Jordens ’s laveste højde på land. Det Døde Hav er 304 m (997 fod) dybt, den dybeste hyper-saltvandssø i verden. Med 34,2%saltindhold (i 2011) er det også et af verdens mest salte vandmasser, selvom Vanda -søen i Antarktis (35%), Assalsøen i Djibouti (34,8%) Jordan og mange mindre floder løber ud i de døde Hav. Jordanfloden har en stor betydning for jødedom og kristendom og i mere moderat grad islam som stedet, hvor israelitterne krydsede ind i det forjættede land, og hvor Jesus fra Nazareth blev døbt af Johannes Døberen. Fordampning under den brændende sol finder sted på overfladen af ​​Det Døde Hav med en hastighed på mere end 230 millioner kubikfod om dagen. Ifølge den arabiske tradition fordamper der mange giftige gasser fra søen, der er så farlige, at fugle ikke kan flyve over den.

    Historisk standardteori om ødelæggelsen af ​​Sodoma og Gomorra, som skrevet i “Bibelen som historie i billederne ” af Werner Keller, fastholder, at byerne i Sidim -dalen blev ødelagt, da en tektonisk pladebevægelse fik Great Rift Valley –, som Det Døde Hav er en havn i, til at flytte og området i den sydlige ende af Det Døde Hav sank. Keller indrømmer imidlertid, at der er et alvorligt problem med denne teori om en katastrofe i Siddim -dalen, ifølge Keller:

    Især skal vi huske, at der ikke kan være tvivl om, at Jordan -sprækket blev dannet før omkring 4000 f.Kr. Ifølge den seneste fremstilling af kendsgerningerne stammer oprindelsen af ​​revnen tilbage til Oligocæn, den tredje ældste fase i tertiærperioden. Vi må derfor ikke tænke i tusinder, men på millioner af år. Voldelig vulkansk aktivitet forbundet med Jordansprækket har vist sig at have fundet sted siden da, men alligevel kommer vi ikke længere end til Pleistocæn, der ophørte for cirka ti tusinde år siden. Bestemt kommer vi ikke i nærheden af ​​det tredje, endnu mindre det andet årtusinde før Kristus, den periode, det vil sige, hvor patriarkerne traditionelt er placeret.

    Derudover er det præcist syd for Lisan -halvøen, hvor der rapporteres at Sodom og Gomorra er blevet tilintetgjort, at sporene efter tidligere vulkansk aktivitet ophører. Kort sagt, beviserne på dette område på en ganske nylig katastrofe, der udslettede byer og blev ledsaget af voldelig vulkansk aktivitet, er ikke givet af geologernes fund.

    I slutningen af ​​1999 blev en ny teori foreslået af Michael Sanders og et internationalt team af forskere, der efter flere anspændte ugers dykning i en mini-ubåd opdagede, hvad der syntes at være salt indlejret i resterne af gamle bosættelser på havbunden.

    Interessant nok havde Sanders opdaget et ejendommeligt kort, der dateres tilbage til 1650, hvilket var med til at forstærke hans tro på, at disse to byer kunne have været placeret i det nordlige bassin og ikke den sydlige ende af Det Døde Hav. Han modtog hjælp fra Richard Slater, en amerikansk geolog og ekspert i dybhavsdykning, der tog ham til dybden af ​​Det Døde Hav i mini-ubåden Delta med en kapacitet på to mand. Placeringen af ​​Sodom og Gomorra i den dybe ende i det nordlige Dødehav er ifølge Sanders endnu mere modstridende til historien, som Keller postulerede.

    Hvad nu hvis disse byer ikke blev ødelagt i en geologisk katastrofe, men snarere af en apokalypse forårsaget af indgriben fra guddommelige væsener, eller som nogle antyder, udenjordiske væsener. Blev Sodom og Gomorra angrebet med atomvåben, ligesom Hiroshima og Nagasaki?

    Forsker LM Lewis hævder i sin bog Footprints on the Sands of Time: Da Hiroshima blev genopbygget, viste det sig, at strækninger af sandjord var blevet atomisk ændret til et stof, der lignede et glaseret silicium, der var gennemsyret af et saltvandskrystalloid. Små blokke af dette blev skåret fra massen og solgt til turister som souvenirs i byen – og som en atomaktiv handling.

    Havde en endnu større eksplosion pulveriseret hver sten i hver bygning – og havde den komplette by forsvundet i luften – ville der stadig have været fortællinger om, hvad der var sket i udkanten af ​​ødelæggelsesområdet. På nogle punkter ville der helt sikkert være en markant forskel i jorden eller en atomisk ændring i et eller andet notatobjekt.


    'Temperaturer lige så varme som solens overflade ': Fandt forskere beviser for ødelæggelsen af ​​bibelsk Sodom?

    Arkæologer mener, at de har fundet tegn på en eksplosion som følge af en meteorangreb i lav højde, der kan have været ansvarlig for at ødelægge byer, landsbyer og landbrugsjord for 3.700 år siden i et område nord for Det Døde Hav.

    Science News rapporterer, at arkæologiske beviser afsløret af et videnskabeligt team indikerer, at der fandt sted en massiv eksplosion i regionen, der lignede en, der ramte en fjerntliggende del af Rusland for mere end et århundrede siden.

    En gigantisk eksplosion skete nær Sibiriens Stony Tunguska -flod, der væltede træer som tændstikker i den omgivende skov og dækkede et samlet areal på 770 kvadratkilometer (2.000 kilometer). Gennem årene har forskere tilskrevet eksplosionen luftudbruddet af en meteor tre til seks miles over jorden, da der aldrig er fundet et nedslagskrater. Tunguska -begivenheden er den største indvirkning på Jorden i registreret historie, ifølge Wikipedia.

    Selvom den ikke var så stor som Tunguska-begivenheden, ødelagde den resulterende eksplosion fra luftbruddet i Dødehavsregionen civilisationen i en radius på 15,5 mil i et område kendt som Middle Ghor, ifølge Science News. Arkæolog og direktør for videnskabelig analyse ved Jordans Tall el-Hammam Udgravningsprojekt Phillip J. Silvia fortalte magasinet, at 40.000 til 65.000 mennesker blev dræbt øjeblikkeligt, da meteorens luftudbrud skete.

    Som et eksempel på den ekstreme varme, der genereres ved eksplosionen, viser glasuren på genvundne potteskår i bronzealderbyen Tall el-Hammam, at regionen oplevede høje nok temperaturer til at konvertere dem til glas. Temperaturerne var "måske lige så varme som solens overflade," fortalte Silva til magasinet. Silva har udgravet Tall el-Hammam siden 2005.

    Det tog 600 år efter begivenheden "at komme sig tilstrækkeligt fra jordens ødelæggelse og forurening, før civilisationen igen kunne blive etableret i den østlige Middle Ghor," skrev Silva og hans team i et papir, de for nylig præsenterede på et møde i American Schools of Oriental Forskning i Denver, Colorado.

    Men kunne dette være stedet for den bibelske historie om Sodoma? The Times of Israel rapporterer en artikel i Biblical Archaeology Review fra 2013 af TeHEP-meddirektør Dr. Steven Collins, tyder på, at Tall el-Hammam-stedet er en stærk kandidat til den bibelske by Sodoma på grund af en lang række faktorer. Byens placering mener han svarer til de bibelske referencer til "ha-kikkar" eller "sletten".

    I sin artikel citerer Collins 1. Mosebog 19: 24–25:

    "Then the Lord rained down burning sulfur on Sodom and Gomorrah — from the Lord out of the heavens. Thus He overthrew those cities and the entire plain, including all those living in the cities — and also the vegetation in the land."

    Collins writes he could see the massive destruction in the archaeological evidence recovered at the site.

    "The violent conflagration that ended occupation at Tall el-Hammam produced melted pottery, scorched foundation stones and several feet of ash and destruction debris churned into a dark gray matrix as if in a Cuisinart," he noted.

    In another co-authored paper, Silva and Collins wrote "The physical evidence from Tall el-Hammam and neighboring sites exhibit signs of a highly destructive concussive and thermal event that one might expect from what is described in Genesis 19."

    "The destruction not only of Tall el-Hammam (Sodom), but also its neighbors (Gomorrah and the other cities of the plain) was most likely caused by a meteoritic airburst event," the authors conclude.

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    List of Figures
    List of Tables
    Forord
    Acknowledgements

    1. The Genesis Account
    2. The Dead Sea
    3. The Canaanites
    4. Bitumen in Antiquity – Sources, Recovery and Processing
    5. Bitumen in Antiquity – Applications and Trade
    6. Mineral Resources in Antiquity
    7. Earthquakes and Landslides
    8. The Destruction
    9. Konklusioner

    Appendix I. A Note on Radio-Carbon Dating
    Tillæg II. Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity


    Indhold

    According to the Torah, the kingdoms of Sodom and Gomorrah were allied with the cities of Admah, Zeboim, and Bela. These five cities, also known as the "cities of the plain" (a phrase taken from Genesis in the King James Version), were situated on the Jordan River plain in the southern region of the land of Canaan. The plain was compared to the garden of Eden [Gen.13:10] as being well-watered and green, suitable for grazing livestock. Divine judgment was passed upon them and four of them were consumed by fire and brimstone. Neighboring Zoar (Bela) was the only city to be spared. In Abrahamic religions, Sodom and Gomorrah have become synonymous with impenitent sin, and their fall with a proverbial manifestation of divine retribution. [5] [6] [Jude 1:7] The Bible mentions that the cities were destroyed for their sins, haughtiness, egoism, and attempted rape.

    Sodom and Gomorrah have been used historically and in modern discourse as metaphors for homosexuality, and are the origin of the English words sodomite, a pejorative term for male homosexuals, and sodomy, which is used in a legal context under the label "crimes against nature" to describe anal or oral sex (particularly homosexual) and bestiality. [7] [8] [9] This is based upon exegesis of the Biblical text interpreting divine judgement upon Sodom and Gomorrah as punishment for the sin of homosexual sex. A number of contemporary scholars dispute this interpretation. [10] [11] [12] Some Islamic societies incorporate punishments associated with Sodom and Gomorrah into sharia. [13]

    The etymology of both names is uncertain, and scholars disagree about them. [14]

    According to Bob Macdonald, the Hebrew term for Gomorrah was based on the Semitic root ʿ-m-r, which means "be deep", "copious (water)". [17]

    The Book of Genesis is the primary source that mentions the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah.

    Battle of Siddim Edit

    The Battle of Siddim is described in Genesis 14:1–17. Lot is encamped within the borders of Sodom at a time when "the men of Sodom [are] wicked and sinners before the Lord exceedingly". Sodom and Gomorrah are ruled by Bera and Birsha, respectively, although their kingship is not sovereign because the Jordan plain has been under the rule of Chedorlaomer the Elamite for twelve years.

    In the thirteenth year of their subjugation, the five kings of the Jordan plain—Bera, Birsha, Shinab of Admah, Shemeber of Zeboiim, and the unnamed king of Bela (later called Zoar)—ally to rebel against Elam. The following year, Chedorlaomer gathers forces from Shinar, Ellasar and Goyim to suppress the rebellion in the Vale of Siddim. The cities of the plain take heavy losses and are defeated. Sodom and Gomorrah are despoiled and captives are taken, among them Lot.

    The tide turns when Lot's uncle, Abraham, gathers an elite force that slaughters the hosts of Chedorlaomer in Hobah, north of Damascus, freeing the cities of the plain from the grip of Elam.

    Judgment upon Sodom and Gomorrah Edit

    The story of the judgment of Sodom and Gomorrah is told in Genesis 18–19. Three men come to Abraham in the plains of Mamre. After the angels received the hospitality of Abraham and Sarah, the Lord reveals to Abraham that he would confirm what he had heard against Sodom and Gomorrah, "and because their sin is very grievous."

    The two angels proceed to Sodom, and Abraham inquires if the Lord will spare the city should fifty righteous people be found within it, to which the Lord agrees. Abraham then pleads for mercy at successively lower numbers—first forty-five, then forty, then thirty, then twenty, and finally ten—with the Lord agreeing each time. [18]

    The angels are met by Abraham's nephew Lot, who convinces them to lodge with him, and he serves them a meal.

    4 But before they lay down, the men of the city, even the men of Sodom, compassed the house round, both young and old, all the people from every quarter.
    5 And they called unto Lot, and said unto him: 'Where are the men that came in to thee this night? Bring them out unto us, that we may know them.' (NRSV: know them, NIV: can have sex with them, NJB: can have intercourse with them).

    Lot refused to give his guests to the inhabitants of Sodom and, instead, offered them his two virgin daughters "which have not known man" and to "do ye to them as [is] good in your eyes". They refused this offer, complained about this alien, namely Lot, judging them, and then came near to break down the door. Lot's angelic guests rescued him and struck the men with blindness and they informed Lot of their mission to destroy the city, then they commanded Lot to gather his family and leave. As they made their escape, one angel commanded Lot to "look not behind thee" (singular "thee"). As Sodom and Gomorrah were being destroyed with brimstone and fire from the Lord, Lot's wife looked back at the city, and she became a pillar of salt. [19] [20] [21] [22]

    The Hebrew Bible contains several other references to Sodom and Gomorrah. The New Testament also contains passages of parallels to the destruction and surrounding events that pertained to these cities and those who were involved. Later deuterocanonical texts attempt to glean additional insights about these cities of the Jordan Plain and their residents. Additionally, the sins which triggered the destruction are reminiscent of the Book of Judges' account of The Levite's Concubine. [23]

    Hebrew Bible Edit

    "Sodom and Gomorrah" becomes a byword for destruction and desolation. Moses referred to the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah in Deuteronomy 29:22–23 :

    So that the generation to come of your children that shall rise up after you, and the stranger that shall come from a far land, shall say, when they see the plagues of that land, and the sicknesses which the Lord hath laid upon it And that the whole land thereof is brimstone, and salt, and burning, that is not sown, nor beareth, nor any grass groweth therein, like the overthrow of Sodom, and Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboim, which the Lord overthrew in his anger, and in his wrath.—KJV

    Isaiah 1:9–10 , Isaiah 3:9 and Isaiah 13:19–22 addresses people as from Sodom and Gomorrah, associates Sodom with shameless sinning and tells Babylon that it will end like those two cities.

    Jeremiah 23:14 , Jeremiah 49:17–18 , Jeremiah 50:39–40 and Lamentations 4:6 associate Sodom and Gomorrah with adultery and lies, prophesy the fate of Edom (south of the Dead Sea), predict the fate of Babylon and use Sodom as a comparison.

    In Ezekiel 16:48–50 , God compares Jerusalem to Sodom, saying "Sodom thy sister hath not done, she nor her daughters, as thou hast done, thou and thy daughters." He explains that the sin of Sodom was that "thy sister, Sodom, pride, fulness of bread, and abundance of idleness was in her and in her daughters, neither did she strengthen the hand of the poor and needy. And they were haughty, and committed abomination before me: therefore I took them away as I saw good." [24]

    In Amos 4:1–11 , God tells the Israelites that although he treated them like Sodom and Gomorrah, they still did not repent.

    In Zephaniah 2:9 , Zephaniah tells Moab and Ammon, southeast and northeast of the Dead Sea, that they will end up like Sodom and Gomorrah.

    New Testament Edit

    In Matthew 10:1–15 , cf. Luke 10:1–12 , Jesus declares certain cities more damnable than Sodom and Gomorrah, due to their lack of response to Jesus' disciples:

    "And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear your words, when ye depart out of that house or city, shake off the dust from your feet. Verily I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgement, than for that city."(KJV)

    In Matthew 11:20–24 , Jesus prophesies the fate of some cities where he did some of his works (KJV):

    "And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted unto heaven, shalt be brought down to Hell: for if the mighty works which have been done in thee, had been done in Sodom it would have remained until this day. But I say unto you, That it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgement, than for thee"

    In Luke 17:28–30 , Jesus compares his Second Coming to the judgment of Sodom and Gomorrah (KJV):

    "Likewise also as it was in the days of Lot they did eat, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they builded, but the same day that Lot went out of Sodom it rained fire and brimstone from heaven and destroyed them all. Even thus will it be in the day when the Son of man is revealed."

    In Romans 9:29 , Paul the Apostle quotes Isaiah 1:9 (KJV): "Except the Lord of Sabaoth had left us a seed, we had been as Sodoma [Sodom] and been made like unto Gomorrah."

    In 2 Peter 2:4–10 , Saint Peter says that just as God destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah and saved Lot, he will deliver godly people from temptations and punish the wicked on Judgement Day.

    Jude 1:7 records that both Sodom and Gomorrah were "giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire".

    Revelation 11:7–8 makes an allegorical use of Sodom when it describes the places where the two witnesses will descend during the Apocalypse.

    Deuterocanon Edit

    Wisdom rescued a righteous man when the ungodly were perishing he escaped the fire that descended on the Five Cities. Evidence of their wickedness still remains: a continually smoking wasteland, plants bearing fruit that does not ripen, and a pillar of salt standing as a monument to an unbelieving soul. For because they passed wisdom by, they not only were hindered from recognizing the good, but also left for mankind a reminder of their folly, so that their failures could never go unnoticed.

    Wisdom 19:17 says that the Egyptians who enslaved the Israelites were "struck with blindness, like the men of Sodom who came to the door of that righteous man Lot. They found themselves in total darkness, as each one groped around to find his own door."

    Sirach 16:8 says "[God] did not spare the neighbors of Lot, whom he loathed on account of their insolence."

    In 3 Maccabees 2:5 , the high priest Simon says that God "consumed with fire and sulphur the men of Sodom who acted arrogantly, who were notorious for their vices and you made them an example to those who should come afterward".

    2 Esdras 2:8–9 says "Woe to you, Assyria, who conceal the unrighteous in your midst! O wicked nation, remember what I did to Sodom and Gomor′rah, whose land lies in lumps of pitch and heaps of ashes. So will I do to those who have not listened to me, says the Lord Almighty."

    2 Esdras 5:1–13 describes signs of the end times, one of which is that "the sea of Sodom shall cast up fish".

    In 2 Esdras 7:106 , Ezra says that Abraham prayed for the people of Sodom.

    Chapter 12 of 1 Meqabyan, a book considered canonical in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, references "Gemorra an Sedom".

    There are other stories and historical names which bear a resemblance to the biblical stories of Sodom and Gomorrah. Some possible natural explanations for the events described have been proposed, but no widely accepted or strongly verified sites for the cities have been found.

    Sites Edit

    The stories of Sodom and Gomorrah and their destruction, whether historical or not, were clearly understood to have been set near the Dead Sea, among the so-called "cities of the plain" mentioned in Genesis 13:12. There have been various proposals and attempts to locate the Canaanite pentapolis situated around the Dead Sea. Many locations have been proposed for the infamous cities, ranging from north-east to south-west of the Dead Sea. No archaeological site or ruin has, or thus far, can be, reliably determined as Sodom eller Gomorrah.

    The ancient Greek historiographer Strabo states that locals living near Moasada (as opposed to Masada) say that "there were once thirteen inhabited cities in that region of which Sodom was the metropolis". [25] Strabo identifies a limestone and salt hill at the southwestern tip of the Dead Sea, and Kharbet Usdum (Hebrew: הר סדום ‎, Har Sedom or Arabic: جبل السدوم ‎, Jabal(u) 'ssudūm) ruins nearby as the site of biblical Sodom. [26] Archibald Sayce translated an Akkadian poem describing cities that were destroyed in a rain of fire, written from the view of a person who escaped the destruction the names of the cities are not given. [27] Sayce later mentions that the story more closely resembles the doom of Sennacherib's host. [28]

    The Jewish historian Josephus identifies the Dead Sea in geographic proximity to the ancient biblical city of Sodom. He refers to the lake by its Greek name, Asphaltites. [29]

    Southern theory Edit

    In 1973, Walter E. Rast and R. Thomas Schaub discovered or visited a number of possible sites of the cities, including Bab edh-Dhra, which was originally excavated in 1965 by archaeologist Paul Lapp, and later finished by Rast and Schaub following his death. Other possibilities include Numeira, al-Safi, Feifa (or Fifa, Feifah), and Khirbet al-Khanazir, which were also visited by Schaub and Rast. However, in 1993 Nancy Lapp, from Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, reported that Feifa had no Bronze Age occupation and merely an Early Bronze Age (EB) cemetery with Iron Age walls. She reports: "In the final season of the present series of excavations of the Expedition to the Dead Sea Plain (1990–1991), the walled site of Feifa was investigated and the EB cemetery that stretched to its east was excavated. The most recent surveys suggested that the visible structures of the walled site belonged to the Iron Age or Roman period." [30] At khirbet al-Khanazir the walls which Rast and Schaub identified in 1973 as houses were in reality rectangular charnel burial houses marking EB IV shaft tombs and not occupational structures. [31] [32] [33] According to Schaub, who dug at Bab edh-Dhra, Numeira was destroyed in 2600 BCE at a different time period than Bab edh-Dhra (2350–2067 BCE). [34]

    Northern theory Edit

    Another candidate for Sodom is the Tall el-Hammam dig site which began in 2006 under the direction of Steven Collins. Tall el-Hammam is located in the southern Jordan river valley approximately 14 kilometres (9 mi) northeast of the Dead Sea, and according to Collins fits the biblical descriptions of the lands of Sodom. [35] [36] The ongoing dig is a result of joint cooperation between Trinity Southwest University and the Department of Antiquities of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. [37]

    Professor Eugene H. Merrill believes that the identification of Tall el-Hammam with Sodom would require an unacceptable restructuring of the biblical chronology. [38] [39] [40]

    Natural disaster Edit

    It has been theorized that if the story does have a historical basis, the cities may have been destroyed by a natural disaster. One such idea is that the Dead Sea was devastated by an earthquake between 2100 and 1900 BCE. This might have unleashed showers of steaming tar. [41] It is possible that the towns were destroyed by an earthquake, especially if they lay along a major fault such as the Jordan Rift Valley, however there are no known contemporary accounts of seismic activity that corroborate this theory. [42]

    Andre hypoteser Rediger

    In 1976, Giovanni Pettinato claimed that a cuneiform tablet that had been found in the newly discovered library at Ebla contained the names of all five of the cities of the plain (Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboim, and Bela), listed in the same order as in Genesis. The names si-da-mu [TM.76.G.524] and ì-ma-ar [TM.75.G.1570 and TM.75.G.2233] were identified as representing Sodom and Gomorrah, which gained some acceptance at the time. [43] However, Alfonso Archi states that, judging from the surrounding city names in the cuneiform list, si-da-mu lies in northern Syria and not near the Dead Sea, and ì-ma-ar is a variant of ì-mar, known to represent Emar, an ancient city located near Ebla. [44] Today, the scholarly consensus is that "Ebla has no bearing on . Sodom and Gomorra." [45]

    Jewish Edit

    Though later Hebrew prophets named the sins of Sodom and Gomorrah as adultery, [46] pridefulness, [47] and uncharitableness, [48] the vast majority of exegesis related to the stories of Sodom and Gomorrah view it as an exemplative condemnation of homosexuality. Rabbi Basil Herring, who served as head of the Rabbinical Council of America from 2003 to 2012, writes that both the Rabbinic tradition and modern orthodox position consider the Torah to condemn homosexuality as an abomination. Moreover, that it "conveys its abhorrence of homosexuality through a variety of narrative settings", God's judgment of Sodom and Gomorrah being a "paradigmatic" instance of such condemnation. [49]

    Rictor Norton views classical Jewish texts as stressing the cruelty and lack of hospitality of the inhabitants of Sodom to the "stranger". [50] The people of Sodom were seen as guilty of many other significant sins. Rabbinic writings affirm that the Sodomites also committed economic crimes, blasphemy, and bloodshed. [51]

    Other extrabiblical crimes committed by Sodom and Gomorrah included extortion on crossing a bridge/or swimming a river, harshly punishing victims for crimes that the perpetrator committed, forcing an assault victim to pay for the perpetrator's "bleeding" [52] and forcing a woman to marry a man who intentionally caused her miscarriage to compensate for the lost child. Because of this, the judges of the two cities were referred to as Shakrai ("Liar"), Shakurai ("Awful Liar"), Zayyafi ("Forger") and Mazle Dina ("Perverter of Justice"). Eliezer was reported to be a victim of such legally unjust conduct, after Sarah sent him to Sodom to report on Lot's welfare. The citizens also regularly tortured foreigners who sought lodging. They did this by providing the foreigners a standard-sized beds and if they saw that the foreigners were too short for the beds, they would forcibly stretch their limbs but if the foreigners were too tall, they would cut off their legs. [53] [54] As a result, many people refrained from visiting Sodom and Gomorrah. Beggars who settled into the two cities for refuge were similarly mistreated. The citizens would give them marked coins (presumably used to purchase food) but were nonetheless forbidden, by proclamation, to provide these necessary services. Once the beggar died of starvation, citizens who initially gave the beggar the coins were permitted to retrieve them, provided that they could recognize it. The beggar's clothing was also provided as a reward for any citizen who could successfully overcome his opponent in a street fight. [55] [52]

    The provision of bread and water to the poor was also a capital offense (Yalḳ., Gen. 83). Two girls, one poor and the other rich, went to a well, and the former gave the latter her jug of water, receiving in return a vessel containing bread. When this became known, both were burned alive (ib.). [56] According to the Book of Jasher, Paltith, one of Lot's daughters, was burnt alive (in some versions, on a pyre) for giving a poor man bread. [57] Her cries went to the heavens [52] Another woman was similarly executed in Admah for giving a traveler, who intended to leave the town the next day, water. When the scandal was revealed, the woman was stripped naked and covered with honey. This attracted bees as the woman was slowly stung to death. Her cries then went up into the heavens, the turning point that was revealed to have provoked God to enact judgement upon Sodom and Gomorrah in the first place in Genesis 18:20. [55]

    Jon D. Levenson views a rabbinic tradition described in the Mishnah as postulating that the sin of Sodom was a violation of conventional hospitality in addition to homosexual conduct, describing Sodom's lack of generosity with the saying, "What is mine is mine what is yours is yours" (m. Avot 5.10). [58]

    Jay Michaelson proposes a reading of the story of Sodom that emphasizes the violation of hospitality as well as the violence of the Sodomites. "Homosexual rape is the way in which they violate hospitality—not the essence of their transgression. Reading the story of Sodom as being about homosexuality is like reading the story of an ax murderer as being about an ax." [59] Michaelson places the story of Sodom in context with other Genesis stories regarding Abraham's hospitality to strangers, and argues that when other texts in the Hebrew Bible mention Sodom, they do so without commentary on homosexuality. The verses cited by Michaelson include Jeremiah 23:14, [Jeremiah 23:14] where the sins of Jerusalem are compared to Sodom and are listed as adultery, lying, and strengthening the hands of evildoers Amos 4:1–11 (oppressing the poor and crushing the needy) [Amos 4:1–11] and Ezekiel 16:49–50, [Ezekiel 16:49–50] which defines the sins of Sodom as "pride, fullness of bread, and abundance of idleness was in her and in her daughters, neither did she strengthen the hand of the poor and needy. And they were haughty, and did toevah before me, and I took them away as I saw fit." Michaelson uses toevah i stedet for vederstyggelighed to emphasize the original Hebrew, which he explains as being more correctly translated as "taboo". [60]

    Christian Rediger

    Two areas of contention have arisen in modern Christian scholarship concerning the story of Sodom and Gomorrah: [61] [62]

    • Whether or not the violent mob surrounding Lot's house were demanding to engage in sexual violence against Lot's guests.
    • Whether it was homosexuality or another transgression, such as the act of inhospitable behavior towards visitors, the act of sexual assault, murder, theft, adultery, idolatry, power abuses, or prideful and mocking behavior, [63] that was the principal reason for God's destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.

    The first contention focuses primarily upon the meaning of the Hebrew verb Hebrew: ידע ‎ (yada), translated as "know" in the King James Version:

    And they called unto Lot, and said unto him, Where [are] the men which came in to thee this night? bring them out unto us, that we may know them. — Genesis 19:5

    Yada is used to refer to sexual intercourse in various instances, such as in Genesis 4:1 between Adam and Eve:

    And Adam knew Eve his wife and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the L ORD .— Genesis 4:1

    Some Hebrew scholars believe that yada, unlike the English word "know", requires the existence of a "personal and intimate relationship". [64] For this reason, many of the most popular of the 20th century translations, including the New International Version, the New King James Version, and the New Living Translation, translate yada as "have sex with" or "know . carnally" in Gen 19:5 . [65]

    Those who favor the non-sexual interpretation argue against a denotation of sexual behavior in this context, noting that while the Hebrew word for "know" appears over 900 times in the Hebrew Scriptures, only 1% (13–14 times) [50] [66] of those references are clearly used as a euphemism for realizing sexual intimacy. [67] Instead, those who hold to this interpretation see the demand to know as demanding the right to interrogate the strangers. [68]

    Countering this is the observation that one of the examples of "know" meaning to know sexually occurs when Lot responds to the Gen 19:5 request, by offering his daughters for rape, only three verses later in the same narrative:

    Behold now, I have two daughters which have not known man let me, I pray you, bring them out unto you, and do ye to them as is good in your eyes: only unto these men do nothing. — Genesis 19:8

    The following is a major text in regard to these conflicting opinions:

    Even as Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities about them in like manner, giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire. — Jude 1:7

    This reference to "going after strange flesh" is understood in different ways to include something akin to bestiality, having illicit sex with strangers, having sex with angels, but most often God's destruction of the populations of the four cities is interpreted to mean homosexual (same-sex) relations. [ citat nødvendig ]

    Many who interpret the stories in a non-sexual context contend that as the word for "strange" is akin to "another", "other", "altered" or even "next", the meaning is unclear, and if the condemnation of Sodom was the result of sexual activities perceived to be perverse, then it is likely that it was because women sought to commit fornication with "other than human" angels, [69] perhaps referring to Genesis 6 or the apocryphal Book of Enoch. Countering this, it is pointed out that Genesis 6 refers to angels seeking women, not men seeking angels, and that both Sodom and Gomorrah were engaged in the sin Jude describes before the angelic visitation, and that, regardless, it is doubtful that the Sodomites knew they were angels. In addition, it is argued the word used in the King James Version of the Bible for "strange", can mean unlawful or corrupted ( Rm. 7:3 Gal. 1:6 ), and that the apocryphal Second Book of Enoch condemns "sodomitic" sex (2 Enoch 10:3 34:1), [70] thus indicating that homosexual relations was the prevalent fysisk sin of Sodom. [71]

    Both the non-sexual and the homosexuality view invoke certain classical writings as well as other portions of the Bible. [72] [73]

    Now this was the sin of Sodom: She and her daughters were arrogant, overfed and unconcerned they did not help the poor and needy. They were haughty and did detestable things before me. Therefore I did away with them as you have seen. — Ezekiel 16:49–50

    Here the nonsexual view focuses on the inhospitality aspect, while the other notes the description detestable eller vederstyggelighed, the Hebrew word for which often denotes moral sins, including those of a sexual nature. [74] [75]

    In the Gospel of Matthew (and corresponding verse) when Jesus warns of a worse judgment for some cities than Sodom, inhospitality is perceived by some as the sin, while others see it fundamentally being impenitence:

    If anyone will not welcome you or listen to your words, shake the dust off your feet when you leave that home or town. I tell you the truth, it will be more bearable for Sodom and Gomorrah on the day of judgment than for that town. — Matthew 10:14–15

    The nonsexual view focuses on the cultural importance of hospitality, which this biblical story shares with other ancient civilizations, such as Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, where hospitality was of singular importance and strangers were under the protection of the gods. [76] James L. Kugel, Starr Professor of Hebrew Literature at Harvard University suggests the story encompasses the sexual and non-sexual: the Sodomites were guilty of stinginess, inhospitality and sexual license, homo- and heterosexual in contrast to the generosity of Abraham, and Lot whose behavior in protecting the visitors but offering his daughters suggests he was "scarcely better than his neighbors" according to some ancient commentators, The Bible As It Was, 1997, pp. 179–197.

    Within the Christian Churches that agree on the possible sexual interpretation of "know" (yada) in this context, there is still a difference of opinion on whether homosexuality is important. On its website, the Anglican Communion presents the argument that the story is "not even vaguely about homosexual love or relationships", but is instead "about dominance and rape, by definition an act of violence, not of sex or love". This argument that the violence and the threat of violence towards foreign visitors is the true ethical downfall of Sodom (and not homosexuality), also observes the similarity between the Sodom and Gomorrah and the Battle of Gibeah Bible stories. In both stories, an inhospitable mob demands the homosexual rape of a foreigner or foreigners. As the mob instead settles for the rape and murder of the foreigner's female concubine in the Battle of Gibeah story, the homosexual aspect is generally seen as inconsequential, and the ethical downfall is understood to be the violence and the threat of violence towards foreigners by the mob. This Exodus 22:21–24 lesson is viewed by Anglicans as a more historically accurate way to interpret the Sodom and Gomorrah story. [61] [77]

    Scholar in history and gender studies Lisa McClain has claimed that the association between Sodom and Gomorrah with homosexuality emerged from the writings of 1st century Jewish philosopher Philo, and that no prior exegesis of the text suggested such a linkage. [12]

    Islamisk redigering

    The Quran contains twelve references to "the people of Lut", the biblical Lot, but meaning the residents of Sodom and Gomorrah, and their destruction by God is associated explicitly with their homosexual practices. [78] [79] On the other hand certain contemporary western scholars assert that the reason for the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah was a combination of sexual assault, breaking the hospitality law and engaging in robbery. [80] [81] [82]

    The 'people of Lot' transgressed consciously against the bounds of God. Lot only prayed to God to be saved from doing as they did. Then Gabriel met Lot and said that he must leave the city quickly, as God had given this command to Lot for saving his life. In the Quran it was written that Lot's wife stayed behind as she had transgressed. She met her fate in the disaster, and only Lot and his family were saved during the destruction of their city, [83] with the understanding that the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah are identified in Genesis, but "the location remains unnamed in the Qur'an" [84]

    So, We saved him and his family, all. Except an old woman among those who remained behind.

    Commentary: This was his wife, who was a bad old woman. She stayed behind and was destroyed with whoever else was left. This is similar to what Allah says about them in Surat Al-A`raf and Surat Hud, and in Surat Al-Hijr, where Allah commanded him to take his family at night, except for his wife, and not to turn around when they heard the Sayhah as it came upon his people. So they patiently obeyed the command of Allah and persevered, and Allah sent upon the people a punishment which struck them all, and rained upon them stones of baked clay, piled up.

    The site of the present Dead Sea Works, a large operation for the extraction of Dead Sea minerals, is called "Sdom" (סדום) according to its traditional Arab name, Khirbet as-sudūm (خربت السدوم). Nearby is Mount Sodom (הר סדום in Hebrew and جبل السدوم in Arabic) which consists mainly of salt. In the Plain of Sdom (מישור סדום) to the south there are a few springs and two small agricultural villages, Neot HaKikar and Ein Tamar. [ citat nødvendig ]

    "Operation Gomorrah" was the name given to the Bombing of Hamburg in July 1943, [87] in which 42,600 civilians were killed, and where use of incendiaries caused a vortex and whirling updraft of super-heated air which created a 460 metre high tornado of fire.


    Se videoen: Therion - The Rise of Sodom and Gomorrah Live Wacken Open Air 2007 (Kan 2022).


    Kommentarer:

    1. Naftali

      Ja, kvaliteten er fremragende

    2. Corban

      Pænt skrevet! Interessant materiale, det er klart, at forfatteren prøvede.

    3. Sar

      Efter min mening tager du fejl. Lad os diskutere. Skriv til mig i PM, vi vil kommunikere.



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