Historien

Soldaten: A History of Courage, Sacrifice and Brotherhood, Darren Moore


Soldaten: A History of Courage, Sacrifice and Brotherhood, Darren Moore

Soldaten: A History of Courage, Sacrifice and Brotherhood, Darren Moore

Denne bog, skrevet af en tidligere soldat i den australske hær, ser på kampens indvirkning på den enkelte soldat. Moore begynder med at se på forholdet mellem soldaten og de regeringer, der bruger dem, hvem der slutter sig til hæren, og hvad der motiverer dem, hvordan soldaten trænes og splittelsen mellem militærverdenen og den civile, men den største del af bogen ser på drabets indvirkning på soldaten (tre kapitler og 160 af de 421 sider tekst). Her ser Moore på, hvordan hære får deres soldater til at dræbe og den indvirkning, det har på soldaterne selv. Godt over halvdelen af ​​dette afsnit ser på virkningen af ​​at dræbe sine egne, enten i henrettelser eller venlig ild. Dette er et særligt interessant afsnit, der undersøger en handling, der går imod de kræfter, som Moore identificerer som at beholde en hær i feltet og kæmpe - loyalitet over for ens egen lille gruppe af kolleger og den bredere hærfamilie.

Moore præsenterer os for et dilemma, som han ikke rigtig forsøger at svare på. For at kæmpe effektivt har en hær brug for støtte fra sin offentlighed og for at føle, at dens indsats er værdsat. Samtidig er det klart, at soldater er vrede, når deres døde og sårede er skjult for offentligheden. På nuværende tidspunkt er disse to krav klart i konflikt - jo mere offentligheden er opmærksom på de tab, der bliver lidt i en konflikt, jo mindre støtte er der til at fortsætte med at kæmpe.

Dette afspejler måske et af de stærke sider ved denne bog. Moore præsenterer sit materiale på en klar og upartisk måde, og teksten er normalt fri for forfatterens egne konklusioner, så læserne kan bestemme. Dette ændrer sig i det sidste kapitel, 'Er der et behov for krig?', Hvor Moore giver os sine egne synspunkter og argumenterer for, at den stat, der ikke er villig til at kæmpe for sine friheder, snart vil miste dem, men at beslutningen om at gå i krig skal være en sidste udvej (og ikke som en tilsyneladende let måde at løse udenrigspolitiske problemer), og at krige kun må udkæmpes, når der er et klart, værdifuldt og opnåeligt mål.

Moores arbejde tjener som en værdifuld påmindelse om de reelle omkostninger ved krig for de soldater, der rent faktisk udfører kampene, og risikerer at dø eller forfærdelige skader, og bør være afgørende læsning for enhver politisk leder, der overvejer at ty til magt.

Kapitler
1 Soldaten og Staten
2 Hvem tjener
3 En soldatrejse
4 Krigsomkostningerne
5 Kærlighed, sex og krig
6 Dræb eller bliv dræbt: Lev og lad leve
7 Dræbe din egen - dødsstraffen
8 Dræbe din egen - venlig ild
9 Det militære mod medierne
10 Er der brug for krig?

Forfatter: Darren Moore
Udgave: Indbundet
Sider: 500
Udgiver: Icon Books
År: 2009



Hvordan fandt jeg agenturet

I betragtning af at jeg på det tidspunkt, hvor jeg søgte repræsentation, var baseret i Australien, gav det mig en pause i at henvende mig til en række litterære agenter, som det tilsyneladende ikke var parate til at tage imod oversøiske kunder. Dette var ikke tilfældet med Andrew, der allerede repræsenterede en række af mine landsmænd. Andrew havde i modsætning til mange af hans kolleger også et veludviklet websted, som gjorde det muligt for mig at måle hans evne til at repræsentere mig baseret på hans track record med lignende bøger i genren. Endelig var Andrew, igen i modsætning til mange af hans kolleger, parat til at acceptere indsendelser via e-mail, som for en udenlandsk baseret forfatter i høj grad reducerede omkostningerne og tidsforsinkelsen i processen.

Forfatter Nyheder

Thistle Publishing lancerer 'The Soldier' 26. mar 2013

Darren Moore's soldaterhistorie giver et gennemtrængende indblik i krigens politik, følelser og psykologi og dens eftervirkninger. Soldaten er blevet lanceret i USA af Thistle Publishing, som paperback og e -bog.

‘En tankevækkende undersøgelse af kampens indvirkning på den enkelte soldat ... Moore er særlig god til de intense bånd af kammeratskab, der udvikler sig mellem frontlinjetropper. ’ Daily Mail


Soldaten: A History of Courage, Sacrifice and Brotherhood, Darren Moore - History

Larry og jeg tog eksamen fra Portland High School, klasse 1966, de bedste venner. Vi havde gået i skole sammen siden tredje klasse. Den hukommelse, der hersker mest af disse år, er, at Larry aldrig lærte at køre bil og troede sikkert, at han ville dø i en voldsom bilulykke. Han gik enten eller betalte gerne for at gassen kunne gå hvor han ville.

Jeg tilbragte aftenen med min 21 -års fødselsdag (8/11/69) med at fejre det med Larry. Han skulle sende den følgende morgen ud og ville ikke sove. Da Bill var lukket, tog vi til landet for at fiske til de små timer om morgenen. Jeg glemmer aldrig den dag, så længe jeg lever. Larry var sikker på, at han ikke ville leve for at blive 21. Han var sikker på, at han ville dø og fortalte mig endda, at hæren ville bringe mig en julegave i en grøn pose. Han fortalte mig, at jeg ikke ville kunne fortælle, at det var ham. bare hans hundemærker til anerkendelse.

Larrys liv blev taget i kamp den 5. oktober 1969, kun 31 dage før hans 21 -års fødselsdag. Hæren bragte ham hjem som han troede, kun identificeret ved hans mærker.

Larry, jeg savner dig og vil altid undre mig over, hvordan dit liv ville have været, hvis du havde overlevet Vietnam. Du er stadig savnet af mange af os i dag, 33 år efter din død.

En klassekammerat huskes

Portland High School, Portland, Indiana, klasse 1966 mistede to medlemmer til Vietnamkrigen, og vi har husket dem på vores klasses websted. Larry Burkholder blev kaldt til en upopulær krig og tjente sit land hæderligt. Han huskes af os alle ofte.

Efter eksamen gik vi på college, et job eller krigen. Tilbagevendende veteraner kom hjem uden anerkendelse og fortsatte med vores liv som amerikanere fra andre krige. Vores krigsdøde huskes undertiden lidt undtagen af ​​familie eller venner.

Den 8. november 2002 havde jeg en unik mulighed for at huske det offer Larry bragte for USA og årsagen til frihed rundt om i verden. Jeg fløj som ærespilot på en Vietnam-veteran UH-1 Huey-helikopter på et ben af ​​en lang mission i dokumentarfilmen "In the Shadow of the Blade." I det væsentlige blev en UH-1 Huey-helikopter fra den krig renoveret og besat for at flyve til 42 forskellige LZ'er (landingszoner) fra Florida, nord til Kentucky og så langt vest som Angel Fire, NM, stedet for det første Vietnam Veterans Memorial, til dokumentere historien om, hvordan krigen påvirkede os, vores familier og venner. Det fejrer soldaterne fra den krig, levende og døde, den rejse, deres familier og venner rejser, når de håndterer sorg og tab og bare fortsætter med vores liv. Det er historien om vores krig som fortalt ud fra det menneskelige perspektiv. Det er ikke en historie om krigens proces, men om de mænd og kvinder, der blev påvirket af det. Ved hver LZ trak Huey, det frodige symbol på den krig, folkemængder og ikke overraskende historier om mod, opofrelse, ære, broderskab og håb. Det er ikke en politisk erklæring, der forherliger krig, men et råb om, at Amerika "hader krig, men elsker den amerikanske kriger" som dengang oberstløjtnant Hal Moore, kampkommandant i Ia Drang -dalen, sagde Vietnam for nylig. Han var bataljonschefen, der var opbevaret i bogen og filmen "We Were Soldiers Once - and Young" af reporter/forfatter Joe Galloway.

For at huske Larrys liv og hvad han betød for hver af sine klassekammerater, bar jeg vores klasseårsbog, The Typhoon, ved siden af ​​mit sæde under flyvningen. Jeg ved ikke, at Larry nogensinde fløj på en Huey i de få korte måneder, han var i Vietnam, men jeg forventer det. Han vil altid være i denne soldats sind.


Du kunne ikke finde på piloten Dick Bests sande historie

Cox var tilfreds med fremstillingen af ​​toppilot Lt. Dick Best (Ed Skrein), på trods af en vis udsmykning af manuskriptet, der involverede hans kampfulde holdning og hotdogpilots bevægelser. For eksempel var bedst at praktisere en ikke-klapper landing på hangarskibet "Top Gun" fiktion, siger Cox.

"Havde han faktisk gjort det, havde han fået trukket sine vinger og været smidt ud som søflyver," siger Cox. "Der er nogle sande ting, andre overdrevne."

Bests heltemod i kampen er imponerende og præcise. I kampforvirringen nulstillede de fleste dykkerbombningsfly ind på det japanske luftfartsselskab Kaga og sænkede det. Men Best tog afsted med to andre dykkerbombefly for med succes at synke Akagi, hvor hans bombe viste sig dødelig.

"Havde de ikke skrællet af for at ramme den transportør og i sidste ende synket den, havde slagets gang været meget anderledes," siger Cox.

På trods af en dårlig iltblanding, der alvorligt skadede hans lunger, vendte Best tilbage til luften for at hjælpe med at synke sin anden japanske transportør den dag, Hiryu, som havde overlevet morgenangrebene. De dramatiske scener for Skreins bedste dykkerbombning midt i luftfartsbrand var visuelt forbløffende, siger Cox, men i virkeligheden blev kun ét fly skudt af den brand Japanske jagerpiloter påførte mest skade.

Som set på skærmen fløj Best, der døde i 2001, aldrig igen på grund af lungeskader fra hans heroiske flyvninger.

"Hvis jeg fandt på denne historie, ville det være melodrama," siger Tooke. "Det kunne ikke være sket. Men det skete."

Løjtnantkommandør Edwin Layton (Patrick Wilson) arbejder tæt sammen med en gruppe kodebrydere, der opdager, at japanerne planlægger en offensiv på Midway Atoll. (Foto: REINER BAJO/LIONSGATE)


Mindedagslæsning: Fra erindringer til film

1 af 6 "We Were Soldiers Once- and Young: Ia Drang, the Battle That Changed the War in Vietnam", af lt.general Harold G. Moore (Ret.) Og Joseph L. Galloway er en mulig læsning for din Memorial Day weekend, siger Carl White, lokalhistorisk bibliotekar på Greenwich Library. Bidraget foto Vis mere Vis mindre

2 af 6 I en film til den lange ferie weekend? Prøv Francis Ford Coppolas "Apocalypse Now, the Complete Dossier". "Jeg må indrømme, at dette er min yndlingsfilm om Vietnamkrigen," siger Greenwich Library's Carl White. Bidraget foto Vis mere Vis mindre

4 af 6 En marine fortæller sine oplevelser fra boot camp til aktiv tjeneste i Anthony Swoffords "Jarhead: A Marine's Chronicle of the Gulf War and Other Battles". Bidraget foto Vis mere Vis mindre

5 af 6 Leder du efter en lydbog? Greenwich Library's Carl White foreslår, at du prøver (den passende navn) "Memorial Day", en fiktiv fortælling om en CIA -agent, der forsøger at afværge et terrorangreb. Bidraget foto Vis mere Vis mindre

"De kæmpede for hinanden: Triumf og tragedie i den hårdest ramte enhed i Irak", af Kelly Kennedy

Dette er historien om en amerikansk hærs enhed, der sikrede en irakisk by fra oprørere. Det er skrevet af en Army Times -reporter.

"We Were Soldiers Once - and Young: la Drang, the Battle that Changed the War in Vietnam," af pensionerede lt.general Harold G. Moore og Joseph L. Galloway

Moore fortæller slaget ved la Drang i Sydvietnam i 1965, hvor en gruppe nye mobile soldater var stærkt i undertal af nordvietnamsoldater.

"Jarhead: A Marine's Chronicle of the Gulf War and Other Battles" af Anthony Swofford

En marine fortæller sine oplevelser fra boot camp til aktiv tjeneste i Mellemøstens ugæstfrie ørkener. Hans enhed må udholde nød og fare.

"Joker One: A Marine Platoon's Story of Courage, Sacrifice and Brotherhood" af Donovan Campbell

Joker One er en marinesoldat, der har til opgave at bekæmpe gade-til-gade og hus-til-hus for at udrydde en irakisk by Taliban-oprørere.


Indhold

Murphy blev en national berømthed efter sin anden verdenskrig militærtjeneste, da Liv magasinet udråbte ham til Amerikas "mest dekorerede soldat" i sit coverforslag af 16. juli 1945. [1] Magasinomslaget gjorde ham opmærksom på den erfarne skuespiller James Cagney, der inviterede ham til Hollywood. Da Murphy ankom til Californien efter sin militære udskrivelse, annullerede Cagney de hotelreservationer, han havde foretaget til Murphy, og tog ham i stedet ind i sit eget hjem: "Jeg fik mit livs chok. Audie var meget tynd. Hans hudfarve var blågrå . " Cagney kommenterede år senere om sit første indtryk og sagde: "[Murphy var] i en så nervøs tilstand, at jeg var bange for, at han kunne springe ud af et vindue. Jeg tog ham hjem og gav ham min seng." [2] Han tilbragte tre uger som gæst i Cagney og vendte derefter tilbage til Texas, før han endelig accepterede et tilbud fra brødrene James og William Cagney på $ 150 om ugen som kontraktspiller hos deres produktionsselskab. Cagneys gav Murphy personlig opmærksomhed på skuespilsteknikker. [3] Han tog også lektioner på Actors 'Lab på Sunset Boulevard. Murphy studerede stemmeteknikker, lærte judo og uddannede sig hos koreograf John Boyle, Cagneys dansecoach for Yankee Doodle Dandy. [4] En uenighed fra 1947 med William Cagney sluttede hans tilknytning til brødrene uden at være blevet castet i en filmproduktion. [5]

Han flyttede ind i Terry Hunt's Athletic Club og overlevede på sin hærspension på $ 113 om måneden. I 1948 stiftede han bekendtskab med forfatteren David "Spec" McClure, der fik ham en bit på $ 500 bit Texas, Brooklyn & amp Heaven. [6] Han begyndte at date skuespillerinden Wanda Hendrix i 1946. [7] Hendes agent fik Murphy en smule med i filmen Alan Ladd fra 1948 Beyond Glory instrueret af John Farrow. [8] Murphy og Hendrix giftede sig i 1949 og blev skilt i 1951. [9]

Hans film fra 1949 Bad Boy gav ham sin første hovedrolle. [10] Murphy stiftede bekendtskab i Texas med Interstate Theatre -direktør James "Skipper" Cherry, [11], der var bedste mand ved Murphys ægteskab i 1951 med Pamela Archer og navnebror til parrets anden søn. [12] [13] Murphys tilknytning til Cherry gjorde ham opmærksom på den uafhængige producent i Texas, Paul Short. [11] Med finansiering fra Texas teaterejere og børnenes velgørende organisation Variety Clubs International, spillede Short Murphy ind Bad Boy at hjælpe med at promovere velgørenhedens arbejde med problematiske børn. [14] Murphy klarede sig godt i skærmtesten, men Steve Broidy, formand for projektets produktionsselskab Allied Artists, ønskede ikke at kaste nogen i en stor rolle med så lidt skuespilerfaring. Cherry, Short og teaterejerne nægtede at finansiere filmen, medmindre Murphy spillede hovedrollen. [15] Thames Williamson -romanen fra 1933 The Woods Colt fangede Murphys opmærksomhed i denne periode af sin karriere. Han sikrede sig rettighederne til historien i 1950'erne, og Marion Hargrove blev ansat til at skrive manuskriptet. Filmen blev aldrig lavet. [16]

Universal Studios underskrev Murphy en syvårig studiekontrakt på $ 2.500 om ugen. [17] [18] Hans første film for dem i 1950 var som Billy the Kid i The Kid fra Texas. Han sluttede det år med at lave Sierra med sin kone Wanda Hendrix, [19] og Kansas Raiders som fredløs Jesse James. Han og direktør Budd Boetticher stifter bekendtskab gennem Terry Hunt's Athletic Club, hvor Murphy ville bede om at blive hans boksepartner. [20] Murphy optrådte i 1951 -titelrollen som Boettichers første westernCimarron Kid. [21]

Den eneste film Murphy lavede i 1952 var Duel ved Silver Creek med instruktør Don Siegel. Murphy ville samarbejde med Siegel en gang mere i 1958 for Gun Runners. Han arbejdede kun én gang med instruktør Frederick de Cordova, som senere blev producent af The Tonight Show med Johnny Carson i hovedrollen. Murphy og de Cordova lavet Kolonne syd i 1953. [23] George Marshall instruerede Murphy i 1954 Destry, baseret på en karakter skabt af forfatteren Max Brand. To tidligere versioner, en i 1932 med Tom Mix og en i 1939 med Jimmy Stewart og Marlene Dietrich, fik begge titlen Destry Rides igen. [24]

Det eneste manuskript, John Meredyth Lucas nogensinde gjorde til en Murphy -film, var 1953 Tumbleweed, en tilpasning af Kenneth Perkins -romanen Tre var Renegades . [25] Murphy spillede Jim Harvey, hvis hest Tumbleweed udviste et talent for at få helten ud af enhver skrabning. [26] Direktør Nathan Juran havde tilsyn Tumbleweed, såvel som Pistolrygning og Trommer på tværs af floden. [27]

Efterhånden som Murphys filmkarriere begyndte at skride frem, blev det også en indsats for at forbedre sine færdigheder. Han øvede konstant sin hurtige draw med en pistol. [28] Da Hugh O'Brian satsede $ 500 på, at han kunne trække en pistol hurtigere end nogen i Hollywood, hævede Murphy ante til $ 2500 og ville bruge levende ammunition, O'Brian ikke accepterede. [29] Han tog både private og klasseværelsestimer fra Estelle Harman og finpudsede sin diktion ved at recitere dialog fra William Shakespeare og William Saroyan. [30]

Murphy blev udlånt til MGM med en løn på $ 25.000 [31] for at blive vist i 1951 Modets røde badge instrueret af John Huston og tilpasset fra Stephen Crane -romanen. På opfordring fra Spec McClure og berømthedsspaltist Hedda Hopper over producenten Gottfried Reinhardts betænkeligheder og studieledere Louis B. Mayer og Dore Schary, castede instruktør Huston Murphy i spidsen for The Youth (Henry Fleming i romanen). [32] Preview-screeningspublikummet var ikke entusiastiske, hvilket fik Schary til at redigere Hustons arbejde, eliminere flere scener og tilføje fortælling af James Whitmore. [33] MGM trimmede reklameindsats på, hvad de mente var en urentabel film. Det, der i sidste ende ramte teatrene, var ikke en kommerciel succes, og det var heller ikke filmen, både Murphy og Huston mente, at de havde lavet. Murphy forsøgte uden held at købe rettighederne til filmen i 1955 i et forsøg på at redigere og genudgive den. Huston forsøgte at købe det i 1957, men fik at vide, at det oprindelige negative ved, hvad han havde filmet, blev ødelagt. [34]

Selvom Murphy oprindeligt var tilbageholdende med at optræde som sig selv i Til Helvede og Tilbage, filmversionen af ​​hans bog, gik han til sidst med til at gøre det. Terry Murphy portrætterede sin bror Joseph Preston Murphy i en alder af fire. Filmen blev instrueret af Jesse Hibbs med en introduktion på skærmen af ​​general Walter Bedell Smith. Susan Kohner, datter af Murphys agent Paul Kohner, [35] debuterede som skuespiller i filmen. Finalen viser Murphy blive tildelt Medal of Honor, mens billeder af hans enheds tab passerer over skærmen. [36] Det blev dengang det største hit i Universal Studios 'historie. [37] [38]

Både Murphy og Universal gav seriøse overvejelser til en opfølgende version af hans efterkrigstidsliv. Murphy afviste Richard J. Collins script Vejen tilbage som skabte det fiktive scenario, der filmede Til Helvede og Tilbage havde været så terapeutisk for Murphy, at det helbredte ham for hans kamptræthed. Spec McClure scriptede en anden ubrugt version af Vejen tilbage [39] der inkorporerede Murphys venner i virkeligheden i historien og endte med at stjernen levede lykkeligt nogensinde sammen med Pamela og deres to sønner. En tredje version af en ukendt forfatter fokuserede på Murphy-McClure-venskabet og blev afvist af truslen om en retssag fra McClure. Desi Arnaz tilbød at bankrollere et projekt fra 1965 med titlen Hjelme i støvet. [40] Efter Murphys anmodning skrev McClure en filmbehandling, men projektet blev aldrig til noget. [41]

Hibbs-Murphy-teamet viste sig så succesfuldt i Til Helvede og Tilbage [42] at de to arbejdede sammen om i alt fem efterfølgende film. Hibbs instruerede Murphy i Kør fri for Diablo i 1954. [43] Partnerskabet resulterede i den kommercielt mislykkede ikke-traditionelle western fra 1956 Gå i det stolte land. [44] Hibbs og Murphy gik sammen med hinanden for ikke-vestlige Joe Butterfly [45] og Verden i mit hjørne. [44] De arbejdede sammen en sidste gang i 1958 western Kør på en skæv sti. [46] Veteran karakterskuespiller Dan Duryea, der portrætterede skurken Whitey Kincaide i Kør fri for Diablo spillede en anden føring i yderligere to Murphy -køretøjer, Natpassage [47] og Seks sorte heste. Historien om Charles Russell med Murphy som førende var under udvikling hos Universal, men skrinlagt efter de skuffende modtagelser af Gå i det stolte land. Murphy var imidlertid begejstret nok for en biograf af Charles Marion Russell til at tage seriøst hensyn til hans egen produktion, der ville spille Guy Mitchell i spidsen, men filmen blev ikke lavet. [48] ​​[49]

Murphy blev ansat af Joseph L. Mankiewicz til at spille rollen som The American (Alden Pyle i bogen) i 1958 -versionen af Den stille amerikaner, erstatter Montgomery Clift, da sidstnævnte faldt ud. Michael Redgrave erstattede Laurence Olivier, der droppede, da Clift trak sig tilbage. Koldkrigsdramaet filmet i Vietnam var en afvigelse fra den genre, hvor Murphy normalt var blevet castet. [50]

Murphy dannede et partnerskab med Harry Joe Brown om at lave tre film, den første var 1957 Guns of Fort Petticoat. Partnerskabet faldt i uenighed om de resterende to projekter, og Brown anlagde sag mod Murphy. [51] Selvom Murphy skulle spille sammen med Robert Mitchum i filmen fra 1957 Natryttere, planlægningskonflikter forhindrede ham i at gøre det. [44] Med udspring fra sin huddykkerhobby hyrede Murphy dykkerekspert Paul Kazear til at skrive manuskriptet Huddykker med et hjerte . Murphy afviste aftalen, og filmen blev aldrig lavet. Kazear stævnede Murphy i 1958. [52]

1950'erne sluttede med, at Murphy optrådte i tre westerns. Han medvirkede sammen med 14-årige Sandra Dee i filmen fra 1959 Det vilde og det uskyldige. Filmens rollebesætning blev afrundet med Gilbert Roland, Joanne Dru og Jim Backus. [53] Murphys samarbejde med Walter Mirisch den Kast en lang skygge inkluderet en ukrediteret periode som medproducent. Filmen medvirkede i Terry Moore. [54] Hans præstation i Intet navn på kuglen blev godt modtaget. Historien følger den seje, nedslidte lejede pistol, da byboerne bliver grebet af frygt af hans tilstedeværelse. [55]

Hollywood Reporter anmeldelse af Den utilgivne [56]

Murphy og Huston arbejdede sammen endnu en gang i filmen fra 1960 Den utilgivne, hvor Murphy tog anden fakturering som Burt Lancasters racistiske barnebroder, der var fast besluttet på ødelæggelsen af ​​Kiowa. [57] Forfatter Clair Huffaker skrev manuskriptet til 1961'erne Syv måder fra solnedgang og Posse fra Helvede. [58] Forfatter Bob Herzberg betragtede manuskripterne som to af de bedste Murphy arbejdede med i det årti. [59] Herbert Coleman instruerede Posse fra Helvede samt anden verdenskrigs drama Slaget ved Bloody Beach ligger i Filippinerne. [60]

Willard W. Willingham og hans kone, Mary, var venner af Murphys fra hans tidligste dage i Hollywood, og som arbejdede sammen med ham på en række projekter. [61] [62] [63] Williard var producent på Murphys tv -serie fra 1961 Hvisker Smith. [64] Han samarbejdede desuden om Kugle til en Badman [65] i 1964 og Arizona Raiders i 1965. Sidstnævnte var baseret på aktiviteter fra Quantrill's Raiders og var en genindspilning af George Montgomery -filmen fra 1951 Texas Rangers . Filmen havde også Buster Crabbe. [66] Willard var medforfatter på manuskriptet til Slaget ved Bloody Beach. [67] Willinghams som et team skrev manuskripterne til Gunpoint [68] samt manuskriptet til Murphys sidste hovedrolle i en western, 40 Guns til Apache Pass . [69] Udgivet gennem Columbia Pictures i maj 1967, og historien var centreret om Murphys karakter, der hentede en cache med stjålne rifler solgt til Apache -leder Cochise. [70]

Apache Rifles i 1964 var en anden formel Murphy western. Han forblev på Universal i et par år mere, derefter forlod han for at arbejde i Columbia og Allied Artists, før han lavede flere film i Europa. I 1966 lavede han Bagagerum til Kairo i Israel. Han følte, at filmen var "den værste James Bond -parodi, jeg nogensinde har set", men kunne ikke komme ud af engagementet. [71]

Jeg føler mig som en prostitueret, der er lidt over bakken. Jeg får alle former for reklametilbud til film. Men i stedet for min sædvanlige pris på $ 100.000 pr. Billede tilbyder de $ 20.000 og en procentdel af den fortjeneste, du aldrig ser. Når folk finder ud af, at du har brug for pengene i denne by, reducerer de deres tilbud med 80 procent. Og jeg bliver ved med at afvise spiritus- og cigaretreklamer. Jeg tror ikke, de er gode til børn. Det er vel et spørgsmål om ikke at være 100 procent prostitueret. [72]

Hans eget firma FIPCO Productions [73] producerede sin sidste film En tid til at dø . Han havde en cameorolle som Jesse James, og hans sønner Terry og James fik små roller. Willard W. Willingham spillede Frank James. [74] Budd Boetticher skrev manuskriptet og gik med til produktionen som en tilbagevendende tjeneste for et tidligere tidspunkt, hvor Murphy havde reddet ham ud af økonomiske tilbageslag. Produktionen var besat af økonomiske problemer, og sættet brændte to gange. Filmen åbnede i Frankrig i 1971, men blev ikke vist i USA, før den blev begrænset udgivet i 1982. [73] To andre projekter, som Murphy og Boetticher planlagde at producere, En hest til hr. Barnum og Når der er sumpthin 'at gøre, blev aldrig til noget. [75]

Titel År Rolle Direktør Producent Studio Andre medvirkende Ref.
Texas, Brooklyn & Heaven 1948 Copy Boy William Castle Robert Golden Forenede kunstnere James Dunn, William Frawley, Margaret Hamilton, Roscoe Karns, Diana Lynn, Guy Madison, Irene Ryan, Lionel Stander [17] [77]
Beyond Glory 1948 Kadet Thomas John Farrow Robert Fellows Paramount Alan Ladd, Donna Reed [78]
Bad Boy 1949 Danny Lester Kurt Neumann Paul Short Monogram James Gleason, Jimmy Lydon, Lloyd Nolan, Martha Vickers, Rhys Williams, Jane Wyatt [10] [77]
The Kid fra Texas 1950 William Bonney Kurt Neumann Paul Short Universel Albert Dekker, Will Geer, Gale Storm, William Talman, Ray Teal, Frank Wilcox [ALM 1]
Sierra 1950 Ring Hassard Alfred E. Green Michael Kraike Universel James Arness, Tony Curtis, Wanda Hendrix, Burl Ives, Dean Jagger, Elliott Reid, Roy Roberts [81] [19] [82]
Kansas Raiders 1950 Jesse James Ray Enright Ted Richmond Universel Richard Arlen, James Best, Scott Brady, Tony Curtis, Brian Donlevy, Richard Long [83] [19]
Modets røde badge 1951 Ungdommen John Huston Gottfried Reinhardt MGM Royal Dano, Andy Devine, Douglas Dick, John Dierkes, Arthur Hunnicutt, Bill Mauldin [84] [ALM 2]
Cimarron Kid 1951 Bill Doolin alias The Cimarron Kid Budd Boetticher Ted Richmond Universel Noah Beery Jr, James Best, Leif Erickson, Hugh O'Brian, Roy Roberts, Frank Silvera [86] [19]
Duellen ved Silver Creek 1952 Luke Cromwell alias The Silver Kid Don Siegel Leonard Goldstein Universel Susan Cabot, Faith Domergue, Lee Marvin, Gerald Mohr [19] [87]
Pistolrygning 1953 Reb Kittredge Nathan Juran Aaron Rosenberg Universel Susan Cabot, Jack Kelly, Jesse White [88] [89]
Kolonne syd 1953 Løjtnant Jed Sayre Frederick De Cordova Ted Richmond Universel James Best, Ray Collins, Joan Evans, Russell Johnson, Jack Kelly, Bob Steele, Robert Sterling, Dennis Weaver [90] [91]
Tumbleweed 1953 Jim Harvey Nathan Juran Ross Hunter Universel King Donovan, Russell Johnson, Lori Nelson, Roy Roberts, Lyle Talbot, Lee Van Cleef, Chill Wills [92] [91]
Kør fri for Diablo 1954 Clay O'Mara Jesse Hibbs John W. Rogers Universel Susan Cabot, Dan Duryea, Jack Elam, Abbe Lane, Russell Johnson, Denver Pyle [93] [91]
Trommer på tværs af floden 1954 Gary Brannon Nathan Juran Melville Tucker Universel Morris Ankrum, Lane Bradford, Walter Brennan, Lisa Gaye, Howard McNear, Jay Silverheels, Bob Steele [94] [91]
Destry 1954 Tom Destry George Marshall Stanley Rubin Universel Edgar Buchanan, Mari Blanchard, Wallace Ford, Alan Hale, Jr., Thomas Mitchell, Lori Nelson, Mary Wickes [95] [91]
Til Helvede og Tilbage 1955 Ham selv Jesse Hibbs Aaron Rosenberg Universel Charles Drake, David Janssen, Jack Kelly, Susan Kohner, Denver Pyle, Marshall Thompson [37] [91]
Verden i mit hjørne 1956 Tommy Shea Jesse Hibbs Aaron Rosenberg Universel John McIntire, Jeff Morrow, Barbara Rush [96] [91]
Gå i det stolte land 1956 John Philip Clum Jesse Hibbs Aaron Rosenberg Universel Morris Ankrum, Anne Bancroft, Anthony Caruso, Pat Crowley, Charles Drake, Jay Silverheels [97] [98]
Joe Butterfly 1957 Pvt. Joe Woodley Jesse Hibbs Aaron Rosenberg Universel John Agar, Fred Clark, Burgess Meredith, George Nader, Keenan Wynn [96] [98]
Guns of Fort Petticoat 1957 Løjtnant Frank Hewitt George Marshall Harry Joe Brown
Audie Murphy
Columbia Kathryn Grant, Sean McClory, Jeanette Nolan, Ray Teal [99] [98]
Natpassage 1957 Lee McLaine alias The Utica Kid James Neilson Aaron Rosenberg Universel Hugh Beaumont, Ellen Corby, Brandon deWilde, Dan Duryea, Jack Elam, Jay C. Flippen, James Stewart [100] [98]
Den stille amerikaner 1958 Amerikaneren Joseph L. Mankiewicz Joseph L. Mankiewicz Forenede kunstnere Bruce Cabot, Claude Dauphin, Richard Loo, Giorgia Moll, Michael Redgrave [50] [98] [ALM 3]
Kør på en skæv sti 1958 Joe Måske Jesse Hibbs Howard Pine Universel Leo Gordon, Walter Matthau, Mort Mills, Joanna Cook Moore, Gia Scala, Henry Silva [102] [103]
Gun Runners 1958 Sam Martin Don Siegel Herbert E. Stewart
Clarence Greene
Syv kunstarter Eddie Albert, Jack Elam, Richard Jaeckel, Patricia Owens, Everett Sloane [104] [105]
Intet navn på kuglen 1959 John Gant Jack Arnold Jack Arnold
Howard Christie
Universel R.G. Armstrong, Charles Drake, Joan Evans, Virginia Gray, Warren Stevens, Karl Swenson [106] [107]
Det vilde og det uskyldige 1959 Yancy Hawks Jack Sher Sy Gomberg Universel Jim Backus, Peter Breck, Sandra Dee, Joanne Dru, Strother Martin, Gilbert Roland [108] [107]
Kast en lang skygge 1959 Matt Brown Thomas Carr Walter Mirisch
Audie Murphy
Forenede kunstnere James Best, John Dehner, Terry Moore, Denver Pyle [109] [107]
Den utilgivne 1960 Kontanter Zachary John Huston James Hill Forenede kunstnere Charles Bickford, Lillian Gish, Audrey Hepburn, Burt Lancaster, Doug McClure, Albert Salmi, John Saxon, Joseph Wiseman [110] [111] [107]
Hell Bent for Leather 1960 Clay Santell George Sherman Gordon Kay Universel Malcolm Atterbury, Felicia Farr, Allan Lane, Robert Middleton, Herbert Rudley, Bob Steele [112] [107]
Syv måder fra solnedgang 1960 Syv måder fra Sundown Jones Harry Keller Gordon Kay Universel Don Collier, Jack Kruschen, John McIntire, Venetia Stevenson, Barry Sullivan [113] [107] [ALM 4]
Posse fra Helvede 1961 Banner Cole Herbert Coleman Gordon Kay Universel Rodolfo Acosta, Royal Dano, Zohra Lampert, Allan Lane, Vic Morrow, John Saxon, Ray Teal, Lee Van Cleef [115] [116]
Slaget ved Bloody Beach 1961 Craig Benson Herbert Coleman Richard Maibaum 20th Century Fox Gary Crosby, Ivan Dixon, Dolores Michaels, Alejandro Rey [60] [117]
Seks sorte heste 1962 Ben Lane Harry Keller Gordon Kay Universel Dan Duryea, Joan O'Brien, Bob Steele [118] [117]
Krig er helvede 1962 Oplæser Burt Topper Burt Topper Allierede kunstnere Baynes Barron [119] [120]
Opgør 1963 Chris Foster R.G. Springsteen Gordon Kay Universel Kathleen Crowley, Charles Drake, Skip Homeier, L. Q. Jones, Strother Martin, Harold J. Stone [121] [117]
Gunfight ved Comanche Creek 1963 Bob Gifford alias Judd Tanner Frank McDonald Ben Schwalb Allierede kunstnere Ben Cooper, DeForest Kelley, Susan Seaforth [122] [117]
Hurtigpistolen 1964 Clint Cooper Sidney Salkow Grant Whytock Columbia Glædelig Anders, James Best, Ted de Corsia, Frank Ferguson, Mort Mills [117] [123]
Kugle til en Badman 1964 Logan Keliher R.G. Springsteen Gordon Kay Universel Alan Hale Jr., Skip Homeier, Ruta Lee, Darren McGavin, Beverley Owen, George Tobias [124] [117]
Apache Rifles 1964 Kaptajn Jeff Stanton William Witney Grant Whytock 20th Century Fox John Archer, Michael Dante, L. Q. Jones, Linda Lawson, Ken Lynch [125] [117]
Arizona Raiders 1965 Clint Stewart William Witney Grant Whytock Columbia Ben Cooper, Buster Crabbe, Michael Dante, Gloria Talbott [120] [126]
Gunpoint 1966 Tchad Lucas Earl Bellamy Gordon Kay Universel Edgar Buchanan, Royal Dano, Denver Pyle, Joan Staley, Warren Stevens, Morgan Woodward [127] [120]
Texikaneren 1966 Jess Carlin Lesley Selander John Champion
Bruce Balaban
Columbia Broderick Crawford [128] [120]
Bagagerum til Kairo 1966 Mike Merrick Menahem Golan Menahem Golan Amerikansk international Marianne Koch, George Sanders [71] [120]
40 Guns to Apache Pass 1967 Kaptajn Bruce Coburn William Witney Grant Whytock Columbia Laraine Stephens [129] [120]
En tid til at dø 1969 Jesse James Budd Boetticher Audie Murphy FIPCO Productions Burt Mustin, Victor Jory [120] [130]

Den eneste tv -serie Murphy medvirkede i var 1961 Hvisker Smith hvor han spillede titelkarakteren. Baseret på filmen med samme navn handlede showet om en jernbaneforsker fra Denver fra det 19. århundrede. Episoder blev hentet fra sager fra Denver Police Department i virkeligheden. USAs senats underudvalg om ungdomskriminalitet var bekymret over det voldelige indhold i showet og fremsatte anklager mod netværket. 26 afsnit var blevet filmet, men ikke alle blev sendt. [131]

Samarbejdet mellem den amerikanske hær og det amerikanske forsvarsministerium blev forlænget, så Murphys medieoptrædener kunne offentliggøre filmen Til Helvede og Tilbage. [132] Blandt de berømthede tv -udsendelser fra 1955, hvor Murphy syntes at promovere filmen, var Byens toast vært for Ed Sullivan.

Manden 1960 spændingsafsnit af Starttid var baseret på et originalt Broadway -stykke skrevet af Mel Dinelli. [133] Murphy played a mentally unbalanced stranger who posed as a student and handyman and terrorized homeowner Thelma Ritter.

In 1960, he was awarded the Outstanding Civilian Service Medal for his cooperation in the production of The Big Picture television series episode Broken Bridge. [ALM 5]


List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Vietnam War

Det Æresmedalje was created during the American Civil War and is the highest military decoration presented by the United States government to a member of its armed forces. The recipients must have distinguished themselves at the risk of their own life above and beyond the call of duty in action against an enemy of the United States. Due to the nature of this medal, it is commonly presented posthumously. [1]

Det Vietnamkrigen, (also known as the Second Indochina War, Vietnam Conflict, and in Vietnam as the American War), took place from 1955 to 1975. The war was fought between the Communist-supported Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the United States-supported Republic of Vietnam, beginning with the presence of a small number of US military advisors in 1955 and escalating into direct US involvement in a ground war in 1965. US combat forces were withdrawn in early 1973 pursuant to the Paris Peace Accords, but the war continued concluding with the Fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. [2]

During the Vietnam War and in the following twelve months, 235 Medals of Honor were awarded and since 1978 a further 26 awards have been presented. Of the total of 261 awards, 174 were to the US Army, 15 to the US Navy, 58 to the USMC and 14 to the USAF. [3] These totals do not include the award to the Vietnam Unknown Soldier.

The first Medal of Honor presentation for Vietnam was to Captain Roger Donlon for actions on 6 July 1964 as commanding officer of the U.S. Army Special Forces Detachment defending Camp Nam Dong against a Viet Cong attack. [4] The last actions to earn a Medal of Honor in this war were those of Bud Day, for actions as a prisoner of war from 26 August 1967 through 14 March 1973. Day and three others were presented with the Medal of Honor by President Ford at the White House on March, 4, 1976. They were the last of the 235 servicemen awarded the Medal of Honor during the Vietnam War and in the following twelve months.

The first African American recipient of the war was Milton L. Olive III who sacrificed himself to save others by smothering a grenade with his body. [5] Riley L. Pitts was killed after attacking an enemy force with rifle fire and grenades and was the first African American commissioned officer of the war to receive the medal. [6] Thomas Bennett and Joseph LaPointe were conscientious objectors who received the medal for their actions as a medic [7] three chaplains received the medal, including Vincent R. Capodanno, who served with the Marine Corps and was known as the "Grunt Padre". [8]


Bibliografi

Ask Artisits: The Artists Blue Book . Daniel Sherrin, The Elder. 2000-2014. http://www.askart.com/askart/s/daniel_sherrin/daniel_sherrin.aspx (accessed March 16, 2014).

Banks Fine Art. Daniel Sherrin . 2014. (accessed March 16, 2014).

Canadian Musuem of History . Canadian Artist: Ogilvie, Will (1901-1989). n.d. http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/exhibitions/artwar/artists/will-ogilvie_e.shtml (accessed March 16, 2014).

Morse, Jennifer. Will Olgivie. May 14, 2009. http://legionmagazine.com/en/2009/05/will-ogilvie/ (accessed March 19, 2014).

MURRAY, JOAN. Will Ogilvie. December 09, 2008. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/will-ogilvie/ (accessed March 16, 2014).

[1] “Daniel Sherrin, The Elder,” Ask Art The Artists’ Bluebook, last modified, 2014, accessed March 16 th , 2014, http://www.askart.com/askart/s/daniel_sherrin/daniel_sherrin.aspx.

[4] “Daniel Sherrin,” Banks Fine Art, last modified, 2014, accessed March 16 th , 2014, http://www.banksfineart.com/artist/Daniel_Sherrin/biography/.

[6] “Will Ogilvie,” Historica Canada, Last Modified, December 15 th , 2013, accessed March 16 th , 2014, http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/will-ogilvie/,

[8] “Will Ogilvie,” Legion Magazine, Last modified, May 14 th , 2009, accessed March 19 th , 2013, http://legionmagazine.com/en/2009/05/will-ogilvie/.

[9] “Will Ogilvie,” Historica Canada, Last Modified, December 15 th , 2013, accessed March 16 th , 2014, http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/will-ogilvie/,

[10] “Will Ogilvie,” Legion Magazine, Last modified, May 14 th , 2009, accessed March 19 th , 2013, http://legionmagazine.com/en/2009/05/will-ogilvie/.


May 2019 Book Reviews

In the tradition of soldier classics like Alt stille på vestfronten, Nicholas Moore and his co-author Mir Bahmanyar unfold Moore’s raw war story of a decade of over 1,000 special operations missions and a dozen deployments into the war on terror in Iraq and Afghanistan. Run to the Sound of the Guns is the engrossing drama of Army Rangers—the training, the fighting, the brotherhood of young men in combat, of high adventure and darkest tragedy.

Enlisting in the Army directly out of high school, Moore was still in Ranger training on 9/11. Less than a year later, he deployed with his battalion to Afghanistan and Operation Enduring Freedom. Rangers routinely rotated in and out of war zones in a pattern of 90 or 120 days in country and six months of uptraining and refitting stateside.

Afghanistan was, Moore recalls, the most boring place, without an enemy in sight. That couldn’t be said of Iraq in 2003 and the campaign against Saddam Hussein. During the day, Mosul, Baghdad and other Iraqi cities were chaotic and dusty with traffic. The cockroaches came out after dark. Rangers were running and gunning five or six times a night, targeting wanted insurgents, taking them alive when possible to exploit their intel for future operations. It was a lot like a deadly game of cops and robbers.

In 2003, Moore’s unit assisted Navy SEALs in rescuing Pfc. Jessica Lynch from a hospital in Nasiriyah, Iraq, where she was being held captive. Two years later, again in Afghanistan, Moore and other Rangers recovered Petty Officer 2nd Class Marcus Luttrell, the lone survivor of a SEAL team whose helicopter either crashed or was shot down.

IEDs became a constant threat throughout the war zones of Afghanistan and Iraq. Enemy contacts were more frequent. The largest single loss of American life in Afghanistan occurred in the Tangi Valley when Taliban armed with a rocket-propelled grenade shot down an American chopper loaded with SEALs. All 38 aboard perished. American casualties were mounting throughout the theaters. Moore lost friends.

Rangers increasingly had to make split-second judgments. A wrong call meant possible criminal charges—or death. Moore and his team were clearing a room when an Iraqi man pulled a woman tight in an unprecedented show of affection. Moore shot him after he refused to comply with Arabic instructions to put up his hands, and his teammates fired when she then tried to reach under her companion’s body. The man had been trying to conceal a suicide vest with 7 pounds of Semtex that would have killed them all.

On Moore’s last combat deployment to Afghanistan in 2011, he and a team from his platoon tracked a target to a village compound and ran straight into an ambush.

“The three-round burst fired from an AK inside the compound slams hard into me—punches me back, spins me around, thumps me off balance like a marionette manipulated by invisible strings,” he writes. “My leg feels like it’s been hit with a sledgehammer. My head is a mess. My wife is gonna kill me.

After more than 10 years of continuously running to the sound of guns, this was the only time Moore received a Purple Heart. He was subsequently medically discharged from the Army due to his wounds.

But for Moore, Rangers will always lead the way.

Charles W. Sasser served for 29 years in the military, including 13 years as an active-duty and Reserve member of U.S. Army Special Forces and four years as an active-duty Navy journalist. He deployed in support of Operation Desert Storm.

Take a Fresh Look at the Longest Day

Sand and Steel: The D-Day Invasions and the Liberation of France. Peter Caddick-Adams. Oxford University Press. 928 pages. $34.95

By Col. Cole C. Kingseed, U.S. Army retired

The 75th anniversary of D-Day, June 6, 1944, will likely herald a number of excellent histories commemorating the events of what is arguably the most significant day in Western civilization during the 20th century. Foremost of these from the other side of the Atlantic is Peter Caddick-Adams’ Sand and Steel.

Caddick-Adams is a lecturer in military history at the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom. An accomplished historian, he is the author of Monte Cassino: Ten Armies in Hell og Snow and Steel: The Battle of the Bulge, 1944–45. In writing Sand and Steel, Caddick-Adams acknowledges his debt to Cornelius Ryan, the author of The Longest Day: The Classic Epic of D-Day, June 6, 1944, as the individual most responsible for beginning the “whole D-Day commemorative business.”

Caddick-Adams is at his best describing the lesser-known aspects of D-Day such as the Allied buildup, the role of deception, and logistics. He opines that the Allied deception plan named Operation Fortitude, with its emphasis on fictional armies, double agents and deceptive radio traffic, stood in sharp contrast to Germany’s “stovepiping” of intelligence.

Challenging the conventions of history, Caddick-Adams also posits that the German meteorologists were equally proficient as those in the Allied camp, but Allied weather mapping was superior, being drawn from more sources. Fortunately for the Allied planners, the German High Command failed to coordinate forecasting from the Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine (navy) and Heer (army).

The heart and soul of Sand and Steel, however, is the drama played out on the five beaches, code-named Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno and Sword. Caddick-Adams combines official unit histories and personal narratives to compare the American amphibious landings at Utah and Omaha. He cites Maj. Gen. Thomas Handy, who he calls the director of operations in the War Plans Division, who reported that “we all thought Utah was going to be more of a problem than Omaha. ” But the performance of the untested 4th Infantry Division under Brig. Gen. Teddy Roosevelt Jr.’s inspired leadership incurred far fewer casualties than the 1st Infantry Division that landed at Omaha.

Caddick-Adams states that most military historians are incorrect when they assess that the German 352nd Infantry Division stationed behind the American beaches was a crack unit with a strength of 13,000. The German division was formed only in September 1943 from divisions that had been decimated on the Eastern Front and, in the words of one of its soldiers, was “a thrown together mob.” Approximately 50 percent of the officers lacked combat experience and the NCO ranks were short by nearly a third.

Caddick-Adams also takes umbrage with the interpretation of the U.S. Army’s official narrative, Cross Channel Attack, and Ryan’s Den længste dag, on the Ranger assault on Pointe du Hoc. Ryan classified the action as heroic but futile because the cliffside gun emplacements were empty, while the official account recognized that the guns had been moved inland, but minimized the effort to destroy them. The salient point, Caddick-Adams notes, is that “the cannon, wherever they might have been, were useable, supported by trained artillerymen, well-stocked with ammunition, and thus posed a serious threat to the invasion.”

Why have so many historians been misled in their interpretations of D-Day? Caddick-Adams contends that accounts of the amphibious landings, particularly at Omaha, “tend to be land-centric—for this is where most of the tales of derring-do came from. Yet, oft-overlooked, is the fact that the key enablers [of American success at Omaha Beach and Pointe du Hoc] were the five-inch guns of the fleet destroyers.”

Though his examination of the British/Commonwealth amphibious landings lacks the detailed analysis of the American zone, Caddick-Adams has made a monumental contribution to our understanding of D-Day. To stress the importance of Allied solidarity in the current political environment, the author reminds us that Sand and Steel is not a flag-waving exercise to tout the importance of any one country’s efforts over those of the other Western powers. On that day, in the words of Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, “there was only one nation—Allieret.”

Col. Cole C. Kingseed, U.S. Army retired, a former professor of history at the U.S. Military Academy, is a writer and consultant. He has a doctorate from Ohio State University.

Historical Tome Covers War From All Sides

Vietnam: An Epic Tragedy, 1945–1975. Max Hastings. HarperCollins. 896 pages. $37.50

By Lt. Gen. Theodore G. Stroup, U.S. Army retired

Vietnam: An Epic Tragedy, 1945–1975 is a good read for those interested in the history of that country from the end of World War II and the Japanese withdrawal to the closing of American and allied participation in the Vietnam War in 1975. Interspersed in those years, the involvement of France, from national and local politics to combat on the ground, gets detailed coverage, as does the burgeoning independence movements in the north and the south of the country.

The book can also be a tough read for those who have read other Vietnam accounts solely from the American perspective. It might be even tougher for Vietnam veterans, who might reflect on their time in country and disagree with the author’s accounting and judging of events. Further, author Max Hastings overlooks the full scope of the support side of the militaries involved, skimping on details of logistics, transport and medical efforts—not to mention the North’s impressive operations along the Ho Chi Minh Trail.

Hastings, however, has the advantage that he was on the ground during the war, observing from the American and allied sides. Building on this firsthand knowledge, he brings to bear detailed research from documents and interviews with participants from all sides—Vietnamese, French, Viet Minh, Viet Cong, American, Australian and New Zealander, South Korean, Chinese and Russian—to provide a thorough account of all levels of political and military actions during 30 years of conflict. It is evident from his detailed notes and large accompanying bibliography that he put a great deal of time into investigation and research for this work.

The results of that detailed research and reporting leave no side—no nation and no participating military or government—unscathed from Hastings’ candid observations and opinions.

The vignettes of citizens and soldiers on all sides are one of the elements I liked about the book. They humanized the viciousness and tragedy of combatants and citizens in ways seldom encountered in a historical work of a wartime period. Readers of Hastings’ earlier histories of conflict, such as his works on World War II, will find his technique of combining these incisive individual stories and experiences with big-picture focus enhances the scope and breadth of the story.

One example is a section devoted to Australian and New Zealander participation in the war. It covers the efforts of our allies on the battlefields, the experiences of their veterans returning home after tour completions, and offers parallel incidences of news reporting from their own national press coverage. This is a big plus as those countries are often overlooked in the U.S.

The author rightfully exposes the brutality and viciousness of the North during and after the war concludes. This series of acts encompasses not only combat atrocities, but the viciousness and “cleansing” after the final episodes of communist takeover of the country. Most of these actions never surfaced during wartime reporting or the press coverage of the North and South after the fighting ended.

Weighing in at almost 900 pages, this work is not for the casual reader. For some veterans, it will open and close their understanding of why they went to war and why they left. For others, there will be some bitterness in the accounting of battlefield and politics. And for those reflecting on today’s 17-plus years in Afghanistan, preceded by Iraq, the book raises the same questions: How did we get there, and how will it end?

Lt. Gen. Theodore G. Stroup, U.S. Army retired, served in the Army for 34 years, including time in Vietnam as a company commander. His last assignment was as the Army’s deputy chief of staff for personnel. Upon retirement, he served as vice president for Education at the Association of the U.S. Army, and he is now a senior fellow of AUSA’s Institute of Land Warfare.

Understanding America’s Most Revered Honor

The Medal of Honor: The Evolution of America’s Highest Military Decoration. Dwight S. Mears. University Press i Kansas. 328 pages. $34.95

By Col. Steve Patarcity, U.S. Army Reserve retired

The Medal of Honor is America’s highest military decoration for valor. It has a legendary and almost mystical quality among members of the armed forces, who know that its price is all too often the highest that can be paid. The general perception of the Medal of Honor is that it is presented for heroic acts above and beyond what could be expected—i.e., “beyond the call of duty”—and many assume it has always been that way.

To the contrary, as Dwight S. Mears shows in The Medal of Honor: The Evolution of America’s Highest Military Decoration, the Medal of Honor in its current form is different from its historical antecedent of the Civil War. The validation processes for the medal have varied greatly over the past 150-plus years during one period, there were even three versions with different criteria, including separate combat and noncombat versions for the Navy.

At times there have been conflicting legislation and policies governing the presentation of the decoration, and there are many examples of acts performed by Americans that deserved recognition but sadly were overlooked due to prejudices and prevalent beliefs. Mears’ exhaustive research into the medal, to my knowledge the first complete and inclusive look into its history, clearly and concisely shows how the medal has changed and evolved beyond its original inception and how it did not achieve relative standardization until the Vietnam War.

Mears most effectively charts not only the evolution of the medal but also shows how policy and legislation changed and modified it before and during past and current conflicts, including relative periods of peace and stability in between. He accomplishes this task by dividing his book into two distinct sections, the first dealing with the legal and policy history behind the medal and the second covering legislative, administrative and judicial actions to make exceptions to the rules.

Mears’ documentation on his subject can only be classified as superbly crafted. His scholarship rests firmly on several factors: his meticulous research, his objectivity and fairness, and his straightforward presentation of his material. There have been books focusing on service members who have received the medal readers expecting such a collection of stories of unbelievable courage and self-sacrifice may be a bit disappointed. Mears instead focuses on the fascinating, at times rocky, history of the Medal of Honor on its way to the medal it is today.

I most highly and unreservedly recommend this book, both as an excellent resource for any scholar to research and understand America’s most revered honor that can be conveyed on its warriors and as an in-depth study of how the decoration evolved over time.

Col. Steve Patarcity, U.S. Army Reserve retired, is a civilian strategic planner on the staff of the Office of the Chief of Army Reserve at the Pentagon. He retired in 2010 after 33 years of service in the active Army and Army Reserve, which included military police and armor assignments in the U.S., Kuwait and Iraq.

Granddaughter Battles to Change Arlington Cemetery Law

Final Flight Final Fight: My Grandmother, the WASP, and Arlington National Cemetery. Erin Miller. 4336 Press. 350 pages. $25

By Maj. Crispin J. Burke

As the U.S. prepared to enter World War II, the fledgling U.S. Army Air Corps needed every aviator it could find. With pilots in short supply, the government established pilot training programs. In the process, officials sought out anyone who could qualify—man or woman.

Not long after Pearl Harbor, the government established a special program for female aviators known as the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP). Throughout the war, WASP served as flight instructors, ferried aircraft to combat theaters and even transported parts for the atomic bomb.

Over the course of the war, over 1,000 women qualified for the WASP program, with 38 losing their lives in accidents. Although WASP took part in military training, wore uniforms and even saluted officers, they weren’t officially considered part of the military. Those who were killed were sent home in pine boxes at their families’ expense. They weren’t even authorized to have an American flag draped over their coffins.

Decades later, former WASP Elaine “Gammy” Harmon succumbed to cancer at age 95. Her handwritten instructions to her family were, “I would like to be buried in Arlington Cemetery. Proof of my veteran status is necessary.” What follows is the subject of the book Final Flight Final Fight: My Grandmother, the WASP, and Arlington National Cemetery, written by Harmon’s granddaughter, Erin Miller.

Miller and her family soon discovered they needed special, case-by-case permission to place Harmon’s ashes in Arlington National Cemetery because DoD didn’t technically consider WASP personnel to be service members. As Harmon’s ashes sat in a plastic bag in a closet, Miller realized the only way to allow her grandmother—and all the WASP—to be inurned in Arlington Cemetery was to change the law.

It’s not easy to turn the legislative process into an interesting story, but Miller manages to do so through the fascinating characters she introduces both in the halls of Congress and within her own family. Though Miller has praise for representatives on both sides of the aisle, then-Rep. Martha McSally, R-Ariz., a former A-10 pilot, emerges as a hero by sponsoring House Resolution 4336, which eventually allows every member of the WASP program to be laid to rest at Arlington. At a time when it seems Congress can’t get anything done, the bill manages to pass in near-record time. By the end of the book, Harmon is finally laid to rest at Arlington Cemetery in a ceremony featuring a flyover by vintage World War II planes.

Final Flight Final Fight is a fast, engaging read from a first-time author. I would recommend it to anyone interested in the early pioneers of aviation as well as anyone who wants to hear the story of a family coming together to fight a decades-long wrong.

Maj. Crispin J. Burke is an aviation officer who has served with the 82nd Airborne Division. He can be followed on Twitter at @CrispinBurke.

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