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Første sorte admiral i flåde - historie

Første sorte admiral i flåde - historie


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Samuel L. Gravely, Jr., blev født i Richmond, Virginia den 4. juni 1922. Gravely opnåede en BA -grad i historie fra Virginia Union University i 1948. Gravely sluttede sig til Naval reserve. Han overførte til marinen på fuld tid i 1955. I 1971 blev han udnævnt til den første afroamerikanske admiral. Han trak sig tilbage i 1980.

Første sorte admiral i flåde - historie


En introduktion til Superstjerner
The Navy of Navy & rsquos Black Admirals

I 1971 blev Samuel L. Gravely, Jr. den første afroamerikaner forfremmet til rang som kontreadmiral. Siden dengang har 48 andre afroamerikanere nået denne rang, herunder Lillian Fishburne valgt i 1998. I øjeblikket er der 15 aktive admiraler og 34 pensionister.

Samuel L. Alvorligt
Født 1922, Richmond, VA
Forfremmet til kontreadmiral i 1971
Forfremmet til viceadmiral i 1976

Viceadmiral Samuel Lee Gravely blev født i Richmond, VA i 1922, optaget i de amerikanske flådereservater i 1942 og blev bestilt som fenrik i 1944. I 1971 blev han udvalgt til forfremmelse til kontreadmiral og blev den første sorte flådeofficer i nationens historie for at opnå denne anerkendelse. Han blev senere forfremmet til viceadmiral i sommeren 1976 ombord på USS JOUETT, en af ​​flådens mest sofistikerede guidede missilcruisere og et af de skibe, han tidligere havde kommanderet.

Vice Admiral Gravelys priser omfatter Defense Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit Medal med en guldstjerne i stedet for en anden pris, Bronze Star Medal og Navy Commendation Medal.

Disse 49 admiraler eksemplificerer de fremskridt, som sorte har gjort i søværnet, som indtil slutningen af ​​1940 og rsquos opretholdt en streng adskillelsespolitik.

I 1940 var der 4.000 afroamerikanske hvervede søfolk i flåden. De var begrænset til at tjene som kokke. De første sorte officerer blev bestilt i 1944 og fik tilnavnet & ldquoThe Golden 13 & rdquo.

I 1949 blev Wesley A. Brown, en indfødt i Maryland, den første sorte, der blev uddannet fra U.S.Naval Academy i Annapolis, Maryland. Flere af admiralerne i denne udstilling fulgte i hans fodspor og modtog deres opgaver fra akademiet, herunder:

  • Kontreadmiral Lawrence C. Chambers, klasse 1952
  • Kontreadmiral William E. Powell, klasse 1959
  • Admiral J. Paul Reason, klasse 1965
  • Kontreadmiral Anthony J. Watson, klasse 1970
  • Viceadmiral Andy Winns, klasse 1978
  • Viceadmiral Melvin G. Williams, klasse 1978
  • Viceadmiral Derwood C. Curtis, klasse 1976
  • Kontreadmiral Arthur J. Johnson, klasse 1979
  • Kontreadmiral Victor G. Guillory, klasse 1978
  • Admiral Cecil D. Haney, klasse 1978
  • Kontreadmiral Julius S. Cæsar, klasse 1977
  • Viceadmiral Bruce E. Grooms, klasse 1980
  • Admiral Michelle J. Howard, klasse 1982
  • Kontreadmiral Earl L. Gay, klasse 1980
  • Kontreadmiral Charles K. Carodine, klasse 1982
  • Kontreadmiral Jesse A. Wilson, klasse 1986

Lillian E. Fishburne
Født 1949,
Patuxent River, MD
Forfremmet til kontreadmiral i 1998

Kommandør for Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station, Key West, Florida. Chef for Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station i Wahiawa, Hawaii.

Kontreadmiral Fishburne blev forfremmet til flagrangering i februar 1998 og blev flådens nittende afroamerikaner og landets første afroamerikanske kvinde til at opnå denne anerkendelse. Hendes talrige militære priser omfatter Defense Superior Service Medal og Legion of Merit Medal.

I dag er der 78.000 hvervede afroamerikanske mænd og kvinder og yderligere 3.000 afroamerikanske officerer, der tjener i flåden.

"Disse admiralers succes sammen med resultaterne fra alle Black Navy -personale vidner om en imponerende rekord af udholdenhed. Dette er deres historie, en levende lektion om personlig triumf og en kilde til national stolthed."

Barry C. Black
Født 1948, Baltimore, MD
Forfremmet til kontreadmiral i 1998

Barry Black blev forfremmet til rang som kontreadmiral i februar 1998 og blev søværnets tyvende afroamerikaner for at nå denne øverste lederposition. I august 2000 blev han udvalgt til at tjene som chef for kapellaner, der var ansvarlig for de religiøse behov hos søværnets 384.000 søfolk og deres familier.

Hans mange militære dekorationer omfatter Legion of Merit Medal, Defense Meritorious Service Medal (to priser) og Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal (to priser).

Vis abstrakt

Denne introduktion til United States Navy & rsquos Black admiraler opnås ved hjælp af farveportrætter og bibliografiske profiler, der fremhæver deres strålende flådekarriere.

De 39 fyrre 24X30 tommer smukt indrammede billeder viser også et farvefotografi af det fly, admiralen fløj eller det skib, de havde kommandoen over.

Udstillingen fremhæver den rolle, sorte amerikanere spillede i forsvaret af vores nation og fungerer som en kilde til inspiration for alle unge mennesker, at den amerikanske drøm, om hårdt arbejde, der giver store belønninger, stadig kan gå i opfyldelse.

Udstillingen understøttes af:

& bull Dynamiske dokumentarvideoer
& bull Et diasshow i farver
& bull Handouts til publikum, herunder en udstillingsguide og lister over relaterede bøger og websteder.

Størrelsen på hver af de 49 indrammede portrætter i Navy Admirals udstiller "Super Stars: The Navy's Black Admirals:

Foredrag Emner

& bull Vice Admiral Sam Gravely The Navy & rsquos Første sorte admiral.

& tyr kontreadmiral Barry Black kaldet til at tjene flåden & rsquos Første sorte kaptajnchef.

& bull Kontreadmiral Lillian Fishburne Victory is Mine The Navy & rsquos First Black Woman Admiral.

& bull Kontreadmiral Ben Hacker Naval Aviation's Golden Wings.

& bull Seaworthy Admirals: Fremtrædende sorte kandidater fra U.S. Naval Academy.

& tyr Admiral Michelle Howard Leading Lady Søværnets første 4-stjernede admiral.

Michelle Howard
Forfremmet til 4-stjernet admiral i 2014

Admiral Howard tog eksamen fra United States Naval Academy i 1982. Hun overtog kommandoen over USS Rushmore (LSD 47) den 12. marts 1999 og blev den første afroamerikanske kvinde, der havde kommando over et skib i den amerikanske flåde.

I 2014 blev hun forfremmet til 4-stjernet admiral, den første kvinde i den amerikanske flåde, der nåede denne rang. Hun blev også valgt til at tjene i den amerikanske flådes næsthøjeste lederstilling som vicechef for flådeoperationer.

Særlige emner

& tyr Wesley Brown Den første sorte kandidat fra US Naval Academy.

Bogklubemner til Wesley Brown inkluderer:

Kommandør Jackson deler sin førstehånds viden om nogle af landets mest dynamiske ledere, når han letter diskussioner om bøger skrevet af Black Navy Admirals.

Fra hætten til bakken: En historie om at overvinde af Barry C. Black, pensioneret marineadmiral og kapellan i det amerikanske senat

Trailblazer: Den amerikanske flådes første sorte admiral af Sam Gravely Jr., Pensioneret marineadmiral, med historikeren Paul Stillwell

Museum Orienteringsforelæsninger

Kommandør Jackson giver et insiderperspektiv under sine orienteringsforedrag, så besøgende kan få mest muligt ud af deres museumsture.

Denne udstilling beskriver livet for midtskibsmanden Wesley Brown, admiraler Paul Reason og Michelle Howard, og astronaut og marinekorpsgeneral Charles Bolden.

Denne udstilling indeholder militære trailblazers og Black Admiral og generalofficerer.


Kommandørerne: Admiraler og generaler i det amerikanske militær, 1940 –

Den 25. oktober 1940 blev Benjamin O. Davis Sr. udnævnt til brigadegeneral i den amerikanske hær af præsident Franklin D. Roosevelt og blev den første afroamerikanske general i USA's militærs historie. Siden da er næsten 400 andre afroamerikanske kvinder og mænd blevet udnævnt til den rang. Den højeste rang i hæren, luftvåbnet og marinekorpset er general (fire stjerner), efterfulgt af generalløjtnant (tre stjerner), generalmajor (to stjerner) og brigadegeneral (en stjerne). Fem mænd har haft rang som general for hæren (femstjernet), George C. Marshall, Douglas MacArthur, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Omar Bradley og Henry H. Arnold, der senere blev den eneste femstjernede general i luften Kraft. Femstjerners rang er ikke længere tilgængelig. I flåden er den øverste rang "Admiral" (fire stjerner) efterfulgt af viceadmiral (tre stjerner) og kontreadmiral (to stjerner). I flåden gives rang sjældent til flådeadmiral. Kun fire mænd, William D. Leahy, Ernest J. King, Chester W. Nimitz og William F. Halsey, Jr. har fået navnet Fleet Admiral.

Nedenfor er angivet afroamerikanske mænd og kvinder, der har opnået rang som admiral i flåden eller general i hæren eller luftvåbnet. Ingen afroamerikanere har endnu opnået rang som general i Marine Corps.

Derudover er der profiler af andre betydningsfulde afrikanske generaler og admiraler sammen med de sorte generaler og admiraler, der har tjent i militæret i andre nationer. Som med alle BlackPast.org -kompileringer er dette et igangværende arbejde. Hvis der er andre befalingsmænd, der har opnået rang som admiral eller general, og du mener, at du bør angive dem her, skal du sende deres navne til [email protected], eller hellere stadig melde dig frivilligt til at skrive poster om dem.

Four Star Navy Admirals sammen med året for deres udnævnelse

Fire stjernede hærs generaler sammen med året for deres udnævnelse

Fire -stjernede luftvåbengeneraler sammen med udnævnelsesåret

Der er ingen fire -stjernede marine -generaler: Her er andre marine -generaler

Statsadjutanten General (TAG) er de facto chef for en stats militære styrker, herunder Army National Guard, Air Force National Guard, marinemilitsen og alle andre statsforsvarsstyrker i fredstid. Generaladjutanten udnævnes normalt af guvernøren i en stat. Nedenfor er angivet de personer, der har tjent i denne egenskab sammen med deres respektive stater og datoerne for deres udnævnelse.


Indhold

James Glasgow Farragut blev født i 1801 af George Farragut (født Jorge Farragut Mesquida, 1755-1817), en spansk balearisk handelsmand fra Middelhavsøen Menorca, og hans kone Elizabeth (født Shine, 1765-1808), fra North Carolina Scotch. -Irsk amerikansk afstamning, ved Lowes Ferry på Holston River i Tennessee. [9] Det var et par miles sydøst for Campbells Station, nær Knoxville. [10]

Efter at have tjent i den spanske handelsflåde ankom George Farragut til Nordamerika i 1766 og tjente som flådeofficer under den amerikanske revolutionskrig, først med South Carolina Navy derefter de kontinentale flådestyrker. George og Elizabeth var flyttet vestpå til Tennessee efter hans tjeneste i revolutionen, hvor han drev Lowes Ferry og tjente som kavaleriofficer i Tennessee -militsen. [6] I 1805 accepterede George en stilling ved den amerikanske havn i New Orleans. Han rejste først derhen, og hans familie fulgte efter i et 2.700 km langt flatbådseventyr hjulpet af hyrede flodmænd, den dengang fire-årige James første rejse. Familien boede stadig i New Orleans, da Elizabeth døde af gul feber. George Farragut lavede planer om at placere de små børn hos venner og familie, der bedre kunne passe dem.

I 1808, efter sin mors død, gik James med til at bo hos søofficer David Porter, hvis far havde tjent med George Farragut under revolutionen. [11] I 1812 adopterede han navnet "David" til ære for sin plejefader, med hvem han gik til søs sidst i 1810. David Farragut voksede op i en søfamilie som plejebror til den kommende borgerkrigsadmiral, David Dixon Porter og Commodore William D. Porter.

Farraguts flådekarriere begyndte som midtskibsmand, da han var ni år gammel, og fortsatte i 60 år til sin død i en alder af 69. Dette omfattede tjeneste i flere krige, især under den amerikanske borgerkrig, hvor han blev berømt for at vinde flere afgørende søslag.

1812 -krigen Rediger

Gennem indflydelse fra sin plejefader blev Farragut bestilt som midtskibsfører i den amerikanske flåde den 17. december 1810 i en alder af ni. [12] [note 1] En prismester i en alder af 12 år kæmpede Farragut i krigen i 1812 og tjente under kaptajn Porter, hans plejefader. Mens han tjente ombord på USS Essex, Farragut deltog i indfangningen af ​​HMS Alert den 13. august 1812 [13] [14] var derefter med til at etablere Amerikas første flådebase og koloni i Stillehavet, ved navn Fort Madison, under den skæbnesvangre Nuku Hiva-kampagne på Marquesasøerne. Samtidig kæmpede amerikanerne de fjendtlige stammer på øerne ved hjælp af deres Te I'i -allierede.

Farragut var 12 år gammel, da han under krigen i 1812 fik til opgave at bringe et skib fanget af Essex sikkert til havn. [15] Han blev såret og fanget, mens han tjente på Essex under forlovelsen i Valparaíso Bay, Chile, mod briterne den 28. marts 1814. [16]

Vestindien Rediger

Farragut blev forfremmet til løjtnant i 1822 under operationerne mod vestindiske pirater. I 1824 fik han kommandoen over USS Ilder, som var hans første kommando over et amerikansk flådefartøj. [17] Han tjente i Mosquito Fleet, en flåde af skibe udstyret til at bekæmpe pirater i Det Caribiske Hav. Efter at have lært at hans gamle kaptajn, Commodore Porter, ville være chef for flåden, bad han om og modtog ordrer om at tjene ombord Greyhound, et af de mindre fartøjer, under kommando af John Porter, bror til David Porter. Den 14. februar 1823 sejlede flåden mod Vestindien, hvor de i de næste seks måneder ville drive piraterne ud af havet og dirigere dem fra deres skjulesteder blandt øerne. [18] Han var administrerende officer ombord på Eksperiment under sin kampagne i Vestindien bekæmpelse af pirater. [19]

Mexicansk -amerikansk krig Rediger

I 1847 overtog Farragut, nu en kommandant, kommandoen over krigens slupp Saratoga da hun blev taget i brug igen på Norfolk Navy Yard i Norfolk, Virginia. Tildelt til Home Squadron til tjeneste i den mexicansk -amerikanske krig, Saratoga forlod Norfolk den 29. marts 1847, på vej til Den Mexicanske Golf under Farraguts kommando og ved ankomsten fra Veracruz, Mexico, rapporterede den 26. april 1847 til eskadrillens chef, Commodore Matthew C. Perry, til tjeneste. Den 29. april beordrede Perry Farragut til at sejle Saratoga 150 sømil (173 miles 278 km) mod nord for at blokere Tuxpan, hvor hun opererede fra 30. april til 12. juli, før Farragut vendte tilbage til Veracruz. Cirka to uger senere begyndte Farragut en rundrejse for at transportere forsendelser til Tabasco og vendte tilbage til Veracruz den 11. august 1847. Den 1. september 1847 blev Farragut og Saratoga vendte tilbage til blokadevagt ved Tuxpan og blev der i to måneder på trods af et udbrud af gul feber om bord. Farragut bragte derefter skibet tilbage til Veracruz og gik efter en måned der i gang for Pensacola Navy Yard i Pensacola, Florida, hvor Saratoga ankom den 6. januar 1848, landede alle hendes alvorligt syge patienter på basishospitalet og genopfyldte hendes butikker. Den 31. januar 1848 tog Farragut skibet ud af Pensacola på vej til New York City og ankom der den 19. februar. Saratoga blev nedlagt der den 26. februar 1848. [20]

Mare Island Navy Yard Rediger

I 1853 valgte marinesekretær James C. Dobbin kommandør David G. Farragut til at oprette Mare Island Navy Yard nær San Francisco i San Pablo Bay. I august 1854 blev Farragut kaldet til Washington fra sin stilling som assisterende inspektør for ammunition i Norfolk, Virginia. Præsident Franklin Pierce lykønskede Farragut med hans skibskarriere og den opgave, han skulle påtage sig. Den 16. september 1854 ankom kommandør Farragut for at føre tilsyn med bygningen af ​​Mare Island Navy Yard i Vallejo, Californien, som blev havn til skibsreparationer på vestkysten. Kaptajn Farragut bestilte Mare Island den 16. juli 1858. Farragut vendte tilbage til en helt velkommen ved Mare Island den 11. august 1869. [21] [22]

Borgerkrigstjeneste Rediger

Selvom han boede i Norfolk, Virginia, før den amerikanske borgerkrig, gjorde Farragut det klart for alle, der kendte ham, at han betragtede løsrivelse som forræderi. Lige før krigens udbrud flyttede Farragut med sin jomfrufødte kone til Hastings-on-Hudson, en lille by lige uden for New York City. [9] [23]

Han tilbød sine tjenester til Unionen og fik oprindeligt en plads i Naval Pensionering Board. Tilbudt en kommando af sin plejebror, David Dixon Porter, om en særlig opgave, tøvede han med at høre, at målet måske var Norfolk. Da han havde venner og slægtninge, der boede der, blev han lettet over at lære, at målet blev ændret til hans tidligere barndomshjem i New Orleans. Flåden var i tvivl om Farraguts loyalitet over for Unionen på grund af hans sydlige fødsel såvel som hans kones. Porter argumenterede på hans vegne, og Farragut blev accepteret for den store rolle at angribe New Orleans. [23]

Farragut blev udnævnt under hemmelige instrukser den 3. februar 1862 til at kommandere Gulf Blockading Squadron, der sejlede fra Hampton Roads på skruedamperen USS Hartford, der bærer 25 kanoner, som han lavede sit flagskib, ledsaget af en flåde på 17 skibe. Han nåede udløbet af Mississippi -floden, nær de konfødererede forter St. Philip og Jackson, der ligger overfor hinanden langs flodens bredder, med en samlet bevæbning på mere end 100 tunge kanoner og et supplement på 700 mand. Nu bekendt med Farraguts tilgang havde de konfødererede samlet en flåde på 16 kanonbåde lige uden for New Orleans. [24]

Den 18. april beordrede Farragut mørtelbådene under kommando af Porter at påbegynde bombardement på de to forter, hvilket påførte betydelig skade, men ikke nok til at tvinge de konfødererede til at overgive sig. Efter to dages kraftigt bombardement løb Farragut forbi forterne Jackson og St. Philip og Chalmette -batterierne for at indtage byen og havnen i New Orleans den 29. april, en afgørende begivenhed i krigen. [25]

Kongressen hædrede ham ved at skabe rang som kontreadmiral den 16. juli 1862, en rang, der aldrig før blev brugt i den amerikanske flåde. Inden denne tid havde den amerikanske flåde modstået admiralrangen og foretrak udtrykket "flagofficer" for at skelne rangen fra traditionerne i de europæiske flåder. Farragut blev forfremmet til kontreadmiral sammen med 13 andre officerer - tre andre på den aktive liste og ti på den pensionerede liste.

Senere samme år passerede Farragut batterierne, der forsvarede Vicksburg, Mississippi, men havde ingen succes der. En midlertidig konfødereret jernbeklædning tvang sin flotille på 38 skibe til at trække sig tilbage i juli 1862.

Mens han var en aggressiv kommandør, var Farragut ikke altid samarbejdsvillig. Ved belejringen af ​​Port Hudson var planen, at Farraguts flotilje skulle forbi kanonerne i den konfødererede højborg ved hjælp af et afledningslandangreb fra Golfens hær, under kommando af general Nathaniel Banks, til at begynde kl. 8:00 den 15. marts 1863. Farragut besluttede ensidigt at flytte tidsplanen op til 21:00 den 14. marts og startede sit løb forbi kanonerne, før Unionens jordstyrker var på plads. Det følgelig ukoordinerede angreb tillod konfødererede at koncentrere sig om Farraguts flotille og påføre hans krigsskibe store skader.

Farraguts flotille blev tvunget til at trække sig tilbage med kun to skibe i stand til at passere den tunge kanon i den konfødererede bastion. Efter at have overlevet handsken, spillede Farragut ingen yderligere rolle i kampen om Port Hudson, og General Banks blev overladt til at fortsætte belejringen uden fordel af flådestøtte. Unionens hær foretog to store angreb på fortet, begge blev slået tilbage med store tab. Farraguts flotille blev splintret, men var alligevel i stand til at blokere mundingen af ​​Red River med de to resterende krigsskibe, han ikke effektivt kunne patruljere afsnittet af Mississippi mellem Port Hudson og Vicksburg. Farraguts afgørelse viste sig at være dyr for Unionens flåde og Unionens hær, som led den højeste dødsfald i krigen ved Port Hudson.

Vicksburg overgav sig den 4. juli 1863 og efterlod Port Hudson som den sidste resterende konfødererede højborg ved Mississippi -floden. General Banks accepterede overgivelsen af ​​den konfødererede garnison i Port Hudson den 9. juli og sluttede den længste belejring i amerikansk militærhistorie. Kontrol over Mississippi -floden var midtpunktet i Unionens strategi for at vinde krigen, og med overgivelsen af ​​Port Hudson blev konføderationen nu skåret i to.

Den 5. august 1864 vandt Farragut en stor sejr i slaget ved Mobile Bay. Mobile, Alabama, var dengang konføderationens sidste store åbne havn ved Den Mexicanske Golf. Bugten blev kraftigt udvundet (bundne søminer blev dengang kendt som "torpedoer"). [26] Farragut beordrede sin flåde at lade bugten. Når skærmen USS Tecumseh ramte en mine og sank, de andre begyndte at trække sig tilbage.

Fra hans høje aborre, hvor han blev surret til rigning af sit flagskib, USS Hartford, Farragut kunne se skibene trække sig tilbage. "Hvad er problemet?" råbte han gennem en trompet til USS Brooklyn. "Torpedoer", lød det råbte svar. "Damn torpedoer.", Sagde Farragut, "Fire klokker, kaptajn Drayton, fortsæt. Jouett, fuld fart." [27] [28] Det lykkedes størstedelen af ​​flåden at komme ind i bugten. Farragut sejrede over modstanden fra tunge batterier i Fort Morgan og Fort Gaines for at besejre eskadronen til admiral Franklin Buchanan.

Den 21. december 1864 forfremmede Lincoln Farragut til viceadmiral. Denne forfremmelse gjorde ham til den øverste rangeringsofficer i den amerikanske flåde.

Efterkrigstjeneste Rediger

Efter borgerkrigen blev Farragut valgt som ledsager i den første klasse af New York Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States den 18. marts 1866 og tildelt insignier nummer 231. Han fungerede som chef for Commandery of New York fra maj 1866 til hans død.

Farragut blev forfremmet til fuld admiral den 25. juli 1866 og blev den første amerikanske flådeofficer, der havde denne rang. [6]

Hans sidste aktive tjeneste havde kommandoen over den europæiske eskadron, fra 1867 til 1868, med skruefregatten USS Franklin som sit flagskib. Farragut forblev aktiv tjeneste for livet, en ære kun tildelt syv andre amerikanske flådeofficerer efter borgerkrigen. [29]

Farragut døde af et hjerteanfald i en alder af 69 år i Portsmouth, New Hampshire, mens han var på ferie i sensommeren 1870. Han havde tjent næsten tres år i flåden. Han er begravet på Woodlawn Cemetery i Bronx, New York City. [30] Hans gravsted er opført på National Register of Historic Places, ligesom Woodlawn Cemetery selv.

Efter udnævnelse og et indledende krydstogt som fungerende løjtnant, der kommanderede USS Ilder, Farragut blev gift med Susan Caroline Marchant den 2. september 1824. [31] Efter mange års dårligt helbred døde Susan Farragut den 27. december 1840. Farragut blev kendt for sin venlige behandling af sin kone under hendes sygdom. [32]

Efter sin første kones død giftede Farragut sig med Virginia Dorcas Loyall den 26. december 1843, med hvem han havde en overlevende søn, ved navn Loyall Farragut, født 12. oktober 1844. Loyall Farragut tog eksamen fra West Point i 1868 og tjente som en anden løjtnant i den amerikanske hær, inden han trådte tilbage i 1872. Han tilbragte det meste af resten af ​​sin karriere som direktør hos Central Railroad Company i New Jersey. Han var et arveligt medlem af Military Society of the War of 1812 og en ledsager af Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. Loyall døde den 1. oktober 1916, som bemærket på den ene side af familiemonumentet, som han og hans mor rejste til minde om sin far på Woodlawn Cemetery. [33]

Farragut havde en bror ved navn William A. C. Farragut. William var også i flåden, men havde en langt mindre fornem karriere. Han blev berettiget som midtshipman den 16. januar 1809 (et år før David Farragut ville begynde sin karriere) og blev forfremmet til løjtnant den 9. december 1814. William forblev på denne rang, indtil han blev overført til reservelisten den 15. december 1855. Han døde den 20. december 1859.

David Farragut blev indviet til Scottish Rite Masonry. [34] [35] [36]

  • 17. december 1810, udnævnt til midtskibsmand i en alder af 9.
  • 1812, tildelt USS Essex.
  • 1815–1817, serveret i Middelhavet ombord på Uafhængighed og Makedonsk.
  • 1818, studerede i land i ni måneder i Tunis.
  • 1819, tjente som løjtnant på USS Haj.
  • 1823, placeret under kommandoen over USS Ilder.
  • 10. januar 1825 forfremmet til løjtnant på fregatten Brandywine.
  • 1826–1838, tjente i underordnet kapacitet på forskellige fartøjer.
  • 1838, kommanderet over sløjfen Erie.
  • 8. september 1841 forfremmet til rang som kommandant. , befalede krigens sløve Saratoga.
  • 1848–1853, tjeneste ved Norfolk, Navy Yard i Virginia som assisterende inspektør for ordinance.
  • September 1852 - august 1853, tildelt at føre tilsyn med afprøvning af udholdenhed af flådepistolbatterier ved Old Point Comfort i Fort Monroe i Virginia. [37]
  • 1853–1854, tjeneste i Washington, D.C.
  • 14. september 1855 forfremmet til kaptajnen.
  • 1854–1858, pligt til etablering af Mare Island Navy Yard i San Francisco Bay.
  • 1858–1859, chef for krigens slupp USS Brooklyn.
  • 1860–1861, stationeret på Norfolk Navy Yard.
  • 13. januar 1862 forfremmet til rang som flagofficer (svarende til commodore).
  • Januar 1862, befalede USS Hartford og West Gulf blokade eskadrille på 17 fartøjer.
  • April 1862 overtog kommandoen over det besatte New Orleans.
  • 23. juni 1862, såret nær Vicksburg, Mississippi.
  • 16. juli 1862 forfremmet til kontreadmiral.
  • 15. marts 1863 kommanderede flådestyrker i slaget ved Port Hudson.
  • Maj 1863, befalede USS Monongahela.
  • Maj 1863, befalede USS Pensacola.
  • Juli 1863, befalede USS Tennessee.
  • 5. august 1864, Slaget ved Mobile Bay.
  • 5. september 1864 tilbød kommandoen over North Atlantic Blocking Squadron, men han afviste på grund af familieproblemer.
  • 21. december 1864 forfremmet til viceadmiral.
  • April 1865, pallbearer til begravelsen af ​​Abraham Lincoln.
  • 25. juli 1866 forfremmet til admiral.
  • Juni 1867-1868, ledede den europæiske eskadre med USS Franklin som sit flagskib.
  • 14. august 1870, døde på Portsmouth Navy Yard i Kittery, Maine.

Området, der tidligere var kendt som Campbells Station, Tennessee, kun få kilometer fra Admiral Farraguts fødested, blev omdøbt til byen Farragut til hans ære.

Farragut Square i Washington, DC er opkaldt til hans ære. En statue af ham, navngivet Admiral David G. Farragut, er i centrum af Farragut -pladsen. To Washington Metro -stationer, Farragut West og Farragut North, deler også sit navn. Der er en statue af admiral Farragut i South Boston Marine Park ved siden af ​​Castle Island. Der er også en udendørs skulptur af ham i Madison Square Park på Manhattan, New York City, hvor Farragut -sektionen i bydelen Brooklyn, [38] inklusive Farragut Road, er opkaldt efter ham. [39]

Farragut Naval Training Station, der ligger i det nordlige Idaho ved Pend Oreille -søen, var et WWII -søtræningscenter, den anden største i verden på det tidspunkt med over 293.000 sejlere, der modtog grunduddannelse der. I 1966 gjorde staten Idaho landet til Farragut State Park.

To separate klasser af US Navy destroyers er blevet opkaldt efter Farragut: the Farragut klasse fra 1934 og Farragut klasse af 1958. Flere individuelle amerikanske flådeskibe er også blevet navngivet USS Farragut til hans ære.

Admiral Farragut Academy, opkaldt efter admiral David G. Farragut, blev grundlagt i 1933 som en all-boys militær boarding high school. I dag er Academy en college-prep, privat skole, der betjener elever i PreK-12. klasse og ligger i St. Petersburg, Florida. Upper School, der starter i 8. klasse, er også kendt verden over for sit kostprogram og Navy Junior ROTC militære struktur. Farragut tilbyder også andre signatur akademiske programmer: Luftfart, Scuba, Marine Science, Engineering, Sejlads og mere.

Få flådeofficerer i amerikansk historie er blevet hædret på et amerikansk frimærke, men David Farragut er blevet hædret mere end én gang. Det første frimærke (til venstre) til ære for Farragut var sortudgaven på 1 dollar i 1903. Navyudgaven fra 1937 indeholder (blandt fem i en serie) et 3-cent lilla stempel, der viser admiraler David Farragut (til venstre) og David Portier, med et krigsskib under sejl vist i midten. Det seneste portoudsted til ære for Farragut blev frigivet fra Gettysburg, Pennsylvania den 29. juni 1995. [40] [41]

Science Fiction Venturer Twelve -serien indeholder en admiral Farragut med kommando over Jordens rumflåde i den fjerne fremtid.


Hvordan den amerikanske flådes første sorte officerer hjalp med at omforme det amerikanske militær

Året markerer 75 -årsdagen for USA's sejr over Tyskland og Japan i Anden Verdenskrig, og festlighederne, filmene og mindesmærkerne vil fokusere på slagmarkerne i Europa og Stillehavet. Men en af ​​de mest konsekvente kampe i krigen fandt ikke sted i udlandet. Den blev ført omkring 35 miles nord for Chicago og mdash, og dens resultat ændrede for altid den amerikanske flåde.

I begyndelsen af ​​1944, da USA forberedte sig på invasionen af ​​Frankrig, blev 16 afroamerikanske søfolk, indkaldt fra landinstallationer og træningsskoler over hele landet, bragt til hovedkontoret på Great Lakes Naval Training Center og fortalte, at de var blevet udvalgt til Officerkandidatskole.

Det var en opsigtsvækkende opgave.

En sort mand havde uddannet United States Military Academy ved West Point i 1877 og hæren havde sin første sorte general i 1940. Men da Anden Verdenskrig begyndte, fik afroamerikanere ikke engang lov til at melde sig til Navy & rsquos general service. De blev henvist til messmænd: kokke og tjenere, hvis hovedfunktion var at tjene hvide. Blot to år senere, takket være pres fra borgerrettighedsledere og den sorte presse, fortalte flåden disse 16 tilmeldte og mdash sønnerne og barnebørnene til slaver og mdash, at de ville forsøge at integrere officerernes korps og bevise forkert den fremherskende visdom, der mente, at deres race var ude af stand til disciplin og uværdig til rang.

Historien om Navy & rsquos første sorte officerer er stadig lidt kendt, overskygget af heltemod fra Tuskegee Airmen og Patton & rsquos Panthers. Men deres succes, både som kandidater og som officerer, ændrede for altid, hvad der var muligt for afroamerikanske søfolk og forventede den kommende borgerrettighedsbevægelse.

Disse officerkandidater var ikke karrieremilitære mænd. Før krigen var de metalsmede, lærere, advokater, universitetsstuderende, mænd, der havde været vidne til lynchinger og blev nægtet job på grund af deres hud, mænd, der blev adskilt og ydmyget, selv efter at de havde meldt sig. Men da muligheden for at bryde Navy & rsquos mest stive farvebarriere blev præsenteret, svor de, at de ville arbejde hårdere end de nogensinde havde & mdash for deres egen skyld, for de utallige sjæle, der kæmpede for at gøre dette øjeblik muligt og for alle de sorte mænd endnu komme.

& ldquoVi var de sorte håb og forhåbninger i flåden, og William Sylvester White huskede 30 år senere. & ldquoVi var forløberne. Hvad vi gjorde eller ikke gjorde, afgjorde om programmet blev udvidet eller mislykkedes. & Rdquo

Der var cirka 100.000 sorte mænd i søværnet i januar 1944. Hvis nogen nogensinde skulle bære guldstriberne, lede et krigsskib eller færdiggøre Navalakademiet, så skulle dette eksperiment lykkes. Kandidaternes og rsquo-uddannelsen var kulminationen på et hidtil uset fireårigt skub fra borgerrettighedsledere, der forlangte at vide, hvorfor sorte forældre skulle ofre deres sønner for at frigøre Europa for et demokratisk ideal, der ikke fandtes i USA.

& ldquoVi ønsker demokrati i Alabama, Arkansas, i Mississippi og Michigan, i District of Columbia, i Senatet i USA, og rdquo NAACP redaktioneret i 1940.

Even after Pearl Harbor and the formal declaration of war, many African Americans found that the calls to defend democracy rang hollow, while the German talk of a superior race sounded strikingly familiar. The black press, a formidable political force whose influence in the African American community was rivaled only by the church, launched the Double V campaign, telling millions of readers that a true victory for democracy would only be gained if it was won both overseas and at home.

Ordinary citizens wrote their congressmen, senators, the President and his cabinet to protest a policy that deemed their sons &mdash who were eager to enlist in the Navy &mdash fit only to wash dishes or scrub floors.

&ldquoIt seems to me that that is a very cold and ugly situation,&rdquo J. E. Branham, a realtor from Cleveland, wrote Navy Secretary Frank Knox.

Their persistence led to 16 African American men being escorted to a Great Lakes barracks, which had 16 cots, 16 footlockers and one long table with 16 chairs. This was their home and their school. They were segregated from white officer candidates and separated from other black enlisted men. They were ordered to tell no one but their families what they were attempting. They were supposed to be in bed with the lights out at 10:30 p.m., but well past that hour, they sat together in the bathroom, flashlights in hand, studying seamanship, navigation, gunnery, naval regulation and naval law. They draped sheets over the windows so no one outside would notice the light. They were intent on proving that their &ldquoselection was justified,&rdquo Sam Barnes said, during the group&rsquos first reunion in 1977, &ldquoand that we weren&rsquot a party to tokenism.&rdquo

The men, who ranged in age from 23 to 36 years old, mastered in only a few weeks what many white candidates studied for years.

As their training drew to a close in March 1944, the group was posting grades like no other officer class in history. Their marks were so good, in fact, that some in Washington did not believe they could be real. The men were forced to take some exams a second time. They scored even higher, a collective 3.89 out of 4.0, the highest average of any class in Navy history.

Despite their success in the classroom, Navy officials decided that only 12 would be commissioned and a 13th would be made a warrant officer. No official explanation was ever given as to why three men were dropped from the program&mdashbut the decision meant that the first group of black officers, a group that passed with flying colors, would have the same completion rate as an average white class.

Their initial success did not mean these groundbreaking black ensigns would be spared future slights. They were refused housing, prohibited from officers&rsquo clubs and denied a chance to prove their mettle in combat. They were given make-work assignments: running drills, giving lectures on venereal disease and patrolling the waters off the California coast in a converted yacht. White enlisted men crossed the street to avoid saluting. The Navy kept their commissioning a quiet affair. There were no graduation exercises, no ceremonies, no celebrations. The Navy did nothing to promote their achievements even as they earned plaudits from their superiors and distinguished themselves in their post-war careers. For three decades, they were known only as &ldquothose Negro officers&rdquo of, later, as &ldquothose black officers.&rdquo

It wasn&rsquot until the 1970s that the Navy feted these men as symbols of pride and progress, a recruiting tool to inspire a new generation. Prior to their first reunion in 1977, Captain Edward Sechrest, a Vietnam veteran who was assigned to the Navy Recruiting Command, coined the term &ldquoGolden Thirteen,&rdquo a bit of ingenious PR that gave the group a catchy nickname the Navy could use to tout their achievements.

Their annual reunions garnered some press but, as the men began to pass, their story faded from memory. Few today are aware of the Golden Thirteen or their contribution to the Navy and the nation. Still, the lessons they imparted are more resonant than ever before. At a time of national trial, the Golden Thirteen remind us that our capacity for success isn&rsquot limited by politics or preconceived notions, that heroes aren&rsquot only found in cockpits and tanks and that, often, the most important victories for Democracy are those won off the battle field.


Joseph Paul Reason (1941- )

Joseph Paul Reason was the first African American to attain the rank of four-star admiral in the United States Navy. Reason was born March 22, 1941, in Washington, D.C., the son of Howard University librarian and French language professor Joseph Henry Reason, and schoolteacher Bernice Reason (née Chism). As a teenager at McKinley Technology High School, he showed interest in the military but his application to enroll in the school’s Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC) was rejected. A year at Swarthmore College and a year at Lincoln University preceded Reason’s attendance at Howard University where, during his junior year he was contacted by Congressman Charles Diggs Jr. and persuaded to apply to the U.S. Naval Academy. Joseph Reason graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy with a degree in naval science and was commissioned a Navy Ensign in 1965.

Reason’s first assignment was as operations officer on the destroyer escort USS J. Douglas Blackwood. After completing study in nuclear power at naval training facilities in New York and Maryland he served on the USS Truxtun which was deployed for duty in Southeast Asia in 1968. Additional training at the Naval Postgraduate School earned him a degree in computer systems management. He returned to sea duty aboard the nuclear-powered USS Virksomhed from 1970 to 1973, operating in waters in Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean. Promoted to Captain, Reason took courses at the Naval Destroyer School in Rhode Island and the Combat System Technical Schools Command in California. He returned to sea in 1976 on the USS Truxtun as Combat Systems Officer.

The American public got accustomed to seeing the 6’5” tall Reason in his next assignment serving as President Jimmy Carter’s Naval Aide who frequently trailed behind the president carrying a black case containing top-secret military codes, a role he filled in the White House from late 1976 to 1979.

Reason returned to the sea again as executive officer on the nuclear-powered guided missile cruiser USS Mississippi and commanding officer of the guided missile destroyers USS Coontz og USS Bainbridge. Following more training at Naval Reactors, a program jointly administered by the Navy and the U.S. Department of Energy, and at the time headed by Admiral Hyman Rickover, Reason was promoted to Rear Admiral in 1986 and sent to command Naval Base Seattle, managing naval activities for the states of Oregon, Washington, and Alaska. From 1988 to 1991, he commanded Cruiser-Destroyer Group One and Battle Group Romeo both of which patrolling eastern theaters. In 1990 Reason was promoted to Vice Admiral and given command of Naval Surface Forces in the Atlantic Fleet. When Reason was elevated to four-star Admiral in 1996, he was made Commander in Chief of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet composed of more than 190 ships, 1,300 aircraft, and 120,000 personnel at 17 naval bases, a post he held until he retired from the service in 1999.

Among Reason’s decorations were the Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Republic of Vietnam Honor Medal, Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, and the National Defense Service Medal. In retirement, he was Vice President for Ship Systems at SYNTEK Technologies Inc. in Virginia. Reason also headed the ship repair firm of Metro Marine Corporation in Norfolk, Virginia, and served on the board of several businesses and an advisor to two national defense groups. Reason is a member of Sigma Pi Phi fraternity.


Af NHHC

Lt. j.g. Harriet Ida Pickens (left) and
Ensign Frances Wills
are photographed after graduation from the Naval Reserve Midshipmen’s School at Northampton, Massachusetts, in Dec. 1944. They were the Navy’s first African-American “WAVES” officers.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph, National Archives.

By Regina T. Akers, Ph.D., Naval History and Heritage Command, Histories and Archives Division

“Navy to admit Negroes into the WAVES,” so read the newspaper headlines Oct. 19, 1944. For the first time black women would be commissioned naval officers as members of the Navy’s female reserve program.

The program first made news July 30, 1942, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed it into law. Their official nickname was WAVES, an acronym for Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service. It would be two more years before the WAVES became open to all women.

It was not an easy journey. During the Congressional hearings Thomasina Walker of the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority’s Non-Partisan Political Council testified the legislation creating the Navy’s female reserve program should include a non-discrimination clause so all eligible women could volunteer to serve. Her argument fell on deaf ears. Public Law 689 creating the program did not specify blacks could not be recruited, yet they were denied the opportunity to do so for most of the war.

Whites and blacks representing civic, religious, and civil rights organizations across the country urged the Navy to recruit black women. The black press published articles about blacks being turned away at recruitment offices and the individuals and organizations demanding the Navy reverse its policy of exclusion. During a campaign speech in Chicago, Thomas Dewey, the Republican candidate in the 1944 presidential election, accused his opponent President Franklin D. Roosevelt of discriminating against blacks by not allowing them to become WAVES.

Citizens expressed their opposition to the Navy’s policy of excluding blacks from the WAVES by sending letters and petitions to President Roosevelt and Secretary of the Navy William “Frank” Knox. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt held a meeting with military and civilian leaders to discuss the issue.

Capt. Mildred McAfee, the WAVES director, supported diversity but she was well aware of Secretary Knox’s objections. She is reported to have overheard him saying that “[Blacks] would be in the WAVES over his dead body.” James Forrestal succeeded Knox after a fatal heart attack in April 1944. The new Navy Secretary did not believe a segregated Navy was cost-effective or made the best use of naval personnel. Under his leadership, the WAVES and the Navy Nurse Corps integrated.

Frances Wills (left) and Harriet Ida Pickens are sworn in Nov. 16, 1944 as Apprentice Seamen by Lt. Rosamond D. Selle, USNR, at New York City. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, National Archives.

Harriet Ida Pickens, a public health worker, and social worker Frances Elizabeth Wills distinguished themselves in mid-December, 1944 as the first black women to receive their commissions in the U.S. Navy. Pickens’ father, one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People advocated for the diversity of the WAVES program.

Interestingly, there were Japanese and Native American WAVES before Pickens and Wills. The Navy assigned Pickens as a physical training instructor and Wills as a classification test administrator at the main enlisted WAVES training facility at Hunter College in New York City, also known as USS Hunter. More than 70 blacks joined the enlisted ranks by Sept. 2, 1945. Among them was Edna Young, one of the first enlisted WAVES to later be sworn into the regular Navy.

Rear Adm. George L. Russell, USN, swears in the first six women in the Regular Navy on July 7, 1948, while the Secretary of the Navy John L. Sullivan, far left, looks on. Of the six enlistees, Yeoman Second Class Edna E. Young is in the center. She later becomes the first female African American promoted to rank of chief petty officer.NHHC Collection

During the past 70 years, black women across the ranks, ratings and communities have had outstanding careers in the Navy, including the following:

Edna Young was the first of her race and gender to be promoted to the rank of chief petty officer.

Brenda Robinson, the first black aviator, and Matice Wright, a naval flight officer, excelled in naval aviation.

Vivian McFadden integrated the Navy Chaplain Corps.

Janie Mines was the first black woman Naval Academy graduate.

Joan C. Bynum, a Navy nurse was the first black woman naval officer to attain the rank of captain (0-6).

Rear Adm. Lillian E. Fishburne, was the first African American woman to achieve that rank in the U.S. Navy.

Lillian E. Fishburne, a communications officer, was the first of her race and gender to reach the rank of rear admiral in 1998.

Fleet Master Chief April Beldo is one of a select few men or women to become a fleet or force master chief.

Annie Anderson is the third black woman flag officer

WASHINGTON (July 1, 2014) Adm. Michelle Howard lends a hand to Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV) Ray Mabus as he and Wayne Cowles, Howard’s husband, put four-star shoulder boards on Howard’s service white uniform during her promotion ceremony at the Women in Military Service for America Memorial. Howard is the first woman to be promoted to the rank of admiral in the history of the Navy and will assume the duties and responsibilities as the 38th Vice Chief of Naval Operations from Adm. Mark Ferguson. (U.S. Navy photo by Chief Mass Communication Specialist Peter D. Lawlor/Released)

On July 1, 2014, Michelle J. Howard reached unprecedented heights with her promotion to the rank of four-star admiral and assignment as the Vice Chief of Naval Operations, the Navy’s first woman to hold that rank and position. Media outlets around the world celebrated her achievements. Howard is making history and doing a job that is reflective of her outstanding warfighting, leadership, and command abilities.

Just as the Navy was better with Pickens, Wills and the 70 enlisted women who followed them, it is better with Adm. Howard. Howard, like the first black female naval officers before her, is paving the way for even greater opportunities for women.


Black History Month: 1st African American to Command US Navy Aircraft Carrier

HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, Fla. — Retired Rear Admiral Lawrence Chambers is the first African American to command a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier. The 90-year-old now lives with his wife in Hillsborough County.

  • First African American to command U.S. Navy aircraft carrier
  • Rear Admiral Lawrence Chambers made national headlines in 1975
  • Chambers disobeyed orders to save a South Vietnamese Air Force polit and his family

“I saw being skipper of an aircraft carrier as one hell of a big deal,” Chambers said. “Absolutely.”

One of the carriers Chambers commanded was the U.S.S. Midway during the Vietnam War.

Chamber’s leadership made national headlines in 1975 when he disobeyed orders to save a South Vietnamese Air Force pilot and his family.

“I thought I was going to have the shortest command tour on record but I’m going to do what the hell I think is right,” Chambers said.

The pilot desperately pleaded to land his plane on the U.S.S. Midway. He dropped a note that’s still framed in Chamber’s office.

“What really gets you is, he says, I have one hour of fuel left,” Chambers said. “He didn’t have enough fuel to make it back to the beach.”

But there was no space on the U.S.S. Midway. Helicopters blocked the landing area and the helicopters had no fuel. Chambers wanted to push the choppers overboard. His superior said no.

“I’m not going to repeat his words exactly, basically he said there’s no room,” Chambers said.

Chambers gave the command anyway, recruiting about 3 thousand servicemen to help.

“I probably pushed $100 million dollars worth of helicopters over the side to save seven people,” Chambers said.

Det virkede. The pilot landed safely.

Decades later, Chambers said he would not hesitate to give the command over again.

“You have choices and my advice to anybody in command is do what you think is right because it’s the only thing you can live with,” Chambers said.


On February 1, 1998, Lillian E. Fishburne became the first African American woman promoted to the rank of Rear Admiral (2 stars) in the United States Navy. In keeping with the spirit of Black History Month (every February) and expanding on our previous articles celebrating African American achievements, we take this opportunity to cite even more impressive achievements by African Americans, not just “firsts,” but other great accomplishments as well. (And see our recent article dated January 18, 2021), “Historic African American Firsts”) Who would you add to this list?

Graver dybere

Lillian E. Fishburne, 1 st African American Woman Rear Admiral

Lillian earned her commission as a US Navy officer upon completing Women’s Officer School in 1973, 3 years before the United States began allowing women to attend US military service academies. She earned her BA from Lincoln University, Oxford, Pennsylvania (Sociology) and her MA from Webster College, St. Louis, Missouri (Management). She went on to earn a second Master of Science Degree from the Naval Postgraduate School (Telecommunications Systems Management) and later added a diploma from the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. Yeah, we think she could have earned an appointment to the US Naval Academy and graduated with honors! Her initial assignments in the Navy were in personnel and recruiting, and she later shifted to telecommunications and computers, an incredibly important part of the modern Navy. She retired in 2001, but not before earning an enviable number of medals and awards.

Ralph Bunche, 1 st African American Nobel Prize recipient

Born in Detroit, Michigan in 1904, Bunche lived through the “Jim Crow” era of racial discrimination in the United States and beat the pervasive racism of his era to earn a BA from UCLA (Valedictorian of the Class of 1927!) and a PhD from Harvard, so becoming the 1 st African American man to earn a PhD in Political Science from an American university. Not impressed enough? He added 3 years of post-doctoral academic work at the London School of Economics. Bunche worked as a professor at Howard University from 1928 to 1950, and also served in various functions at Harvard, Oberlin, Lincoln University and New Lincoln School. During World War II Bunche applied his knowledge as an officer of the OSS, the agency that later became the CIA. He then joined the US Department of State, and worked on setting up the United Nations. With the establishment of the new state of Israel in 1947, the tensions in the Middle East between Arab nations and Israel had broken out into a shooting war, which Bunche brokered the peace that at least temporarily stopped the shooting, earning himself the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1950. Bunche continued his role as an American and World diplomat, culminating in his appointment as Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations in 1968. In the meantime, Bunche also tirelessly applied himself to the cause of Civil Rights in the United States and took part in some of the momentous events of the time (1960’s). Sadly, he died at the age of only 67 in 1971.

Thomas L. Jennings, 1 st African American awarded a patent

You may see references to Henry Blair as the “First African American Inventor,” but it was Jennings that actually applied for and was awarded the first patent in the United States to an African American man. His patent was for a method of dry cleaning way back in 1821. Numerous African Americans have contributed great inventions to the world and American society, notably Garrett Morgan, who invented one of the first practical and effective gas masks and the 3 position traffic signal.

Sarah E. Goode and Judy W. Reed, 1 st African American Woman awarded a patent

Depending on how you like to give credit for such things, Goode is sometimes listed as the 1 st African American woman granted a patent (1885) for her invention of a space saving folding bed to be used in the cramped confines of New York City tenements. Reed invented a bread dough kneading machine and was granted a patent in 1884, but signed her name with an “X” instead of a regular signature, creating the debate as to which woman deserves credit as the first to be granted a patent. We believe they both deserve credit! Goode was born in Toledo, Ohio, and Reed was from Washington, D.C..

LeBron James, 2020 Associated Press Male Athlete of the Year

LBJ might not be the first African American athlete so honored, but we include him because he is our favorite basketball player. In spite of his indisputable greatness, his focus is always on the team, winning the games and the championship and NOT on himself. Not only the consummate team player, James also contributes an enormous amount of money and effort to better his community. He also happens to be pretty darn funny and a good actor. LeBron has a pretty good chance of going down in basketball history as the Greatest of All Time (GOAT), though his off-court accomplishments will ultimately outweigh his hardwood achievements. LeBron and the LA Lakers won the 2020 NBA Championship, giving LeBron his 4 th Championship ring. Can he do it again in 2021? We think he can and will, barring catastrophic injury or worsened pandemic.

Frank Robinson, Baseball Legend and Pioneering African American Manager

In discussing great African American baseball Hall of Famers, a name that jumps out that cannot be ignored is Frank Robinson, a slugger for several teams and the only player ever to win the League MVP award in both the American and the National League. He retired with 586 home runs and won the exceedingly rare batting Triple Crown in 1966 when he led the American League with 49 home runs, 122 RBI’s and batting an average of .316. EN 14 time All-Star, Robinson played from 1956 to 1976, covering a time when Black players were often jeered and booed despite their on field performance. By 1975, the racial climate had improved markedly in the United States after the turmoil of the 1960’s, and in that year the Cleveland Indians made Frank Robinson the first African American Manager (actually a player manager for that first year) of a major league baseball team. Today we take it for granted that African Americans can be baseball managers or the head coach of other sports teams, but all these many Black managers and coaches today can trace their heritage to Frank Robinson. Robinson went on to manage the Giants, Orioles and Expos/Nationals after leaving the Indians. Sadly, Robinson died on February 7, 2019. (Cause of death was bone cancer.)

Bonus entry: Lloyd Austin, First African American Secretary of Defense

After this article was written, incoming US President Joseph R. Biden, Jr. nominated retired US Army General Lloyd Austin for the post of Secretary of Defense. Approved by the US Senate on January 22, 2021, Austin thus became the first African American Secretary of Defense in US history. Austin is a graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point, and has an MA from Auburn University and an MBA from Webster University. A veteran of the War on Terror (Iraq and Afghanistan), Austin is the recipient of the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, the Distinguished Service Medal, and the Silver Star, among his many decorations.

Spørgsmål til studerende (og abonnenter): Which of these great citizens were you unaware of before reading this article? Lad os vide det i kommentarfeltet under denne artikel.

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The featured image in this article, a photograph by Petty Officer 2nd Class Scott Bigley of Adm. Michelle Howard, vice chief of Naval Operations, Rear Adm. Annie B. Andrews, commander, Navy Recruiting Command (NRC), and retired Rear Adm. Lillian E. Fishburne standing on stage during NRC’s change of command ceremony at Naval Support Activity Mid-South on Sept. 4, 2015, is a work of a sailor or employee of the U.S. Navy, taken or made as part of that person’s official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, it is in the offentligt domæne i USA.

Om forfatteren

Major Dan er en pensioneret veteran fra United States Marine Corps. Han tjente under den kolde krig og har rejst til mange lande rundt om i verden. Før sin militærtjeneste tog han eksamen fra Cleveland State University efter at have haft sociologi. Efter sin militærtjeneste arbejdede han som politibetjent og fik til sidst kaptajnens rang før hans pensionering.


Admiral Michelle Howard Became The First Four-Star Woman In Navy History

Vice Adm. Michelle Howard became the first female four-star admiral in the history of the Navy. The ceremony included a bit of comedy, but there was no denying the significance: For the first time in its history, the Navy promoted a woman to become a four-star admiral. Surrounded by friends, family, and peers, Adm. Michelle J. Howard was promoted to her new rank at the Women in Military Service for America Memorial at Arlington National Cemetery. She’ll take over as the vice chief of naval operations, the No. 2 officer in the service. She is not only the first woman to hold the job but the first African-American.

Commanding a Navy Ship

It’s the latest achievement for Howard, who previously was the first African-American woman to serve as a three-star officer in the U.S. military and command a U.S. Navy ship. Navy Secretary Ray Mabus said her promotion is a “representation of how far we have come, and how far she has helped bring us.” Adm. Michelle Howard, flanked by Navy Secretary Ray Mabus, and her husband Wayne Cowles, accepted her new rank during a ceremony at Arlington National Cemetery.

Counter-piracy operations

Howard is perhaps best known for leading Task Force 151, which oversaw counter-piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden. After Somali pirates attacked the cargo ship MV Maersk Alabama and captured its top officer, Capt. Richard Phillips, in April 2009, she devised a plan with others to get him back, dispatching the USS Bainbridge, a destroyer, to help. Navy SEAL snipers eventually opened fire on a small lifeboat carrying Phillips and three pirates, killing the bandits and freeing him. After being promoted, Howard told those assembled that when she called to order her new four-star shoulder boards, she was told they did not exist. An exclusive contract was devised to buy some, “and you folks are seeing the first set,” she said to cheers.

Women as Fighter pilots

After being promoted, Howard told those assembled that when she called to order her new four-star shoulder boards, she was told they did not exist. A particular contract was devised to buy some, “and you folks are seeing the first set,” she said to cheers. The Army and Air Force each have named four-star female officers in the past. The first one in the military, Army Gen. Ann Dunwoody, retired in 2012, after serving as a four-star general for nearly four years. Howard said after the ceremony that the 1993 decision to allow women to serve on combatant ships and fly fighter jets remains one of the biggest for the Navy.


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