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Daisy's History - Historie

Daisy's History - Historie


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Daisy I

Den velkendte blomst, almindelig i USA og Europa.

(Slæbebåd: t. 50; 1. 73'4 "; b. 13'10"; dr. 6 '; s 10 k.)

Mulford, en dampbåd, blev bygget i 1850 i Chicago Ill., Og erhvervet af krigsministeriet til brug i Mississippi -floden og dens bifloder tidligt i borgerkrigen. Hun blev overført til flåden 1. oktober 1862 og omdøbt til Daisy den 24. oktober. Hendes tidligere kommandant, mester DC Bowers, den amerikanske hær, blev udnævnt til fungerende fenrik i flåden og fortsatte som kommando. Daisy tjente aktivt som en slæbebåd i det øvre Mississippi indtil krigens slutning, da hun blev ført til Mound City, III. Hun blev solgt der 17. august 1865.

II
Den 20. november 1863 fik dampskibet Daisy navnet Clover (q.v.).

III
Daisy (nr. 22), færgelancering, tjente i Norfolk Nvy Yard fra 1885 til 1919.

IV
Den fjerde Daisy, et fyrtender, blev overført til flåden 11. april 1917 og tjente i Newport R.I., indtil den blev returneret til Fyrtjenesten I juli 1919.
V
Den femte Daisy (nr. 1186), en kæbe, tjente i ikke -kommissionsstatus i det 7. flådedistrikt under første verdenskrig.


Daisy Flower History

I 1884 blev gerbera daisy opdaget i Sydafrika af skotten Richard Jameson, men tusindfryd menes at være mere end 4000 år gamle. I engelsk historie blev tusindfryd omtalt som Day & rsquos Eye, og dette navn var en reference til måden blomsten åbnede og lukkede med solen. Den måde, daisy fulgte sun & rsquos -mønsteret, fik primitive medicinske mænd til at tro, at tusindfryd var en kur mod øjenproblemer. Ikke kun har tusindfryd været antaget at helbrede øjenproblemer, men tilsyneladende spiste kong Henry V111 tusindfryd for at helbrede sine mavesår. Det er også blevet sagt, at en kur mod sindssyge var at drikke knuste tusindfryd doused i vin over en periode på 15 dage. Og det var assyrerne, der brugte tusindfryd til at gøre gråt hår mørkt igen ved at blande tusindfryd med olie & ndash frisører i dag kan argumentere for denne metode! Tusindfryd har længe været blomsten i forbindelse med forår, og der er et udtryk for, at foråret ikke er kommet, før du & rsquove satte fod på 12 tusindfryd!

På fransk betyder daisy Marguerite, og det kommer interessant nok fra det græske ord, der betyder Pearl. Francis I kaldte hendes søster Marguerite af Marguerites, da hun ville bruge dem som sin enhed. Ifølge keltisk legende, hvis børn døde ved fødslen, ville deres ånder sprede tusindfryd på jorden for at juble deres sørgende forældre. Tusindfryd har alle positive konnotationer, og deres betydning omfatter uskyld, renhed og skønhed, og på grund af deres svimlende vifte af lyse farver, de kommer i, betyder de også munterhed. Holland og Colombia er store producenter af tusindfryd i dag.


Historie

DAISY -konsortiet blev grundlagt for at finde en fælles løsning i oprettelsen af ​​et nyt digitalt tale -bogsystem, DAISY Format. DAISY arbejder nu med almindelige e -bogformater, understøtter træning rundt om i verden, men dette er historien om, hvordan det hele begyndte.

Startede i 1988 på TPB

DAISY -projektet startede i 1988 med anerkendelsen af ​​utilfredshed med det nuværende system for Swedish Library of Talking Books and Braille, TPB. TPB (nu MTM) er et regeringsbibliotek, der betjener både folkebiblioteker og trykte handicappede universitetsstuderende. For den avancerede talebogbruger er det meget tidskrævende at læse analoge talebøger. Der måtte simpelthen være en anden måde, den digitale måde.

I 1991 ansøgte TPB om et statsligt tilskud til et treårigt projekt for at udvikle en ny digital talebogteknik. Den oprindelige plan var at betjene en DAT -afspiller fra en indholdsfortegnelse på en pc. Disse planer blev snart opgivet på grund af den udbredte accept af cd-rom-afspillere og den nye cd-r-disk.

Vigtige mål

De to vigtigste mål for det treårige projekt var at udvikle et system, der kunne:

  • Gem mere end 20 timers kontinuerlig tale på en enkelt cd-rom-disk.
  • Giv læseren tilfældig adgang til talebogen fra indholdsfortegnelsen.

I juli 1993 bestilte TPB Labyrinten Data AB, et svensk computerfirma, til at udvikle software, der kunne demonstrere principperne for optagelse og afspilning af digitale talebøger. Talkbook-softwaren blev bygget på DAISY-konceptet (Digital Audio-based Information System). Kernen i konceptet er den sætningsbaserede lagring af lydfiler. Yderligere krav var:

  • Evne til at skumme teksten, sætning for sætning eller sektion for sektion, hvor afsnit er en samling af sætninger
  • Mulighed for at søge efter forskellige dele i den tekstbaserede indholdsfortegnelse
  • Evne til at søge efter bestemte sider i talebogen
  • Mulighed for at placere og søge efter bogmærker i bogen og i en fremtidig version
  • Evne til at understrege tekst og tage noter i talebogen

Den første prototype i 1994

I 1994 var den første prototype af DAISY Playback til Windows klar. Projektet og prototypen blev præsenteret på ICCHP -konferencen i Wien i september 1994.

Fra begyndelsen var hensigten at vise, hvordan et nyt digitalt talebogsystem kunne gøre det lettere for universitetet og andre studerende at bruge og få adgang til de oplysninger, der er registreret i deres kurslitteratur. Men rundt om i verden var der en stigende interesse for et nyt fælles format for alle talende bøger.

I 1995 begyndte tingene at ske hurtigt. I april 1995 mødtes nogle institutioner, der var interesseret i den nye digitale teknik, i Toronto. Et japansk firma, Shinano Kenshi/Plextor, havde ideer om, hvordan man udvikler en specifik digital tale -afspiller.

DAISY -konsortiet 1996

TPB inviterede andre talebogsbiblioteker og organisationer til at danne et internationalt konsortium til fremme af en ny digital talebogstandard, baseret på DAISY -konceptet. I maj 1996 i Stockholm blev DAISY -konsortiet stiftet.

  • Den japanske sammenslutning af blinde biblioteker
  • Den spanske nationale organisation for blinde, O.N.C.E.
  • Royal National Institution for the Blind, RNIB (Storbritannien)
  • Schweizisk bibliotek for blinde og svagtseende, SBS
  • Det hollandske bibliotek for visuelt og trykte handicappede studerende og professionelle, SVB
  • Det svenske bibliotek for talende bøger og blindeskrift, TPB sammen med Den svenske sammenslutning af synshandicappede, SRF.

På mødet i Stockholm blev der dannet en aftale, og Ingar Beckman Hirschfeldt, TPB, blev valgt til formand for DAISY -konsortiet.

Konsortiets målsætninger var fastsat til:

  1. Etabler DAISY -konceptet som en de facto -standard for digitale talebøger til trykforringede og til kommercielle lydbøger.
  2. Administrer projektet, udvikl passende værktøjer og systemer og promover konceptet.
  3. Administrer brug og licensering af DAISY -konceptet og ejendomme for at maksimere fordelen for personer med nedsat udskrivning.

DAISY -projektet i sin første fase, den såkaldte “standard version ”, blev afsluttet i 1996. Det “professionelle DAISY -system ” var planlagt til at blive udviklet i internationalt samarbejde af DAISY -konsortiet.

DAISY Foundation blev etableret i Amsterdam. Konsortiets medlemmer udgjorde også fondens bestyrelse.

I oktober 1996 blev der holdt et konsortiemøde i Cambridge. Association of Talking Book Libraries (Tyskland) bestående af 25 biblioteker blev valgt som et nyt konsortiummedlem. Flere biblioteker var interesserede i DAISY -konceptet, selvom de ikke ønskede at blive medlemmer af konsortiet. Interesserede institutioner blev inviteret til at deltage i DAISY -konsortiet som associerede medlemmer. Tilknyttede medlemmer kunne deltage i mødernes åbne sessioner og havde adgang til softwaren.

I april 1997 blev Hiroshi Kawamura valgt midlertidig leder for DAISY -konsortiet. Han gennemførte også en verdensomspændende felttest af DAISY digitale talebøger spillet i en prototype af en Plextalk CD-ROM-afspiller.

Problemer med filformat i Sigtuna

Under et rundbordsmøde i Sigtuna (Sverige) i maj 1997 blev spørgsmål om DAISY -filformater diskuteret. Et forslag blev fremsat om at ændre filformatet til et andet format, der er en de facto industristandard og kan integreres med HTML -formatet.

Efter denne beslutning, Recording for the Blind & amp Dyslexic, sluttede RFB & ampD sig til DAISY Consortium som det tiende medlem. Andre nylige medlemmer er Australia New Zealand Blindness Agencies, Det Danske Nationalbibliotek for Blinde, DBB og Japansk Selskab for Rehabilitering af Handicappede, JSRD (der deler medlemskab med The Japanese Association of the Libraries for the Blind).

I august 1997 blev George Kerscher valgt til leder for DAISY Consortium, og i oktober blev der valgt et forretningsudvalg (Chris Day, Kjell Hansson, Hiroshi Kawamura og Lino Rios Mejias).


Daisy's History - Historie

Med denne blomsters generelle diameter på mellem 7 og 12 cm, er det en vidunderlig størrelse, der kan føjes til stort set alle slags blomsterarrangementer. Deres brede sortiment i farver er en anden grund til, at gerbera -tusindfryd er så populære. Hvis du ser på designs, der annonceres af online blomsterhandlere, vil du bemærke, hvor mange af dem, der indeholder denne særlige blomst i arrangementer til alle slags lejligheder! Efter at have læst denne blomsters korte historie, vil det overraske dig, at sådan et “young ” medlem af blomsterverdenen kan være en af ​​de mest populære blomster at sende!

Et eller andet sted i nærheden af ​​Barbeton, Sydafrika stødte en skotte ved navn Robert Jameson på denne fantastiske blomst. Selvom den blev opdaget i 1884, var det først omkring 40 år senere, at denne blomst blev dyrket. Gerbera daisy blev opkaldt efter Traugott Gerber, en tysk botaniker.

Andre navne til denne blomst omfatter: African Daisy, Barberton Daisy og Transvaal Daisy. Det er let at forstå navnene African Daisy (fordi den er hjemmehørende i Afrika) og Barberton Daisy (fordi den først blev opdaget i nærheden af ​​Barberton.) Det tredje navn, Transvaal Daisy, kan dog kræve nogle forklaringer for dem, der ikke er bekendt med Sydafrikansk historie og geografi. Barberton ligger øst for Pretoria (hovedstaden), tæt på Mozambique. Vaal -floden løber gennem dette område, og området nord for Vaal er kendt som Transvaal (på tværs af Vaal).

J.D. Hooker var den første til videnskabeligt at identificere blomsten i 1889. Han omtalte den som Gerbera Jamesonii. Andre arter findes i Sydamerika og tropisk Asien. Denne plante er bestemt en fan af varmt vejr! England begyndte at dyrke planten et stykke tid omkring 1890'erne, og Nordamerika tog yderligere 30 år at slutte sig til trenden.

I USA producerer Californien og Florida størst mængde af disse blomster i forhold til resten af ​​staterne. I resten af ​​verden har Holland og Columbia taget markedet med storm og produceret størst mulig mængde af snitblomstersorten. Disse blomster er ikke kun populære som snitblomster, men havesorter vinder også i popularitet. Du kan ikke benægte de intense farve, de bringer til din have, og de kan overleve under meget varme forhold, så længe de har nok vand.

Næste gang du besøger din online eller lokale blomsterhandler, skal du kigge lidt efter nogle arrangementer, der udelukkende omfatter eller består af gerbera -tusindfryd. De ser godt ud, når de er parret med roser og freesia eller simpelthen alene i en vase. Du kan bestille en flok i alle en farve eller vælge et par af dine yndlingsfarver og blande dem sammen, ligesom du ville gøre tulipaner eller roser.


Daisy … historien hidtil

Daisy blev grundlagt i 2001 af grundlægger og administrerende formand Matthew Riley.

Efter at have grundlagt Daisy med en håndfuld medarbejdere oplevede virksomheden hurtig organisk vækst i de første fem år og blev kåret til den hurtigst voksende teknologivirksomhed i Storbritannien i 2005 Sunday Times 'Tech Track.

I 2007 blev Matthew Riley kåret som den første vinder af Bank of Scotland's Entrepreneur Challenge, og virksomheden blev tildelt £ 5 mio. I rentefri finansiering, en skattekiste, der blev brugt til at bygge virksomheden yderligere ved køb.

I 2009 flød virksomheden på London Stock Exchange ’s Alternative Investment Market (AIM).
Daisy erhverver virksomhederne, eller visse aktiver fra, Vialtus, ATC, Eurotel og Redstone.

Daisy udvider sine data- og teletjenestetilbud med opkøb, herunder virksomheder inden for eller visse aktiver fra BNS, Murphx, Spiritel, Outsourcery, Telinet og Worldwide.

Daisy begynder at udvikle sine it -muligheder for at sælge ind i den eksisterende kundebase med opkøb af Netcrowd, Indecs, Layer 3 og Daisy Data Center.

I december 2014 blev Daisy igen et privat firma for at gå i gang med sit næste vækststadium.

Daisy køber: Damovo UK og Phoenix IT Group.

I slutningen af ​​2016 erhverver Daisy Alternative Networks plc, en stærk og komplementær tilpasning til sin eksisterende forretning og drift, hvilket yderligere styrker sine mobile og faste produkt- og servicetilbud.

I juni 2018 udvidede Daisy sin SMB Direct -kundebase med opkøbet af DVO2 og sin SMB Indirect -kundebase med opkøbet af Voice Mobile, en direkte EE -partner.

I sommeren 2018, mens de stadig havde de fordele, der følger med at være en del af den bredere Daisy Group, blev der oprettet fire uafhængige virksomheder for bedre at kunne betjene behovene hos direkte kunder og indirekte partnere. Den mest markante ændring fusionerede koncernens tre kanalservicevirksomheder (tidligere kendt som Daisy Wholesale, Daisy Distribution og Daisy Worldwide) under et nyt mærke, Digital Wholesale Solutions. Daisy Partner Services -virksomheden begyndte også at fungere uafhængigt af resten af ​​Daisy Group, der handlede som Allvotec Limited.

I marts 2021 investerede kapitalfonden Inflexion i Digital Wholesale Solutions -forretningen, som blev fusioneret fra og forlod Daisy Group.


DAISY: DEN FÆLLES HISTORIE FOR EN INFO OG IKONISK ANNONSE - DEL EN

Hver valgsæson, hvor politikerne frigiver deres dyre og (normalt) fantasiløse angrebsannoncer, påberåber op-ed-forfattere den uofficielle titel på de mest berygtede 60 sekunder i reklamehistorien: "The Daisy Ad" (officiel titel: "Peace, Little Girl" aka "Daisy Girl", "The Daisy Spot", også kaldet "Little Girl Countdown"). Stedet viser en lille pige, der plukker kronblade af en tusindfryd i en mark og tæller ud af rækkefølge, lige før en voksen voiceover afbryder en "militær" nedtælling, som derefter efterfølges af optagelser af en atomeksplosion og advarselsordene fra præsident Lyndon B . Johnson: "Dette er indsatsen for at skabe en verden, hvor alle Guds børn kan leve eller gå i mørket. Vi skal enten elske hinanden, eller også skal vi dø." Annoncen, der aldrig identificerer sit mål, var rettet mod at forstærke opfattelsen af, at den republikanske kandidat til præsident 1964, senator Barry M. Goldwater, ikke var til at stole på med fingeren på knappen. Som det ofte er blevet reciteret, blev Daisy -annoncen kun sendt én gang som betalt annonce på NBC under netværksfilmen (DAVID OG BATHSHEBA) mandag den 7. september 1964. [5] Siden for længe siden Labor Day, filmen af barn og hendes tusindfryd er blevet spillet på ny millioner af gange.

Stedet var og er stadig et mesterværk af manipulation, der sidestiller barndommens legende uskyld med protokollen og krigens rædsel. Beskedets enkelhed blev endnu mere effektiv, fordi kampagnen fra 1964 fandt sted mindre end to år efter den cubanske missilkrise og inden for tre år efter Berlin -krisen, hvor præsident John F. Kennedy raslede nationen med sine bemærkninger om vigtigheden af civilforsvaret. [6] Med andre ord var "verdens ende" ikke et abstrakt begreb for de fleste amerikanere i denne periode af den kolde krig. Det var en meget reel mulighed.

Fragmenter af historien bag udviklingen af ​​denne berygtede reklame er blevet udgivet adskillige gange gennem årtierne. Men ikke før nu er hele stedets historie blevet fortalt i al sin underlige herlighed. CONELRAD har brugt det sidste år på at undersøge alle aspekter af dette bemærkelsesværdige øjeblik i populærkulturen. Vi har interviewet personer, der er involveret i annoncen og mdash inklusive Daisy Girl selv og mdash, som aldrig har eller som sjældent har talt på pladen om stedet. Talrige regeringsdokumenter, private aviser, bøger, blade og avisartikler blev også gennemgået, så den samlede rekord kunne præsenteres.

"Daisy" -historien er en fortælling om, hvordan en gruppe dedikerede mænd fra forskellige baggrunde i regeringen og reklamen kom sammen for at sælge et "produkt" og mdash USA's præsident. Disse fagfolk lykkedes spektakulært i deres primære mål (uanset at Lyndon Johnson viste sig at være defekte varer), men de skabte også et uudsletteligt ikon for den kolde krig i processen. Sådan skete det.

Inden han blev en hellig martyr i Dallas i 1963, var præsident Kennedy en politiker, der havde til hensigt at blive genvalgt, et mål, der langt fra var garanteret. Kennedys holdning til borgerrettigheder havde gjort ham sårbar i syd, og hans meningsmålingstal var faldet i løbet af det sidste år af hans liv. Hovedmålet med den tidlige svingning gennem Texas var at hjælpe med at styrke staten i 64. New Yorks guvernør Nelson Rockefeller, præsidentens mest frygtede potentielle republikanske modstander, havde meddelt sit kandidatur den 7. november 1963 (han var den første store kandidat til at gøre det). Et helt år før valget blev Goldwater af Kennedy -lejren set som den mest ønskelige GOP -nominerede til at tage imod. Præsidenten kunne personligt lide den almindeligt talte Arizonan, men mente, at hans ekstreme politiske synspunkter ville hive ham ved et folketingsvalg. En uge efter Rockefellers erklæring holdt Kennedy sin første formelle kampagnestrategisession, og det aftalte genvalgstema, der kom ud af dette møde, var "fred og velstand". [7]

Meget er blevet gjort af den afdøde præsidents amorøse tilbøjeligheder, men det lykkedes også på en eller anden måde at passe en enorm mængde læsning ind i hans travle tidsplan. "Kennedy tager printerens blæk til morgenmad," James Reston fra New York Times bemærkede engang. [8] Den unge præsident var også almindeligt kendt for at have en forbløffende mulighed for at huske detaljerne i, hvad han læste. Reklamekampagnerne for Avis Rent-a-Car ("Vi prøver hårdere") og Volkswagen ("Tænk lille") gjorde et sådant indtryk på Kennedy, at han bad svoger Stephen E. Smith om at henvende sig til firmaet, der producerede dem Doyle Dane Bernbach (DDB) for at fastslå, om bureauet ville være åbent for udsigten til at arbejde på sin ’64 -kampagne. Præsidentens annoncer fra 1960, Jack Denove (der stadig skyldtes penge fra dette arbejde), blev også bedt om at komme med et medieforslag til den kommende valgsæson. [9] Og så greb skæbnen ind i Dallas.

Det var ikke længe efter Kennedy -attentatet, at Lyndon B. Johnson begyndte at tænke på sin næste kampagne. Det berømte usikre og temperamentsfuld texaner ønskede et jordskred i '64 for at slette enhver tvivl om, at han var en "tilfældig præsident". [10] Johnson engagerede lang tid prot & eacuteg & eacute Bill Moyers, der havde været vicedirektør for fredskorps på tidspunktet for Kennedys død for at føre tilsyn med forskellige aspekter af kampagnen. Den ambitiøse unge mands officielle titel i denne periode var særlig assistent for præsidenten. Moyers bankede til gengæld på Lloyd Wright, den associerede associerede direktør for offentlige anliggender ved fredskorpset, for at slutte sig til ham i valgindsatsen. Wrights selvbeskrevne konkurrenceforhold til Moyers gik helt tilbage til deres dage som klassekammerater ved University of Texas i Austin. På et tidspunkt tidligt i deres professionelle karriere arbejdede de to mænd på rivaliserende Austin -radiostationer, Moyers på stationen, der ejes af familien Johnson. [11]

I et interview med CONELRAD udtalte Wright, at "Der kom en tid (i 1964), hvor kampagnen endelig begyndte, at Bill bad mig om at komme ombord, og jeg forlod fredskorpset, og jeg tror, ​​jeg blev sat i staben i Den Demokratiske Nationale Komité (DNC) og blev koordinator for kampagneens reklame- og mediearbejde. " Wright tilføjede, at han "arvede" Stephen Smiths job med at vælge et reklamebureau til den kommende kampagne. Wright anbefalede i sidste ende, at kampagnen vælger DDB frem for andenpladsen Grant Advertising, et Chicago-baseret firma. I et notat af 11. marts 1964 og organiseret under overskrifterne Cost, Competence and Commitment gav han sin begrundelse for at vælge DDB frem for Grant. Selvom omkostninger var en vigtig overvejelse, var kompetence den "kritiske faktor". Wrights formelle "pitch" blev adresseret til hans kampagnens ældre, Bill Moyers, Dick Maguire, Jack Valenti og Wilson McCarthy:

. Jeg har rådgivet med de mest respekterede mænd i branchen om dette spørgsmål og uden undtagelse siger de, at DDB er langt bedst. Og de er ligeledes enstemmige i deres afvisning af Grant. DDB er i dag anerkendt som et af de største bureauer i branchen. De har en bevist rekord af ydeevne. Grant har været op og ned i de sidste flere år. I dag er de nede. DDB har et personale, der ville være til rådighed for enhver service, vi ville have brug for. Grant ville tage ombord på "kreative konsulenter" for at hjælpe med at udvikle materialer. (Og manden, de foreslår, Bill, er Shelly Sosna, [12] en sympatisk fyr, der arbejdede sammen med os på Peace Corps. Men han blev konserveret af DCSS (Doherty, Clifford, Steers & Shenfield) for utilstrækkelig produktivitet. [13]

  1. Store kampagnespørgsmål, behandling
  2. Problemområder, målmarkeder
  3. Generelt kampagnetema
  4. Annonceplan
  5. Driftsmetode (clearance af materialer osv.) [15]

I april havde DDB-medstifter William Bernbach valgt 40 tekstforfattere, kunstdirektører, tv-produktionsfolk og supportpersonale til at danne et dedikeret team til udelukkende at arbejde med Johnson-kampagnen. En forudsætning for den prestigefyldte opgave var, at rekrutterne var demokrater. "Åh, ja, alle var en sand troende. Ja, det var som et korstog," bekræftede Sid Myers, Art Director for Daisy Spot, i et interview med CONELRAD. I en Newsweek -historie i juni nægtede Bernbach at afsløre kampagnens annoncestrategi. Han tillod dog med et grin: "Jeg synes dog, at vi har et godt produkt. Faktisk vil jeg sige, at det er den letteste konto, vi nogensinde har fået." [16]

Korstogets lejr var en krig på 20 kabiner lejet specifikt til Johnson "kontoen" på 7. sal på 20 West 43rd Street på Manhattan. DDBs hovedkontorer var på 20. til 29. etage i bygningen. På et tidspunkt under kampagnen blev der lagt en kalender ud på en gang på 7. sal, hvor dagene op til valget blev krydset med en rød fedtmarkør. Posten for 4. november (dagen efter valget) blev erstattet med en fotokopi af en menneskemængde med en person, der holdt et skilt med "Fred". [17] DDB oprettede også et lavprofileret Washington, DC-kontor i DNC's "underkvarter" på K Street 1907, der blev overvåget af DDB-assisterende kontoadministrator George Abraham. [18]

James H. Graham var 41-årig, underansat og "lånt" et kontor på DDB, da han blev tilbudt Account Executive-stillingen som ansvarlig for valgenheden '64. Den farverige Graham, en tidligere militærbandsanger, var i 1962 blevet fyret fra firmaet Benton & amp Bowles for at have taget "Trust Your Car to the Man Who Wears the Star" slagordet direkte til CEO i Texaco. En marketingchef i Texaco havde videregivet det samme dag, da Graham impulsivt besluttede at bruge sin forbindelse til administrerende direktørs sekretær for at få et møde med chefen honcho. Texaco -chefen omfavnede entusiastisk sloganet, men marketingchefen var rasende over, at hans autoritet var blevet omgået, og han klagede højlydt til Benton & Bowles. Graham blev sluppet for ikke at følge protokollen og befandt sig hurtigt freelancing ud af reservekabinen, som en ven havde tilbudt ham på DDB. Texaco brugte naturligvis det slogan, som den ressourcestærke Graham med succes havde slået op, og virksomheden fortsætter med at præsentere det i reklamemateriale den dag i dag. [19]

Graham ville snart arbejde tæt sammen med Sid Myers, tekstforfatter Stanley R. Lee (Myers 'partner for hele varigheden) og producer Aaron Ehrlich. Det ville være disse mænd & mdashalong med "King of Sound", Tony Schwartz & mdashwho der ville være ansvarlig for den mest berømte annonce i tv -historien, Daisy spot. Graham ville uden minde fortælle Pete Hamill for en artikel i magasinet i New York Times: "Vi sælger USA's præsident." [20]

Ved afslutningen af ​​den opslidende kampagne sad annoncemanden ikke længere på hug i en lånt kabine. Han havde et officielt kontor og adskilte sit rene vasketøj fra sit beskidte vasketøj i skrivebordets skuffer. [21] Et af Lloyd Wrights kriterier for at vælge DDB var "engagement". Det fik han helt sikkert og mere til med bureauet, der ligesom Avis "forsøgte hårdere".

Man behøver kun sammenligne de fjernsynsudsendte politiske annoncer fra 1950'erne med Johnson -kampagnen i 1964 for at indse, hvor innovativ DDB var. Præsidentens kampagnepladser fra den forrige æra (inklusive Kennedys i 1960) er absolut forhistoriske, mens DDB's '64 annonceringsarbejde ser ud & mdasheven i dag & mdashastonishingly moderne. Det var Bernbach, den kreative partner i triumviratet af DDB-medstiftere, der revolutionerede annoncering til en sand kunstform. "Det var ligesom Bauhaus -reklamen," udtalte Myers i sit CONELRAD -interview.

DDB blev grundlagt af Ned Doyle, Maxwell Dane og Bernbach i 1949. Doyle og Bernbach havde været vicepræsidenter i Gray Advertising, og Dane var en tennispartner og tidligere medarbejder i Doyle. De tre stiftere bragte hver især betydelige og tydelige færdigheder til deres nye forretningsindsats, som sluttede sit første år med kun $ 500.000 i faktureringer (i 1959 fakturerede agenturet $ 27,5 millioner årligt). Dane håndterede administrative og økonomiske spørgsmål, Doyle, en advokat ved uddannelse, håndterede klientens regnfremstilling og Bernbach var den kreative kraft, der ændrede ansigtet på moderne reklameteknik.

Den Brooklyn-fødte Bernbach dimitterede med en hovedfag i engelsk fra New York University i 1933 og var efter mange beretninger en blød talt intellektuel, der gerne tilføjede sit eksemplar med en subtil, men ærbødig humor. Før han tjente i Anden Verdenskrig, arbejdede Bernbach som forfatter og forsker ved verdensudstillingen 1939-1940 og fik job på sit første reklamebureau, William H. Weintraub, Inc., kort tid efter.

Bernbach havde engang forklaret sin faglige filosofi for en interviewer således: "Kreativitet kan tales om, ligesom vejret eller synden. Vi sveder virkelig ved det her. Vi tror på, at god smag kan være godt salg. Hele kunst- og litteraturhistorien er et folks indsats for at prøve at sige eller skabe noget på en frisk, fantasifuld måde. "

Bernbach, der sympatiserede med offentlighedens afsky for det "hårde salg", undgik marketingforskning og omfavnede instinkt. "Kunstneri i det store og hele har dyb indsigt i menneskets natur og derefter udtrykker det på en meget, meget frisk måde - en original måde," blev han citeret af New York Times i 1982. En af måderne, hvorpå han fremmede denne tilgang på DDB skulle bryde med den traditionelle agenturorganisationsmodel og indføre det, der blev kaldt et "horisontalt hierarki." "I de fleste agenturer arbejdede tekstforfatteren og kunstdirektøren aldrig sammen, forklarede Myers for CONELRAD." Tekstforfatteren ville ikke arbejde med art director. På DDB var det anderledes. DDB fornyede partnerskabet. "Bernbach isolerede også sine" Creative Teams "fra det ydre pres fra salgskravene, hvilket fik dem til at fokusere på deres mere rent inspirerende opgaver.

Et af Bernbachs andre talenter, som klart hjalp med at udvide DDB's succes, var inden for uddannelse. Han ville lære mange unge tekstforfattere sine unikke færdigheder og dele sin uvurderlige erfaring som årene gik. 1964 viste sig at være et år rig på erfaring for et bureau, der allerede var godt på vej til at blive legendarisk. DDB's arbejde for præsident Johnson overskred en ren kontrakt om reklametjenester og gjorde springet ind i historien. [22]

Den 24. oktober 1963 i Hartford, Connecticut, rapporterede Washington Post, at Goldwater på et pressemøde fortalte, at NATO -kommandanter i Europa skulle have skøn til at bruge taktiske atomvåben til nødsituationer. Post -artiklen citerede Goldwater for at karakterisere sådanne taktiske oprustninger som "blot endnu et våben". Goldwater udtalte senere, at han henviste til NATO -kommandanten & mdashsingular, ikke snesevis af feltkommandører. Skaden var imidlertid allerede sket, og senatorens tvivlsomme kvalifikationskamp gjorde ikke en forskel i den offentlige opfattelse. [24]

Den 24. maj 1964 optrådte Goldwater sammen med intervieweren Howard K. Smith på ABC's "Issues and Answers" program for offentlige anliggender. Som svar på et spørgsmål om militærstrategi i Vietnam sagde senatoren: "Der har været mange forslag. Jeg tror ikke, vi ville bruge nogen af ​​dem. Men det kan lade sig gøre at ødelægge skovene med atomvåben med lav udbytte. Når du fjerner løvet, fjerner du dækslet. " Goldwater bestred senere fortolkningen fra hans kommentarer, men igen havde denne genoprettelsesmanøvre ringe effekt hos offentligheden. [25]

I modsætning til hvad mange tror, ​​var Johnsons strateger ikke de første mennesker til at sadle Goldwater med det kløende nukleare trigger -fingerbillede. Under make-or-break-præsidentens primærløb i Californien frigjorde senatorens moderate modstander af nomineringen, Nelson Rockefeller, en massemailing af en pjece med titlen "Who Do You Want in the Room with the H Bomb?" Pjecen, der blev produceret af Rockefellers annoncefirma i Californien, Spencer-Roberts og Associates, var en samling af Goldwaters skyde-fra-hofter-kommentarer. Det blev leveret til alle to millioner registrerede republikanere i staten og udløste en masse kontroverser. Den dyre udsendelse blev imidlertid effektivt defuseret af "naturen", som Stu Spencer udtrykte det, da Rockefellers anden kone, "Happy", fødte en dreng lige før valget: "Det genåbnede sårene ved at være kvinde- chaser, for utroskab, alle de forbandede spørgsmål, vi havde fuzzet over ved at beskylde Goldwater for at være en galning. " [26] Goldwater vandt primær 3. juni, og Rockefeller blev uden tvivl buet på San Franciscos Cow Palace under GOP -stævnet. Partiet havde foretaget en skarp højresving, der ikke snart ville blive glemt.

Goldwaters mentale egnethed til formandskabet blev offentliggjort i maj 1964, da magasinet Good Housekeeping udgav et interview med kandidatens kone, Peggy, udført af Alvin Toffler (snart en berømt bedst sælgende forfatter og "futurist"). Fru Goldwater udtalte, at der var to lejligheder i slutningen af ​​1930'erne, hvor hendes mands "nerver brækkede fuldstændigt" under belastningen ved at drive familievirksomheden (Goldwaters stormagasiner). Toffler karakteriserede Goldwaters første episode, der opstod i 1937, som et "nervøst sammenbrud", og at han to år senere "revnede igen". [27]

It was Toffler's interview with Mrs. Goldwater that caused Johnson to remark to Texas Governor John Connally in a recorded White House telephone conversation: "I just shudder to think what would happen if Goldwater won it. He's a man that's had two nervous breakdowns. He's not a stable fellow at all." [ 28 ]

In July of 1964 Moyers learned from a friend in the psychiatric field that a magazine was conducting an unusual survey regarding Goldwater's mental state. Moyers was aware that a professional journal, Medical Tribune, had already published findings that psychiatrists endorsed Johnson over Goldwater by a ratio of 10-to-1. The publication Moyers' friend was referring to, however, was not quite as reputable. [ 29 ]

Publisher and free speech provocateur Ralph Ginzburg, who once described himself as a "curious footnote" to history (his Eros magazine obscenity case went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court), picked up the Goldwater-is-nuts angle and exploited it like a William Castle horror movie. In the September-October 1964 issue of his political journal "Fact," Ginzburg published 41 pages of excerpts from one of the most unscientific studies ever performed. "Fact" surveyed 12,356 psychiatrists with a single question (which also included a space on the form for "comments"): "Is Barry Goldwater psychologically fit to be President of the United States." 2,417 psychiatric professionals actually responded with 1,189 of them answering in the negative to the question and 657 answering in the affirmative. 571 stated they "did not know enough about Goldwater to answer the question." None of the respondents had ever actually put the candidate on the couch. The issue, featuring the blaring headline "1,189 Psychiatrists Say Goldwater is Unfit to be President!" sold 160,000 copies (with a cover price of $1.25 each). [ 30 ]

Goldwater's political ascension in 1964 was viewed with no small amount of delight by Democrats because of the exploitable issues the senator brought to the race. Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) president John P. Roche wrote to Moyers in June of that year: "It begins to look as though the Republicans are really going on a Kamikaze mission in November." Roche went on to suggest a "savage assault" on Goldwater and even pitched a billboard concept: "Goldwater in 64 &mdashHotwater in 65? With a mushroom cloud in the background." [31]

In a July 22nd telephone conversation Johnson's press secretary George Reedy weighed in with his own bluntly phrased theory of attack against Goldwater:

I think there's a weakness to Goldwater. I think the big weakness is that people think he's pretty reckless. And I think the one thing that we ought to get out now is some of the things that he has said about the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, but not say it in the way that it has been said. I think we gotta get this thing down to some gut things: Mothers that are worried about having radioactive poison in their kids' milk. Men that are worried about becoming sterile. Uh, give them some thoughts about maybe kids being born with two heads and things like that.

As the tape of the above conversation demonstrates, Johnson is silent through most of Reedy's discourse. However, in another telephone conversation one day later, the President himself is challenging Robert Kennedy's assertion that "When the country is at peace, as it is now, they're not concerned about Russians as much. There's not a crisis like the Berlin Wall or Cuba." Johnson counters using one of Reedy's more memorable terms for radioactive mutation: "I don't know. A mother is pretty worried if she thinks her child is drinking contaminated milk or that maybe she's going to have a baby with two heads. " Clearly Reedy's earlier points were well taken by his boss. [ 32 ]

You fellows are the experts, but this is how I see it. I'm the president. That's our greatest asset. And I don't want to piss it away by getting down in the mud with Barry. My daddy once told me about the time a fire broke out in a three-story building in Johnson City. Old Man Hutchinson was trapped on the third floor and the fire ladder was too short to reach him. So Jim Morsund, he was one of the volunteer fire chiefs, grabbed a piece of rope, tied a loop in it, threw it up to Mr. Hutchinson, and told him to tie it around his waist. Then he pulled him down.

Now Barry's already got a rope around him and he's knotted it pretty firm. All you have to do is give a little tug. And while he's fighting to keep standing, I'll just sit right here and run the country. [ 33 ]

In addition to the higher-minded strategy meetings referenced by Goodwin in his book and attended by himself, Bill Moyers, Clark Clifford Jack Valenti and others, there was also a secret White House campaign apparatus known informally as "the Department of Dirty Tricks," "the anti-campaign" or "the 5 o'clock Club." It was a sixteen-man team that was headed by Johnson aides Myer "Mike" Feldman and Fred Dutton. Feldman reported directly to Johnson on the team's activities. This group&mdashwhich met twice a day&mdashmonitored Goldwater's statements and positions and prepared various "books" that captured all of his ripe material. The 5 o'clock'ers also engaged in other more questionable activity such as feeding hostile questions to reporters covering Goldwater and otherwise trying to manipulate the mainstream media treatment of the senator. [ 34 ]

Lloyd Wright recalled for CONELRAD the formal advertising plan against Goldwater: "Our strategy was to open with what we called anti-Goldwater' to put him on the defensive and show him for what we thought were his weaknesses and then go into a pro-Johnson and then a get out the vote.' Those were the three stages. And those stages became quite changed in reach and tenure because of the impacts of the opening effort. We didn't need to continue&mdashwe felt&mdashas long a time on the anti-Goldwater phase and that was partially a result of the impact of the Daisy commercial."

To aid DDB, the fruits of the 5 o'clock Club's opposition research and all of the other ancillary ammunition collected against Goldwater was provided to the advertising team.

"We were given a big blue book of all of Goldwater's speeches from, I guess, from the time he started," Sid Myers told CONELRAD. "And we were given themes. The most important was nuclear responsibility because at the time he (Goldwater) was saying we should use tactical nuclear weapons in Vietnam. And the war on poverty and Social Security. Those were the big three campaign issues that we were working on."

With the thematic guidance from the White House, DDB began the process of coming up with ideas and then presenting them to Wright, Moyers and others. Internal documents from the agency obtained by CONELRAD reflect a highly organized approach: from strategy memos to concept and storyboard approval to television production approval through advertising time budgets. In some instances a commercial concept is reflected in certain memos as having been "killed." One example of this type of action is for a spot titled "Kremlin Men's Room" that probably would have been too comical for a presidential campaign so concerned with dealing with the end of the world. The ad was declared "killed" in an August 4th DDB memo. [ 35 ]

Myers described the campaign atmosphere as extremely busy: "We worked day and night. We were traveling back forth to Washington on the train, staying at the White House, having brainstorming sessions with Lloyd Wright and Bill Moyers." Two of the President's cabinet members were even drafted&mdashin highly unusual ways&mdashinto the effort. "One night I remember we were working late and two things happened," recalled Myers. "One is that the Secretary of Labor (Willard Wirtz) was there and he was the only one really who wasn't participating in what we were doing so we sent him out for Chinese food. And also, the Secretary of Health&mdashI don't know who that was at the time&mdashwas giving out&mdashmaybe I shouldn't say this&mdashwas giving out uppers so we could stay up and work through the night." [ 36 ]

Wright remembered the environment as being more staid: "Well, when I was with them (DDB), it wasn't hustle bustle. It was very determined and focused. Very dedicated and professional and committed to the success of the campaign."

For Myers, one of the major highlights of working on the campaign was meeting President Johnson. "He's a massive guy," Myers marveled all these years later. "I mean I'm a big guy, I'm six foot, but he towered over me. We were kind of like ushered in and he shook my hand and said 'You guys are doing a great job, blah, blah, blah' and that was the end of it&mdashhe was gone."

The DDB team also had the honor of being at the White House during a significant event in Cold War history. Myers revealed: "And we were there the day of the Gulf of Tonkin (Incident). We were there and we were going down for a meeting with Lloyd Wright or Bill Moyers and all of a sudden people are running around, back and forth and all of sudden cars started coming up the driveway of the White House and we were kind of like left alone. Everybody dropped us and kept running back and forth. Someone came to us and said, sorry you all have to leave. We have an emergency. ' and we left and we didn't know what it was at the time and that was the day that the Gulf of Tonkin (Incident) happened." [ 37 ]

In a news conference that followed the unity meeting President Eisenhower confirmed to the press that he had had reservations about Goldwater's candidacy, but was now "satisfied." The coverage of the event made a major impression on the Johnson campaign staff who became concerned that Goldwater might find success in reinventing himself. The following day, August 13th, Wright fired off a memo to Moyers urging him to provide a total budget figure in order to launch the Johnson ad campaign "earlier than conceived." Wright warned Moyers: "If we fail to do this, he (Goldwater) will have freedom to pursue the course launched yesterday at the Unity Conference&mdashappearing to moderate his stands and assume the offensive in the campaign." [ 39 ]

On August 17th Moyers received another urgent letter, this time from William Bernbach, who minced no words. The letter conveys the seriousness of the campaign so starkly, that it is presented here in its entirety (The observant reader will note that Bernbach invokes the campaign's "stakes are too high" slogan to underscore the gravity of his message.):

If a decision isn't taken immediately to activate the television advertising plans, there might be serious consequences to the campaign. This is no time for me to be tactful with you. There is too much at stake.

No one knows better than you why we took on the Presidential campaign. There is only one reason. We are ardent Democrats who are deadly afraid of Goldwater and feel that the world must be handed a Johnson landslide. To play our small part in the achievement of such a victory we risked the possible resentment of some of our giant Republican clients (I personally told one it was none of his business when he phoned me about our action) and we had to turn away companies who wanted to give us their accounts on a long term basis. Two of the other agencies you were considering withdrew out of fear of their clients. A third agency blithely withdrew and took the Goldwater account.

I tell you all this only to emphasize that we are dedicated people and that our recommendations have a single motivation, not how much money can Doyle Dane Bernbach make, but what is necessary to do the job well. For anyone in your organization who is not a communications expert to pass on our plan is a great mistake. The decision must be made on the same basis that Secretary McNamara said the Defense budget decision was made: "What arms do we need to be the strongest nations [sic] in the world. Then, and only then, see how we can achieve our goal." Our plans were made with expert knowledge of what it takes to saturate the nation with the Democratic message. Ignorance in these matters can lead to waste and even disaster.

It is dangerous to think that because Lyndon Johnson is the President of the United States, he will get enough exposure through news coverage to assure him election in November. I don't have to remind you that an exposure on TV or radio or a quote in the nation's press is not necessarily a call to action.

The recommendation, at the volume originally agreed upon, was set as a maximum effort an ideal campaign. The thought being to permit you to trim where necessary in the interest of political or financial necessity.

I understand you now feel we should suspend all ordering and production on everything we have recommended except the network time already purchased.

We consider the local spot TV and spot radio as absolutely essential to the goal of commanding the necessary share of mind required to get the vote we need for President Johnson in November.

I refer you to the attached media flow chart. Everything not currently on non cancellable order with the networks is crossed out in red. It is immediately apparent that the remaining schedule is grossly inadequate for the eight week period of the campaign. The stakes are just too high to neglect taking maximum advantage of a medium that reaches 92.5% of all homes in the United States. There is no denying the influence television had on the last election and in 1964 there are 8,550,000 more television sets in use in this country than there were in 1960.

I urgently request that you reconsider and permit us to proceed on the original recommendation at once. If it is necessary to make some adjustment because of financial necessity we will work with you on making a realistic adjustment. The need for immediate action can't be expressed too strongly. Assuming agreement on a spot TV and spot radio schedule next week, and assuming the necessary money being released for use at the same time, the earliest nationwide air date we can make would be the third week of September. This is inflexible. The simple logistics of purchasing, production and shipping preclude any miracles in shortening the time needed.

We agreed that a very necessary part of the campaign is that part devoted to exposing to the voting public the absurd, contradictory and dangerous nature of the opposition candidate. It was agreed that this part of the campaign should be undertaken immediately following our Convention. It is already apparent that Barry Goldwater is making every effort to adjust his extreme position to one more acceptable. Knowing the short memory of the average person, it is entirely possible he might succeed in creating a new character for himself if we are unable to remind people of the truth about this man.

If a decision is delayed until after the Convention, it is obvious that the action resulting from that decision might be "too little and too late."

I urge your immediate attention to this important matter.

It was the end of the month before Moyers could write to DNC treasurer Dick Maguire and inform him that "the President asked us to proceed with an advertising campaign that would include not only the planned network effort of almost $2 million, but also an additional expenditure of $2 million for local TV throughout the country. " Moyers also conveyed that Johnson was willing to volunteer himself and his running mate Sen. Hubert H. Humphrey to participate in additional fund raising dinners if necessary: "Five for him (Johnson), ten for Humphrey." [ 41 ]


The African Daisy also known as the Cape Marigold, the Star-of-the-Veldt and Osteospermum is a hardy annual that is native to the dry, stony soils of South Africa. The plants were discovered in the 19th century and brought to Europe and the United States where they quickly gained some popularity. The flowers of the original strains would remain open only during periods of full sun. When the sky clouded over or after the sun set, the flowers would close. For many this made the plant undesirable, but the vividly colored flowers were so attractive that breeding programs in Great Britain and the United States began to produce cultivars with blooms that remained open much longer. As with nearly all daisy-like flowers, the African Daisy is a member of the Aster family.

African Daisies are easy to grow, but the plants must have full sun. They can be started indoors, 6-8 weeks before the last frost, or direct seeded outside once the danger of frost is gone. Seeds should be covered with about 1/4 inch of soil and will germinate in less than 2 weeks. Plants will grow to a height of approximately 12-24 inches. Mature plants should be spaced about 6 inches apart. The plants bloom from midsummer to autumn, but are very susceptible to frost. The first mild frost will kill the plant. Many of the cultivars will self seed.


Indhold

The company started in 1882 by watchmaker and inventor Clarence Hamilton in Plymouth, Michigan, as the Plymouth Iron Windmill Company, to manufacturer a type of vaneless windmills that Hamilton invented in 1880. By the mid-1880s the business was struggling, as transporting the heavy steel windmills by wagons throughout the southern part of Michigan, northern Indiana, and throughout Ohio was impractical. In January 1888 the company board met to consider closing the factory, but the motion to liquidate failed by one vote — that of general manager Lewis Cass Hough.

Around the corner from the windmill company, Hamilton also operated the Plymouth Air Rifle Company, to compete with the Markham "Challenger" — a new type of wooden spring-powered airgun shooting BB-size round shot invented by Captain William F. Markham (though some argued that the real inventor was George W. Sage) in 1886 — manufactured by the Markham Air Rifle Company just across the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway. On March 6, 1888, Hamilton approached the windmill company board with an all-metal airgun design of his own and sought to use the factory blast furnaces to mold and stamp the metal parts necessary to build his gun. General manager Lewis Hough test fired the gun and exclaimed, "Boy, it's a daisy!", [1] and the new gun was named the "Daisy BB Gun". The board of the Windmill Company then decided to offer the gun as a bundled premium item to every farmer who purchased a windmill.

This began many years of intense competition between Plymouth and Markham, who responded by introducing their metal "Chicago" (1888) and "King" (1890) model BB guns. However, Plymouth's marketing strategy was much better, as by 1900, 15% of their sales was being spent on posters and magazines space, with the net result of such intensive promotion being to make Daisy virtually a household word, while Markham paid little effort on advertising. The Daisy BB Guns continued to outsell its competitors, and by 1895 its sales and popularity had grown to the point that the Plymouth Company ceased the manufacture of windmills, began producing airguns exclusively, and the board voted to change the company name to Daisy Manufacturing Company.

In 1901, Daisy introduced a 500-shot lever-action rifle (predating Markham's by nine years), and special guns were even built to shoot streams of water at Masonic initiations. Perhaps the most famous model was the Little Daisy, Model 20, which was made continuously with only three model changes between 1908 and 1937 and at times sold for less than fifty cents. Daisy's continued market lead eventually led the Markham management to give up competing and quietly sold out to two Daisy executives in 1916, and Captain Markham himself moved to California. The acquired Markham Company changed its name to King Air Rifle Company in 1928, and continued to manufacture the Markham "King" Model air rifle until 1935, before ceasing operation all together in the 1940s.

In 1958, the company moved the corporate offices and manufacturing facilities from Plymouth to Rogers, Arkansas.

In 1993, Daisy was acquired by the private equity firm Charter Oak Partners. [2] The Plymouth factory was demolished in 2005 and replaced with a condominium complex called Daisy Square. One wall of the factory building remained in front of the complex until its demolition on November 18, 2013. The wall had been free-standing [3] since the factory was torn down, and was supposed to be built into an apartment building, but the wall was not included in the completed building. The Daisy Administration building, on Main Street, is still standing and has become an office complex and restaurant. In 2016, Daisy was sold by Charter Oak to another private equity firm, Bruckmann, Rosser, Sherrill & Co., who combined it with Gamo Outdoor. [4]

Daisy is best known for their inexpensive youth BB guns, modeled after lever-action rifles. Perhaps the most famous of these is the Red Ryder model, which is still in production today, despite the fact that the Red Ryder comic strip was canceled in 1963. These simple smoothbore, spring-air BB guns fire at low velocities, and are marketed to children ages 10 and over. In addition to the spring air BB guns, Daisy also markets a line of multi-pump pneumatic rifles capable of firing pellets or BBs to the same age group.

Production of the Daisy Model 25 was restarted in 2009. Featuring a spring feed mechanism and modeled after a pump-action shotgun with pumped cocking, the Model 25 dominated the low-price, higher-performance airgun market for over 50 years (1914–1978).

The Powerline models are Daisy's more powerful, more accurate line of airguns, marketed to ages 16 and up. The Powerline rifles include multi-pump pneumatics and spring-piston break barrels, have rifled barrels designed for shooting pellets, and are capable of greater velocities than Daisy's Youth Rifles. Powerline pistols are multishot double-action designs, powered by CO2 powerlets or spring pistons. BB models are smoothbore, while pellet models have rifled barrels. These are styled to resemble firearms, and are often used by adults in place of firearms for inexpensive training and practice, or in jurisdictions where firearms are heavily restricted or prohibited.

The Avanti line consists of Daisy's target guns. Some of the Avanti line are pellet guns, either single-stroke pneumatic or CO2-powered, with high-quality sights and built to much higher standards. Some models use barrels from Lothar Walther, a top European barrel maker. Even the least expensive Avanti model, the 717 pistol, has been used by world championship 10 m Air Pistol shooter Don Nygord to shoot a medal-winning round in a California state championship. The Canadian Forces adopted the Daisy/ Avanti model 853C target rifle for their cadet program's marksmanship training program, as well as competitive 10m target shooting.

Daisy also makes, as part of the Avanti line, the Model 499B Champion, billed as the "world's most accurate BB gun". This is a true competition BB gun, with a micrometer adjustable rear peep sight, a sling, and a precision smoothbore barrel. It is to be used with Daisy's precision-ground steel BBs that are made for the 499. The 499 is unusual in that it is a single-shot, muzzleloading spring airgun. The 499 is most commonly used in 5-meter (16 ft) BB gun competitions by youth groups such as 4H and Boy Scouts.

During the Vietnam War Daisy BB guns were used in Quick Kill training for soldiers in basic training.

Winchester licensed products Edit

Daisy also sells a line of spring-air rifles marketed under the Winchester brand name. These are moderately priced break-barrel and semi-automatic CO2-based designs with wood or composite stocks, with velocities ranging from 500 ft/s (150 m/s) to 1,000 ft/s (300 m/s). For a time, Daisy also imported and marketed an Umarex made, Winchester branded copy of the Winchester 1894 rifle. This is a multi-shot CO2 pellet rifle using the standard Umarex revolver action. This model is now marketed under the Walther name.

Red Ryder BB Gun Edit

Det Red Ryder BB Gun is a BB gun made by Daisy Outdoor Products and introduced in the spring of 1940 that resembles the Winchester rifle of Western movies. [6] Named for the comic strip cowboy character Red Ryder (created in 1938, and who appeared in numerous films between 1940 and 1950, and on television in 1956), the BB gun is still in production, though the comic strip was cancelled in 1963.

Design and specifications Edit

The Red Ryder BB Gun is a lever-action, spring piston air gun with a smooth bore barrel. Current production (ca. 2017) has a rear iron sight adjustable for elevation only and a post front sight. It uses a gravity feed magazine with a 650 BB capacity. It has an engraved wooden stock and a saddle ring with leather thong on the receiver.

A youth model airgun, the Model 1938B Red Ryder produces an actual muzzle velocity of about 270 feet per second (82 m/s) [ citat nødvendig ] , although the specification on the Daisy states the Model 1938B Red Ryder has a "Max. Muzzle Velocity" of 350 feet per second (110 m/s) with a nominal .177 caliber, 5.1 grain steel BB.

The effective range is fairly short, about 10 yards (9 m), after which the low velocity and inaccuracy of the smoothbore barrel makes hitting the target difficult. BB guns are shot competitively at distances of 5-meter (16 ft), but the Red Ryder's open sight, which is also hampered by having no windage adjustment, makes it impractical for competition so it is primarily a plinking airgun.

Populærkultur Rediger

  • The Red Ryder BB gun was prominently featured in the 1983 film En julehistorie, in which Ralphie Parker requests one for Christmas, but is repeatedly rebuffed with the warning "You'll shoot your eye out." The movie's fictional BB gun, described as the "Red Ryder carbine-action, two hundred shot Range Model air rifle with a compass in the stock and this thing which tells time," does not correspond to any model in existence nor even a prototype the Red Ryder featured in the movie was specially made to match author Jean Shepherd's story (which may be artistic license, but was the configuration Shepherd claimed to remember). [7] However, the "Buck Jones" Daisy air rifle, immediately above the Red Ryder in the Daisy line, did have a compass and sundial in the stock, [8] but no other features of the "Red Ryder" model.
  • Crazy Earl, a character in the 1979 book The Short-Timers and the 1987 film, Full Metal Jacket, based on the book, carries a Daisy Red Ryder BB gun in addition to his M16 rifle. [9]
  • Hogarth Hughes owns and uses a Red Ryder BB Gun in Brad Bird's 1999 film The Iron Giant.
  • In the 2011 movie Tactical Force about a SWAT team using non conventional methods, SWAT Sgt. Hunt (played by the actor Michael Jai White) uses a Red Ryder BB gun which he named 'Daisy' to shoot a kidnapper/robber in the forehead.
  • In a post game interview in a Week 10 game against the Cincinnati Bengals in the 2015 season, J. J. Watt in a quote referring to quarterback Andy Dalton: "Our goal was to come out here and make the Red Rifle look like a Red Ryder BB Gun, and I think we did that." The reference was used as a play on Dalton's "Red Rifle" nickname. Dalton's response made the quote go viral. [10][11]

V/L caseless rifles Edit

Daisy was the first company to introduce a production caseless ammunition and rifle, the V/L Rifle, in 1968. The V/L ammunition consisted of a .22 caliber bullet with a small disk of propellant on the back, and no primer. The rifle resembled a typical spring-air rifle, but the hot, high pressure air served not only as a power source but also to ignite the propellant on the back of the V/L cartridge. The V/L guns and ammunition were discontinued in 1969 after the BATF ruled that they constituted a firearm, and Daisy, which was not licensed to manufacture firearms at that time, decided to discontinue manufacture rather than become a firearms manufacturer. About 23,000 of the rifles were made before production ceased.

Rimfire rifles Edit

In 1988 Daisy briefly made a line of rimfire rifles, the Legacy rifle. These were bolt action or semi-automatic rifles chambered in .22 Long Rifle, and were available in a number of different models. Options were wooden stock or plastic stock with adjustable buttplate, and single-shot, 7-shot box magazine (for semi-automatic models only), or 10-shot rotary-feed (the magazine was similar to, but not interchangeable with, the Ruger 10/22). While these are very rare, the inexpensive construction and the fact that they are firearms, not airguns, has led to little collectors' interest.

Daisy was the defendant in a lawsuit after a Pennsylvania teenager, John Tucker Mahoney, was accidentally shot in the head in May 1999 when a friend fired one of their BB guns at him, believing it to be empty. This left him severely brain damaged. The lawsuit alleged that the company hid manufacturing defects, specifically the BB guns jamming, and demanded that the gun in question be recalled. The company settled the lawsuit with Mahoney's family for $18 million in a case that received worldwide publicity. [12] [13] Mahoney died of his injuries in October 2003. [14]


Daisy

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Daisy, any of several species of flowering plants belonging to the aster family (Asteraceae). Navnet daisy commonly denotes the oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare), the Shasta daisy (L. ×superbum), and the English, or true, daisy (Bellis perennis). These and other plants called daisies are distinguished by a composite flower head composed of 15 to 30 white ray flowers surrounding a centre consisting of bright yellow disk flowers, though other colour combinations are common.

The oxeye daisy is native to Europe and Asia but has become a common wild plant in the United States and elsewhere. This perennial grows to a height of about 60 cm (2 feet) and has oblong incised leaves and long petioles (leafstalks). Its solitary flower heads are about 2.5 to 5 cm (1 to 2 inches) in diameter, and the ray flowers are white in colour. The cultivated Shasta daisy resembles the oxeye daisy but has larger flower heads that may reach a diameter of 10 cm (4 inches).

Members of the genus Bellis are perennials that have solitary flower heads borne on long stalks the disk flowers are yellow, the ray flowers white or purple. The English daisy (B. perennis) is often used as a bedding plant. It has numerous spoon-shaped, slightly hairy leaves near its base that form a rosette. The plant has leafless flower stalks and hairy bracts (leaflike structures) below the flower heads. Some varieties of the English daisy have double flowers others may have pink or red ray flowers surrounding the bright yellow disk. Like the oxeye, the English daisy is native to Europe but has become a common wild plant in much of North America.

Other daisies include the Gerbera daisy (Gerbera jamesonii) of the floral industry, marguerite daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens), painted lady daisy (Tanacetum coccineum), and pyrethrum daisy (Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium) and various members of the genera Krysantemum og Erigeron.


Daisy Bates

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Daisy Bates, fuldt ud Daisy Gatson Bates, née Daisy Lee Gatson, (born 1914?, Huttig, Arkansas, U.S.—died November 4, 1999, Little Rock, Arkansas), American journalist and civil rights activist who withstood economic, legal, and physical intimidation to champion racial equality, most notably in the integration of public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas.

Daisy Gaston was adopted as a baby after her mother’s murder and her father’s subsequent flight for his own safety before prosecution of the three white men suspected of the murder could begin. She attended Huttig’s segregated public schools, where she experienced firsthand the poor conditions under which Black students were educated. In 1941 she married L.C. Bates, an insurance salesman and former journalist, and together they moved to Little Rock.

In 1942 she joined her husband on the weekly newspaper he had launched the previous year, the Arkansas State Press. The newspaper focused on the need for social and economic improvements for the Black residents of the state and became known for its fearless reporting of acts of police brutality against Black soldiers from a nearby army camp. The Bateses’ insistence on publicizing such information led many white business owners to cease placing advertisements in their paper. Despite the loss of revenue, the couple continued to produce their publication.

As a public and highly vocal supporter of many of the programs of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Bates was selected in 1952 to serve as the president of the state conference of the organization’s Arkansas branch. After the U.S. Supreme Court deemed segregation unconstitutional in 1954, she led the NAACP’s protest against the Little Rock school board’s plan for slow integration of the public schools and pressed instead for immediate integration. She personally began taking Black children to the white public schools, accompanied by newspaper photographers who recorded each instance when the children were refused admission. This intense pressure induced the school board to announce its plan to commence desegregation at Central High School in September 1957. Bates and nine of the Black students who were chosen to enroll at the high school withstood attempts at intimidation by the white opposition in Little Rock, which included rallies, legal action, threats, and acts of violence. Several attempts at integration failed, and the Black students were not allowed to enter the school despite a court order. Finally, on September 25, the day after President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered all Arkansas National Guard units and 1,000 paratroopers to enforce integration of the school, Bates and the students were escorted safely into the school. She continued to be an advocate for the students throughout their time at the school.

The Bateses were forced to close the Arkansas State Press in 1959. Daisy Bates published her autobiography, The Long Shadow of Little Rock, in 1962. In the next few years she worked for the Democratic National Committee’s voter education drive and for President Lyndon B. Johnson’s antipoverty programs in Washington, D.C. After suffering a stroke in 1965, she returned to her home state and in 1968 began working for a community revitalization project in Mitchellville, Arkansas. She resurrected the Arkansas State Press in 1984 but sold it several years later. Bates maintained her involvement in numerous community organizations and received numerous honours for her contribution to the integration of Little Rock’s schools.

Denne artikel blev senest revideret og opdateret af Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.


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