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17. december 2013 Dag 332 i femte år - Historie


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Præsident Barack Obama taler med ledere fra førende teknologivirksomheder efter et møde i Roosevelt -rummet i Det Hvide Hus, 17. december 2013.

10:00 modtager præsidenten og visepræsidenten præsidentens daglige briefing
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Lukket presse

10:45 PRÆSIDENTEN og VICEPRESIDENTEN mødes med administrerende direktører

Roosevelt -rummet

12:30 mødes præsidenten og visepræsidenten til frokost
Privat spisestue

16:15 PRÆSIDENTEN og VICEPRESIDENTEN mødes med forsvarsminister Hagel
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Hatshepsut

Hatshepsut, datter af kong Thutmose I, blev dronning af Egypten, da hun giftede sig med sin halvbror, Thutmose II, omkring 12 år. Efter hans død begyndte hun at fungere som regent for sin stedsøn, spædbarnet Thutmose III, men tog senere på en faraos fulde magter, der blev medhersker over Egypten omkring 1473 f.Kr. Som farao udvidede Hatshepsut den egyptiske handel og førte tilsyn med ambitiøse byggeprojekter, især Temple of Deir el-Bahri, der ligger i det vestlige Theben, hvor hun ville blive begravet. Afbildet (efter hendes egen ordre) som en han i mange nutidige billeder og skulpturer, forblev Hatshepsut stort set ukendt for forskere indtil 1800 -tallet. Hun er en af ​​de få og mest berømte kvindelige faraoer i Egypten.


Abstrakt

Objektive estimater, baseret på taljebærede accelerometre, indikerer, at voksne bruger mere end halvdelen af ​​deres dag (55%) i stillesiddende adfærd. Vores undersøgelse undersøgte sammenhængen mellem siddetid og kardiometabolske risikofaktorer efter justering for kardiorespiratorisk kondition (CRF).

Der blev udført en tværsnitsanalyse med 4.486 mænd og 1.845 kvinder, der rapporterede daglig estimeret siddetid, havde mål for fedme, blodlipider, glukose og blodtryk og gennemgik maksimal stresstest. Vi brugte en modelleringsstrategi ved hjælp af logistisk regressionsanalyse til at vurdere CRF som en potentiel effektmodifikator og til at kontrollere for potentielle forvirrende effekter af CRF.

Mænd, der sad næsten hele tiden (ca. 100%), var mere tilbøjelige til at være overvægtige, uanset om det var defineret ved taljemål (OR, 2,61 95% CI, 1,25 & ndash5,47) eller procentdel af kropsfedt (OR, 3,33 95% CI, 1,35 & ndash8,20) end var mænd, der sad næsten ingen af ​​tiden (ca. 0%). Siddetid var ikke signifikant forbundet med andre kardiometabolske risikofaktorer efter justering for CRF -niveau. For kvinder blev der ikke observeret nogen signifikant sammenhæng mellem siddetid og kardiometabolske risikofaktorer efter justering for CRF og andre kovariater.

Da sundhedspersonale kæmper for at finde måder at bekæmpe fedme og dens sundhedseffekter, kan reducering af siddetid være et indledende trin i en total fysisk aktivitetsplan, der indeholder strategier til at reducere stillesiddende tid gennem stigninger i fysisk aktivitet blandt mænd. Derudover er der behov for yderligere forskning for at belyse forholdet mellem siddetid og CRF for kvinder samt de underliggende mekanismer, der er involveret i disse relationer.


Vindpark i Brasilien. Forfatter: Fotos GOVBA. Licens: Creative Commons, Attribution 2.0 Generic

23. september (Renewables Now)-Den brasilianske udviklingsbank, eller BNDES, meddelte tirsdag, at den har underskrevet en finansieringsaftale på 100 mio. USD (85,4 mio. EUR) med Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) for 331,85 MW vindprojekter .

Finansieringen vil støtte 12 vindenergiprojekter, der skal placeres i delstaterne Bahia og Pernambuco. Samlet set anslår BNDES, at den samlede investering, der kræves for at bygge disse parker, vil overstige 2 mia. BRL (368,3 mio. USD/314,6 mio. EUR).

Med en 12-årig løbetid blev lånet udbetalt i en enkelt rate. Mizuho Bank Ltd og The Bank of Saga Ltd fungerede som medfinansiører.

Dette er den femte aftale mellem parterne, der falder ind under den japanske banks initiativ Global Action for Reconciling Economic Growth and Environmental Preservation (GREEN). Til dato har BNDES indsamlet 950 millioner USD med JBIC 's GREEN, bemærkede det.


Håndtering af diverticulitis

Forekomsten af ​​perforeret sigmoide divertikulær sygdom i udviklede lande er steget fra 2,4/100 000 i 1986 til 3,8/100 000 i 2000. 1 Divertikulær sygdom er en af ​​de fem mest kostbare gastrointestinale lidelser i USA. 2 For 30 år siden faldt andelen af ​​mennesker, der døde af divertikulær sygdom. 3 I løbet af de sidste 20 år er årlige aldersstandardiserede indlæggelseshastigheder og kirurgisk indgreb imidlertid steget med 16% fra 20,1/100 000 til 23,2/100 000, hvorimod indlæggelses- og befolkningsdødelighed forbliver uændret. 4

Denne stigende sygdomsbyrde betyder, at klinikere i primær og sekundær pleje vil se et stigende antal patienter med divertikulær sygdom og dens komplikationer. Denne gennemgang dækker den seneste udvikling i håndteringen af ​​divertikulær sygdom, herunder den nuværende tendens mod konservativ snarere end operativ behandling efter genopretning fra den første episode. 5


Lovie Smith udvikler bånd til sin college -fodboldtræner

Tidligere Tulsa defensive back & nuværende Illinois cheftræner Lovie Smith minder om, at han blev rekrutteret til Tulsa af John Cooper og det bånd, han udviklede med træneren.

31. Dabo Swinney, 129-30
Clemson (2008-nu)

Swinney var Clemsons brede modtagertræner, da han blev udnævnt til midlertidig cheftræner, efter at Tommy Bowden fratrådte seks kampe i 2008 -sæsonen. Han var et overraskende valg til at erstatte Bowden efter den sæson, og så vækkede han et engang sovende program ikke længe efter. Tigrene vandt nationale mesterskaber i 2016 og '18 og ser ikke ud til at være i stand til at bremse når som helst snart.

32. Jock Sutherland, 144-28-14
Lafayette (1919-23 33-8-2) og Pittsburgh (1924-38 111-20-12)

I 1924 erstattede Sutherland Glenn "Pop" Warner som Pitts træner. Sutherland guidede sin alma mater til syv østlige fodboldtitler og fire optrædener i Rose Bowl. Hans 111 sejre i Pitt inkluderede hele 79 shutouts. Hans hold fra 1937 gik 9-0-1 og blev anerkendt som national mester.

33. John Robinson, 132-77-4
USC (1976-82 og 1993-97 104-35-4) og UNLV (1999-2004 28-42)

Robinsons første periode på USC var så god, at trojanerne hyrede ham en anden gang, efter at han havde tilbragt ni sæsoner i NFL. Robinsons USC -hold vandt fem konferencetitler og en andel af det nationale mesterskab i 1978. Hans hold gik 8-1 i skålspil, herunder en funklende 4-0 i Rose Bowl. Han trænede to Heisman Trophy -vindere: løberygere Charles White (1979) og Marcus Allen (1981).

34. Arnett (Ace) Mumford, 233-85-23
Jarvis Christian (1924-27 6-8-3), biskop (1927-29 22-7-1), Texas College (1931-35 26-9-6) og Southern (1936-61 179-61-13)

Mumfords træningsteknikker var tidløse: Hans Texas College og sydlige hold vandt i alt seks sorte college -mesterskaber i fire forskellige årtier. Fra 1948-51 havde hans sydlige hold en 38-spil ubesejret streak og vandt tre sorte college nationale titler. I 1948 gik Jaguars 12-0 og slog San Francisco State i Fruit Bowl.

35. Jim Tressel, 229-79-2
Youngstown State (1986-2000 135-57-2) og Ohio State (2001-10 94-22)

Tressel vandt 106 kampe (12 blev senere fraflyttet på grund af NCAA -sanktioner) i 10 sæsoner i Ohio State, og hans hold spillede i otte Bowl Championship Series -kampe. Han guidede Buckeyes til deres første direkte nationale titel i 34 år, da de sluttede 14-0 i 2002. Lige så vigtigt gik han 9-1 mod Michigan. Hans hold vandt 135 kampe og fire nationale divisioner i AA-titler i Youngstown State.

36. Robert Neyland, 173-31-12
Tennessee (1926-34, 1936-40 og 1946-52)

Fra 1926 til '34 vandt de frivillige 76 kampe, tabte kun syv og fik fem. Da den amerikanske hær sendte Neyland, en brigadegeneral, til Panamakanalzonen i 1935, gik UT 4-5. Han trak sig tilbage fra hæren og vendte tilbage til sidelinjen det næste år. I tre forskellige stints guidede han de frivillige til mindst en andel af syv konferencetitler og det nationale mesterskab i AP 1951. Neyland er en fast disciplinær og betragtes stadig som et af spillets største defensive sind.

37. Pete Carroll, 83-18
USC (2001-09)

Carroll var ikke USCs første valg til at erstatte Paul Hackett i december 2000 - og han var heller ikke populær. Han var blevet fyret af to NFL-hold og havde ikke trænet på college siden 1983. Men Carroll endte med at være det rigtige valg, da han instruerede trojanerne til mindst en andel af back-to-back nationale titler i 2003 og '04 , syv på hinanden følgende top-fem-afslutninger og seks sejre i BCS-skålspil. Under hans vagt var trojanerne rangeret nr. 1 i AP -meningsmåling i 33 på hinanden følgende uger. USC vandt 97 kampe under Carroll, men 14 blev senere fraflyttet af NCAA.

Texas -træner Darrell K Royal og hans offensive koordinator Emory Bellard skabte wishbone -lovovertrædelsen, der fejede college -fodbold. Bettmann via Getty Images

38. Darrell K Royal, 184-60-5
Mississippi State (1954-55 12-8), Washington (1956 5-5) og Texas (1957-76 167-47-5)

Da Royal engang blev spurgt, om han nogensinde ville ændre sin lovovertrædelse til et forbigående angreb, sagde han berømt, at du er nødt til at "danse med den, der bragte dig." Arkitekten for wishbone -lovovertrædelsen troede altid på et stærkt løbespil, og det var en hæfteklammer for hans tre nationale mesterskabshold i Texas i 1963, '69 og 1970. I 20 sæsoner i Texas havde Royal's hold aldrig en tabende rekord, de havde vandt eller delte 11 Southwest Conference -titler og nåede 10 Cotton Bowls. Hans hold vandt 30 lige kampe fra 1968-70.

39. Frosty Westering, 305-96-7
Parsons (1962-63 15-4), Lea (1966-71 29-22-2) og Pacific Lutheran (1972-2003 261-70-5)

Den tidligere United States Marine Corps drillinstruktør levede efter et mantra i livet: "Make the Big Time Where You Are." Og det er præcis, hvad Westering gjorde på Pacific Lutheran, en skole med omkring 3.100 elever i Tacoma, Washington. Han guidede Lutes til 261 sejre, NAIA Division II nationale titler i 1980, '87 og 1993 og et NCAA Division III nationalt mesterskab i 1999. Han er en af ​​kun 13 college fodboldtrænere, der har vundet mindst 300 karriere kampe.

40. Frank Broyles, 149-62-6
Missouri (1957 5-4-1) og Arkansas (1958-76 144-58-5)

Broyles var så dygtig til at samle trænerstabe, at en national pris for assistenttrænere blev navngivet til hans ære. Fremtidige cheftrænere som Joe Gibbs, Jimmy Johnson, Johnny Majors og Jackie Sherrill arbejdede for ham. I 1964 gik Arkansas 11-0, delte den nationale titel og tabte ikke igen før Cotton Bowl efter den næste sæson. I 1969 blev Razorbacks rangeret som nr. 2 og tabt til nr. 1 Texas 15-14 i "Century Game". Broyles førte Hogs til fire Cotton Bowls og fire Sugar Bowls.

41. Ben Schwartzwalder, 178-96-3
Muhlenberg (1946-48 25-5) og Syracuse (1949-73 153-91-3)

Da Syracuse hyrede Schwartzwalder til at genoplive sit kæmpende program i 1949, spøgte han: "Alumnerne ville have en træner med stort navn. De fik en træner med et langt navn." Ingen træner vandt flere kampe i Syracusa, og måske var der ingen træner i sportens historie, der samlede en større samling løbeback. Schwartzwalder var en dekoreret faldskærmsudspringer fra Anden Verdenskrig og coachede College Football Hall of Fame, der støtter Jim Brown, Ernie Davis, Floyd Little og Larry Csonka. Hans hold fra 1959 gik 11-0 og vandt skolens eneste nationale titel.

42. Herbert (Fritz) Crisler, 116-32-9
Minnesota (1930-31 10-7-1), Princeton (1932-37 35-9-5) og Michigan (1938-47 71-16-3)

Selvom to af hans hold i Princeton og et i Michigan havde ubesejrede sæsoner, er Crisler måske bedst kendt som faderen til topletons fodbold. I 1945, hvor mange af hans spillere kæmpede i udlandet under Anden Verdenskrig, udtænkte han et system til at bruge et hold til angreb og et til forsvar for at kompensere for manglende dybde og erfaring. To år senere gik Wolverines 10-0 og sprængte USC 49-0 i Rose Bowl. Han krediteres også med at have introduceret de berømte bevingede hjelme i Michigan.

43. Frank Kush, 176-54-1
Arizona State (1958-79)

Kush var måske den mest intense og fysisk krævende træner i sporten på et tidspunkt, hvor Alabamas Bear Bryant og Ohio State's Woody Hayes stadig var på sidelinjen. Kush guidede Sun Devils til otte WAC og to grænsekonferencetitler og to ubesejrede sæsoner. I 1975 gik ASU 12-0 og sluttede nr. 2 i meningsmålingerne, mens han stadig spillede i WAC. Han hjalp til med at hyrde Sun Devils 'flytning til Pac-10 i 1978, men derefter blev han fyret fem kampe ind i den næste sæson efter påstande om spillermisbrug.

44. Johnny Vaught, 190-61-12
Ole Miss (1947-70 og 1973)

I et kvart århundrede som Ole Miss-træner guidede Vaught oprørerne til seks SEC-mesterskaber og 18 skålspil. De har ikke vundet en SEC -titel siden. Fra 1959 til '62 sluttede Ole Miss i top fem af de sidste meningsmålinger. Hans 1962-hold gik 10-0 og slog Arkansas i Sugar Bowl på et tidspunkt, hvor universitetet var fastspændt midt i borgerrettighedsbevægelsen. Vaught var en af ​​de få trænere, der havde en vindende rekord mod Bear Bryant, på 7-6-1.

45. Frank Beamer, 280-144-4
Murray State (1981-86 42-23-2) og Virginia Tech (1987-2015 238-121-2)

Efter en 2-8-1-afslutning i 1992 frygtede Beamer, at Virginia Tech, hans alma mater, kunne fyre ham. I 2015 trak han sig tilbage som den vindende aktive træner i FBS efter at have guidet Hokies til fire ACC-titler, tre Big East-mesterskaber og 13 sæsoner med 10 sejre. Virginia Techs aggressive spillestil på særlige hold blev kendt som "Beamer Ball". I løbet af 1990'erne blokerede intet hold i landet flere spark end Hokies, der havde 66 i årtiet.

46. ​​Urban Meyer, 187-32
Bowling Green (2001-02 17-6), Utah (2003-04 22-2), Florida (2005-10 65-15) og Ohio State (2012-18 83-9)

Meyers trænerkarriere blev afkortet af sundhedsmæssige bekymringer, og hans hold var undertiden plaget af problemer uden for banen, men det er svært at nægte hans succes. Han vandt to nationale titler i Florida i 2006 og '08 og en anden i Ohio State i 2014. Hans hold vandt syv konferencetitler med 10 AP top-10 finish. Han vandt mere end 90% af sine kampe i Ohio State, inklusive alle syv mod rival Michigan. Hans 187 sejre i 17 sæsoner, der førte FBS -programmer, er mere end nogen anden træner i samme tid.

47. Clarence (Biggie) Munn, 71-16-3
Albright (1935-36 13-2-1), Syracuse (1946 4-5) og Michigan State (1947-53 54-9-2)

Munn trænede i Michigan State i kun syv sæsoner, men efterlod et uudsletteligt mærke. Fra 1950-53 gik spartanerne 35-2 og vandt det nationale mesterskab i 1952. Efter at have gået 9-1 i 1953, trak Munn sig tilbage i løbet af sin karriere, overlod sit program til assistent Duffy Daugherty og blev MSUs sportsdirektør. Munn sagde engang, at hans "hemmelige drøm" var at have bare et sæde mere end de 101.001, som rival Michigan hævdede på det tidspunkt.

48. Rip Engle, 132-68-8
Brown (1944-49 28-20-4) og Penn State (1950-65 104-48-4)

Engle er måske bedst kendt for at have coachet quarterback Joe Paterno hos Brown og derefter gået forud for ham som Penn State's træner. I 16 sæsoner havde Engles hold aldrig en tabende rekord og vandt aldrig mere end ni kampe. Nittany Lions vandt Lambert Trophy, som østens bedste hold, tre gange i løbet af hans embedsperiode.

49. Jimmy Johnson, 81-34-3
Oklahoma State (1979-83 29-25-3) og Miami (1984-88 52-9)

Da Miami hyrede Johnson til at erstatte Howard Schnellenberger i 1984, spurgte mange Hurricanes -fans: "Jimmy hvem?" I sin første sæson blæste Miami en 31-0 pauseføring i et tab til Maryland, den største i NCAA-historien på det tidspunkt, og faldt til Boston College på Doug Flutys mindeværdige Hail Mary-pas. Orkanerne gik 8-5 i Johnsons første sæson, men de tabte sjældent efter det. Miami gik 44-4 i løbet af de næste fire sæsoner og vandt 1987 nationale titel. Undervejs omfavnede Johnson Miamis ry som college -fodboldens dårlige drenge.

50. Lloyd Carr, 122-40
Michigan (1995-2007)

Carr vandt fem Big Ten -mesterskaber, og i 1997 guidede han Wolverines til deres første nationale titel i 49 år. Hans hold vandt mere end 75% af hans kampe i Michigan, og han var den første træner, der ledte Wolverines til fire lige sejre i skålen. De gik til et skålspil i hver af Carrs 13 sæsoner i Ann Arbor, Michigan. Han trænede 23 førsteholds allamerikanere og sluttede med seks top-10 hold.

Duffy Daugherty, til højre, rystede hænder med Notre Dame-træner Ara Parseghian efter Michigan State's 10-10 uafgjort med irerne i 1966, var en banebrydende i integration. AP Foto/fil

51. Hugh (Duffy) Daugherty, 109-69-5
Michigan State (1954-72)

Ingen træner var mere en katalysator for integration i college -fodbold end Daugherty, der rekrutterede 44 sorte spillere fra syden til at spille for spartanerne på et tidspunkt, hvor love og skikke forhindrede dem i at spille for skoler i det dybe syd. Daughertys nationale mesterskabshold i 1966 havde 20 sorte spillere, inklusive quarterback Jimmy Raye. Fire af de sorte spillere, der hjalp med at føre spartanerne til back-to-back ubesejrede sæsoner og andele af den nationale titel i 1965 og '66-Clinton Jones, George Webster, Bubba Smith og Gene Washington-blev optaget i College Football Hall of Fame sammen med deres træner.

52. Don James, 176-78-3
Kent State (1971-74 25-19-1) og Washington (1975-92 151-59-2)

James, der faktisk var kendt som "Dawgfather" af Washington -fans, omdannede Huskies til et nationalt kraftcenter i løbet af sine 18 sæsoner. Hans Washington -hold vandt seks konferencetitler og en andel af det nationale mesterskab i 1991. Huskies vandt Rose Bowl fire gange og gik 5-2 i store skålspil under James. Han startede i Kent State, hvor han trænede en defensiv back ved navn Nick Saban, som han senere ansatte som kandidatassistent.

53. Alonzo (Jake) Gaither, 203-36-4
Florida A&M (1945-69)

Gaiter sagde berømt, at han kunne lide, at hans spillere var "mobile, smidige og fjendtlige." I et kvart århundrede viste hans Florida A & M-hold bestemt disse egenskaber. Gaiter coachede 42 kommende NFL -spillere, herunder "Bullet" Bob Hayes, Willie Galimore og Ken Riley. The Rattlers gik ubesejret i 1957, '59 og '61 og vandt 18 konferencetitler og seks sorte college -mesterskaber. Hans .844 karriere vindende procent rangerer 11. blandt trænere på ethvert NCAA -niveau.

54. Sid Gillman, 81-19-2
Miami (Ohio) (1944-47 31-6-1) og Cincinnati (1949-54 50-13-1)

Gillman, der i vid udstrækning betragtes som far til nutidens pasning og et af spillets største offensive sind, tjente sit ry i profferne, hvor han tilbragte 31 år som træner og general manager. Men Gillman startede på college, hvor han guidede Miami (Ohio) til en Sun Bowl -sejr i 1947 og Cincinnati til tre MAC -titler. Hans sidste fire Bearcats-hold gik sammenlagt 35-5-1. Han er den eneste træner optaget i både College Football Hall of Fame og Pro Football Hall of Fame.

55. Bill Snyder, 215-117-1
Kansas State (1989-2005 og 2009-18)

Snyder genopbyggede Kansas State, som traditionelt havde været et af sportens mest nedslidte programmer, ikke én gang men to gange. Da Wildcats hyrede Snyder i 1988, arvede han et program, der startede for anden sæson i træk uden sejr. Han guidede Wildcats til en vindende rekord i sin tredje sæson og til den første af 11 straight bowl -kampe i sin femte. Efter hans pensionering i 2006 gled Kansas State tilbage i middelmådighed. Han vendte tilbage og vandt 79 kampe på 10 sæsoner i sin anden akt.

56. Wallace Wade, 171-49-10
Alabama (1923-30 61-13-3) og Duke (1931-40 og 1946-50 110-36-7)

Den mest fantastiske beslutning i Wades liv var ikke, at han forlod Alabama til Duke, efter at have ledet Crimson Tide til nationale titler i 1925, '26 og '30. Det kom i en alder af 49, efter 10 sæsoner ved Duke, da han meldte sig ind i den amerikanske hær og ledede bataljoner i slaget ved Normandiet, slaget ved Bulge og den niende hærs kørsel gennem Tyskland. Han vendte tilbage til Duke i 1946 og coachede yderligere fem sæsoner. Hans hold spillede i fem Rose Bowls. Wades Alabama-mandskab fra 1926 var den første fra syden til at spille i kampen og besejrede Washington 20-19.

57. Jerry Moore, 242-135-2
North Texas (1979-80 11-11), Texas Tech (1981-85 16-37-2) og Appalachian State (1989-2012 215-87)

Da Texas Tech fyrede Moore i 1985, frygtede han, at hans trænerkarriere måske var slut. Han brugte tre år på at arbejde for en ejendomsudvikler, indtil Arkansas ansatte ham som assistent i 1988. Bjergbestigere hyrede ham i 1989, og han vandt 215 kampe og tre på hinanden følgende FCS-nationale titler fra 2005-07. Moore vandt 10 konferencetitler og lavede 18 playoff -kampe med Mountaineers. Selvfølgelig er han måske bedst kendt for Appalachian State's fantastiske 34-32 forstyrrelse af nr. 5 Michigan i Big House i 2007.

58. Chris Petersen, 146-38
Boise State (2006-13 92-12) og Washington (2014-19 54-26)

I 13 sæsoner i Boise State, de første fem som offensiv koordinator, hjalp Petersen med at opbygge Broncos til kæmpemordere med et par BCS-skålspilsforstyrrelser (især den spændende 43-42 OT-forstyrrelse i Oklahoma i Fiesta Bowl 2007) og en overflod af trickspil. Som Boise Stats cheftræner havde hans hold tre ubesejrede regulære sæsoner og vandt fem konferencetitler. Hans Washington-hold vandt to Pac-12-mesterskaber og nåede CFP-semifinalen en gang i sine seks sæsoner. Petersen meddelte i december, at han stopper som Huskies 'træner efter skålspillet.

59. Mack Brown, 250-128-1
Appalachian State (1983 6-5), Tulane (1985-87 11-23), North Carolina (1988-97 og 2019-nuværende 75-52-1) og Texas (1998-2013 158-48)

Med sin folkelige, sydlige charme forenede Brown Texas 'delte fanskare og returnerede Longhorns til national fremtrædelse. Fra 2001-09 vandt Longhorns mindst 10 kampe hver sæson. I løbet af en seksårig strækning fra 2004-09 gik UT 69-9 bag quarterbacks Vince Young og Colt McCoy. I 2005 førte Young Texas til sin første ubestridte nationale titel i 36 år, der blev afsluttet med en mindeværdig sejr på 41-38 over USC i Rose Bowl. Browns 158 sejre på Texas rangerer nr. 2 i skolehistorien, bag Darrell Royal, der vandt 167 på 20 sæsoner.

60. Roy Kidd, 314-124-8
Eastern Kentucky (1964-2002)

Den mest bemærkelsesværdige kendsgerning om Kidds 39-årige karriere var ikke, at han vandt 314 kampe, 16 konferencetitler og to nationale mesterskaber. Det er, at han gjorde det hele på en skole. Den tidligere østlige Kentucky quarterback blev ansat som sin alma mater's træner i 1964 og forlod aldrig før hans pensionering i 2002. Under hans ledelse spillede obersterne for fire liga Division I-AA nationale titler, hvor de vandt i 1979 og '82. Blandt FCS/Div. I-AA-trænere, kun Gramblings Eddie Robinson vandt flere kampe end Kidd med 408.

61. George Welsh, 189-132-4
Navy (1973-81 55-46-1) og Virginia (1982-2000 134-86-3)

Walisisk vendte ikke kun ét, men to færdige programmer i sin 28-årige karriere. I de fem sæsoner før Navy ansat walisisk i 1973, gik Midshipmen sammen 12-41. De gik 7-4 i hans tredje sæson og 31-15-1 i hans sidste fire. Da Virginia lokkede walisisk væk i 1982, havde Cavaliers kun udgivet to vindende sæsoner i de foregående 29. De gik 8-2-2 i sin tredje sæson og udholdt kun to tabende kampagner i sine 29 år på skolen. Welsh guidede Virginia til sit første skålspil i 1984, første sæson med 10 sejre og ACC-titel i 1989 og dens første nr. 1-placering-i fire uger-i 1990.

62. Johnny Majors, 185-137-10
Iowa State (1968-72 24-30-1), Pittsburgh (1973-76 og 1993-96 45-45-1) og Tennessee (1977-92 116-62-8)

Efter at Majors guidede Pittsburgh til en rekord på 12-0 og et nationalt mesterskab i 1976, lokkede Tennessee sin tidligere stjernespiller tilbage til Knoxville, hvor han havde den længste uafbrudte embedsperiode i skolens historie, indtil han var ude i 1992. Majors 'hold vandt SEC-titler i 1985, '89 og '90. Han havde 12 vindende kampagner i 16 sæsoner på UT, og hans hold spillede i 11 skålspil.

63. Don Coryell, 127-24-3
Whittier (1957-59 23-5-1) og San Diego State (1961-72 104-19-2)

Kendt som far til det lodrette pasningsspil revolutionerede Coryell sin "Air Coryell" -overtrædelse i 12 sæsoner i San Diego State, før han flyttede til profferne. Fordi aztekerne ikke kunne rekruttere linemænd og løbe backs mod folk som USC og UCLA, valgte han at fokusere på quarterbacks og receivers. Han hjalp aztekerne med at flytte til Division I-niveau, og hans hold fra 1967-70 havde en streak på 31 kampe uden et nederlag. Han blev den første træner til at vinde 100 kampe på både college og professionelt niveau.

64. Ralph (Shug) Jordan, 176-83-6
Auburn (1951-75)

Jordan, en tre-sportsstjerne i Auburn, vandt flere kampe end nogen anden træner på hans alma mater. I 1973 blev han den første aktive college-træner, der fik et stadion navngivet til ære for ham, da Auburn dedikerede Jordan-Hare Stadium. I 1957 guidede Jordan Tigre til en rekord på 10-0 og et nationalt mesterskab, der kun tillod 28 point-og kun syv i SEC-spil. Hans hold sluttede i AP top 25 meningsmåling 13 gange, fire gange i top fem.

65. Bernie Bierman, 146-62-12
Montana (1919-21 9-9-3), Mississippi State (1925-26 8-8-1), Tulane (1927-31 36-10-2) og Minnesota (1932-41 og 1945-50 93-35- 6)

Bierman var kendt som "Gray Eagle", men hans 16-årige embedsperiode i Minnesota, hans alma mater, kaldes "Golden Era". Bierman trænede seks hold, der vandt Western (Big Ten) Conference -titler og fem, der var ubesejrede. Gophers udnyttede enkeltfløjsovertrædelsen bag en ubalanceret linje og vandt fem nationale mesterskaber på otte år i 1934, '35, '36, '40 og '41.

66. Henry (Rød) Sanders, 102-41-3
Vanderbilt (1940-42 og 1946-48 36-22-2) og UCLA (1949-57 66-19-1)

Sanders, og ikke den legendariske UCLA basketballtræner John Wooden, var den originale "Wizard of Westwood." Han trænede UCLA til den eneste nationale mesterskabssæson i 1954, da Bruins gik 9-0 og delte en national titel med Ohio State. Rose Bowls regel om ikke-gentagelse forhindrede holdene i at spille efter den almindelige sæson. UCLA vandt tre lige Pacific Coast Conference-titler fra 1953-55. Sanders døde af et hjerteanfald cirka en måned før sæsonen 1958.

67. Frank Thomas, 141-33-9
Chattanooga (1925-28 26-9-2) og Alabama (1931-46 115-24-7)

Thomas spillede quarterback for Knute Rockne på Notre Dame, hvor hans værelseskammerat var George Gipp, og han trænede Paul "Bear" Bryant i løbet af sine 15 sæsoner i Alabama (Alabama havde ikke et hold i 1943 på grund af Anden Verdenskrig). Tre af hans Crimson Tide -hold gik ubesejret, og hans hold vandt Rose Bowl (to gange), Orange Bowl og Cotton Bowl. Bemærkelsesværdigt tillod hans Alabama -hold kun 6,3 point pr. Kamp.

68. Lynn (Pappy) Waldorf, 174-100-22
Oklahoma City (1925-27 17-11-3), Oklahoma A&M (1929-33 34-10-7), Kansas State (1934 7-2-1), Northwestern (1935-46 49-45-7) og Californien (1947-56 67-32-4)

Få trænere genopbyggede nedslidte programmer ligesom Waldorf. I 1925 arvede han et Oklahoma City -hold, der havde vundet en kamp på tre år. Han vandt fem i sin anden sæson og otte i sin tredje. Oklahoma A&M gik 1-7 sæsonen før han ankom. Hans hold gik 34-10-7, vandt fire konferencetitler og tabte aldrig mod Oklahoma. I sin eneste sæson i Kansas State vandt Wildcats deres første ligamesterskab. Da Waldorf blev udnævnt til Californiens træner i 1947, havde Bears ikke haft en vindende sæson siden 1938. Cal gik 9-1 i sin første sæson, og Bears gik med 29-3-1 i løbet af de næste tre og vandt Pacific Coast Conference-titler .

69. Joe Fusco, 154-34-3
Westminster, Pennsylvania (1972-90)

Fusco var en af ​​de mest succesrige trænere i NAIAs historie og førte Westminster til fire nationale mesterskaber i Division II. Titans gik 21-1, mens de fangede nationale titler i 1976 og '77. Fusco guidede Westminster til back-to-back titler igen i 1988 og '89, da Titans vandt 27 kampe i træk.

70. George Woodruff, 142-25-2
Pennsylvania (1892-1901 124-15-2), Illinois (1903 8-6) og Carlisle (1905 10-4)

Woodruff spillede fodbold med Amos Alonzo Stagg på Yale og coachede John Heisman på Penn. Hans Quaker-hold havde vinderstreger på 34 og 31 kampe, vandt 12 kampe i syv strækninger og overskred deres modstandere med en samlet score på 1.777-88 i løbet af sine 10 sæsoner. Fra 1894-97 gik Penn 55-1 og vandt to nationale mesterskaber.

71. John Merritt, 235-70-12
Jackson State (1952-62 63-37-5) og Tennessee State (1963-83 172-33-7)

"Big John" Merritt var en af ​​de mest dygtige trænere i HBCU's historie og vandt syv sorte college -mesterskaber. Fra 1955 til hans død i 1983 havde hans hold 29 på hinanden følgende vindende sæsoner. Merritt coachede fremtidige NFL -stjerner Ed "Too Tall" Jones, Claude Humphrey og Richard Dent.

72. Doyt Perry, 77-11-5
Bowling Green (1955-64)

Perrys coachkarriere varede kun 10 sæsoner, før han flyttede ind i Bowling Greens administration. Hans 85,5%karrierevindende procent er på tredjepladsen blandt FBS -trænere, der kun trænede mindst 75 kampe. Knute Rockne (88,1%) og Frank Leahy (86,4%) vandt ved højere klip. Seks af hans tidligere Bowling Green -spillere, herunder Don Nehlen og Larry Smith, blev FBS -cheftrænere.

73. Danny Ford, 122-59-5
Clemson (1978-89 96-29-4 og Arkansas 1993-97 26-30-1)

Clemson forfremmede Ford til cheftræner i december 1978, to dage efter at Charley Pell forlod Florida. Tigre slog Ohio State-og træner Woody Hayes-i Fords første kamp, ​​17-15 i Gator Bowl. Tre år senere blev han den yngste træner til at vinde en national titel i en alder af 33. Tigrene gik 12-0 i 1981 og besejrede Nebraska 22-15 i Orange Bowl for at vinde skolens første nationale titel. Ford guidede tigre til fem ACC-titler, heraf tre i træk fra 1986-88, og hans hold gik 6-3 i skålspil.

TCUs Gary Patterson har været en konsekvent vinder, uanset konferencen. AP Foto/Ron Jenkins

74. Gary Patterson, 172-70
TCU (2000-nutid)

Patterson har den sjældne forskel på at vinde konferencetitler (og blive kåret som årets træner) i tre forskellige ligaer på samme skole. Han hyrede Horned Frogs fra Conference USA til Mountain West til Big 12. Hans hold har vundet seks ligatitler, udgivet syv top-10-mål og spillet i 17 skålspil i sine 20 sæsoner. I 2010 gik TCU 13-0 og besejrede Wisconsin 21-19 i Rose Bowl.

75. Gil Dobie, 182-45-15
North Dakota State (1906-07 7-0), Washington (1908-16 60-0-3), Navy (1917-19 17-3), Cornell (1920-35 82-36-7) og Boston College (1936 -38 16-6-5)

Bemærkelsesværdigt nok tabte Dobie ikke en kamp før i 12. sæson af sin trænerkarriere. Han gik 7-0 på to sæsoner i North Dakota State, og derefter gik hans hold 60-0-3 på ni sæsoner i Washington. Under Dobie vandt Huskies 39 spil i træk og gik 61 kampe uden tab. Hans hold vandt senere 26 lige kampe i Cornell.

76. Jim Butterfield, 206-71-1
Ithaca (1967-93)

Han lærte på jobbet i en æra, da det var tilladt. Bomberne gik 29-29 i hans første syv sæsoner. I de næste 20 år under Butterfield nåede Ithaca slutspillet 11 gange og vandt tre division III -mesterskaber og tabte fire andre nationale mesterskabskampe.

77. Ron Schipper, 287-67-3
Central (IA) (1961-96)

Schipper vandt 18 konferencetitler på 36 sæsoner. Han vandt et Division III-mesterskab i 1974, var runner-up i 1988 og lavede 12 playoff-kampe. Men her er hvor god han var: Han havde aldrig en tabende sæson.

78. Lance Leipold, 139-38
Wisconsin-Whitewater (2007-2014 109-6) og Buffalo (2015-nuværende 30-32)

Perhaps more impressive than winning six Division III national championships in eight seasons at Whitewater, Leipold took down the dynasty that was Mount Union. The Warhawks had winning streaks of 46 and 32 games under Leipold. It took him four seasons to take Buffalo to a MAC East title.

79. Don Nehlen, 202-128-8
Bowling Green (1968-76 53-35-4), West Virginia (1980-2000 149-93-4)

Nehlen in 1980 took over a Mountaineer program that had won 17 games in the previous four seasons. In the next four seasons, they won 33, and that was only the start. West Virginia went 11-0 in the 1988 regular season and lost to Notre Dame for the national championship. Five years later, the Mountaineers went 11-0 again before losing to Florida in the Sugar Bowl.

80. Howard Jones, 194-64-21
Syracuse (1908 6-3-1), Yale (1909 and 1913 15-2-3), Ohio State (1910 6-1-3), Iowa (1916-23 42-17-1), Duke (1924 4-5) and USC (1925-40 121-36-13)

Jones coached one of Yale's greatest teams in 1909 (10-0), and he led Iowa to 20 consecutive wins (1920-23), but he had his greatest success at USC. Jones' Trojans had three undefeated seasons and went 5-0 in Rose Bowls. He and his good friend Knute Rockne started the USC-Notre Dame rivalry, the longest annual intersectional rivalry in the game.

81. Bob Reade, 146-23-1
Augustana (1979-94)

Reade led the Vikings to the Division III national championship game in 1982, where they lost. They won the next four national titles, on their way to a 60-game unbeaten streak. The Vikings also won 12 conference titles in Reade's tenure.

82. Jim Tatum 100-35-7
North Carolina (1942 and 1956-58 19-17-3), Oklahoma (1946 8-3) and Maryland (1947-55 73-15-4)

Tatum took the Terrapins to their only national championship in 1953. He recruited Doc Blanchard to North Carolina in 1942 both of them left Chapel Hill because of the war. Tatum coached one year at Oklahoma, then was succeeded by Bud Wilkinson, who led the Sooners to three national titles. Tatum's second tenure at North Carolina was cut short by his death at age 46 of a rare infection.

Dennis Erickson had a .500 or better record at six different schools, in addition to two national titles at Miami and a No. 4 finish at Oregon State. Stephen Dunn/Getty Images

83. Dennis Erickson, 179-96-1
Idaho (1982-85 and 2006 36-23), Wyoming (1986 6-6), Washington State (1987-88 12-10-1), Miami (1989-94 63-9), Oregon State (1999-2002 31-17) and Arizona State (2007-11 31-31)

Erickson is best known for his six seasons at Miami, where his Canes won two national titles (1989 and 1991) and played for a third. His best accomplishment may have been at Oregon State, where Erickson led the Beavers from mediocrity to an 11-1 record and a No. 4 ranking in 2000.

84. Terry Donahue, 151-74-8
UCLA (1976-95)

Donahue remains at the top of many of the Bruins' coaching records. Under his leadership, UCLA won five conference titles and, at one juncture, eight consecutive bowls over 10 seasons. More convincing, he has 85 more wins in Westwood than any other Bruins coach.

85. Mike Kelly, 246-51-1
Dayton (1981-2007)

Kelly led the Flyers to four Division III national championship games, with a win in 1989. Four years later, Kelly took Dayton from Division III to the FCS. His teams won 10 games in 12 different seasons. Kelly also was an influence on Oakland Raiders coach Jon Gruden, who transferred to Dayton in Kelly's second season and spent three seasons as a backup quarterback.

86. Mel Tjeerdsma, 242-82-4
Austin (1984-93 59-39-4) and Northwest Missouri State (1994-2011 183-43)

Tjeerdsma won three Division II national titles at Northwest Missouri State. The third, in 2009, may have been the sweetest: The Bearcats had lost the Division II national championship game in the previous four seasons. They also won 12 conference titles during his tenure.

87. Fred Folsom, 107-28-6
Colorado (1895-1902 and 1908-15 78-23-2), Dartmouth (1903-06 29-5-4)

Folsom enjoyed four unbeaten seasons at Colorado, including three straight from 1909-11, part of a 21-game winning streak over five seasons. That was his second tenure with the Buffs Folsom went 29-5-4 at Dartmouth from 1903-06. Folsom retired from coaching in 1915 at age 42, but he continued at his chief job on the Boulder campus: He taught at the law school until 1943.

88. Dan Devine, 172-57-9
Arizona State (1955-57 27-3-1), Missouri (1958-70 92-38-7) and Notre Dame (1975-80 53-16-1)

The more important of Devine's two Big Eight titles at Mizzou over a 13-year span was the first, the one in 1960 that broke Oklahoma's long hold on the league. After four mediocre seasons in Green Bay, Devine returned to the college game for its biggest job. He replaced Ara Parseghian at Notre Dame and led the Irish to a national title in 1977, his third season.

89. Brian Kelly, 241-93-2
Grand Valley State (1991-2003 118-35-2), Central Michigan (2004-06 19-16), Cincinnati (2006-09 34-6) and Notre Dame (2010-current 70-36)

Kelly led Grand Valley State to two Division II national championships. He won conference titles at Central Michigan (MAC) and Cincinnati (Big East). Though he hasn't won a national title at Notre Dame, he has come close: a BCS championship game loss in 2012 and a playoff semifinal loss in 2018. More importantly, he restored respectability to the Fighting Irish.

90. Barry Alvarez, 119-74-4
Wisconsin (1990-2005, 2012, 2014)

It's hard to fathom the reclamation Alvarez performed in Madison. The Badgers won nine total games in the four years prior to his arrival. Wisconsin won the Big Ten and the Rose Bowl in Alvarez's fourth season. The Badgers won both the conference and the Rose Bowl twice more in the 1990s and went 9-4 in bowls under Alvarez. He retired as head coach after 16 seasons, staying on as Wisconsin's athletic director, and returned as interim coach for two bowl games in 2012 and 2014.

91. Hayden Fry, 232-178-10
SMU (1962-72 49-66-1), North Texas State (1973-78 40-23-3) and Iowa (1979-1998 143-89-6)

In 17 seasons prior to his arrival at Iowa, Fry won one conference title at SMU and one at North Texas State. Iowa hadn't had a winning season since 1961. Fry took the Hawkeyes to the Big Ten championship in his third season (1981) and two more in the next nine years. A more lasting effect of his tenure was that 13 of Fry's assistants and players became FBS head coaches. Two, Bill Snyder and Barry Alvarez, joined Fry in the College Football Hall of Fame.

92. Roger Harring, 261-75-7
Wisconsin-LaCrosse (1969-99)

Harring won three national championships (one NAIA Div. II, two NCAA Div. III) and 15 conference titles while leading the Eagles to steady, unstinting success. Harring had only one losing season, in 1998 in the following season, his last, the Eagles won a share of the league title and went to Harring's 14th national playoff.

93. Howard Schnellenberger, 158-151-3
Miami (1979-83 41-16), Louisville (1985-94 54-56-2) Oklahoma (1995 5-5-1) and FAU (2001-11 58-74)

No one in the history of the game proved to be as consistent a turnaround artist as Schnellenberger. He took Miami from mediocrity to a national championship in 1983 with a thrilling win over No. 1 Nebraska in the Orange Bowl he took Louisville from doormat to a major bowl and he built the FAU program from scratch, taking the Owls to the Division I-AA semifinals.

94. Phillip Fulmer, 152-52
Tennessee (1992-2008)

Fulmer led the Volunteers to their highest heights in the post-Neyland era. He lured Peyton Manning to sign a scholarship in 1994. The success that followed pushed Tennessee to the BCS championship in 1998, the year after Manning left. Fulmer had the bad fortune to be at Tennessee in the Steve Spurrier Era at Florida. Fulmer went 3-7 vs. Spurrier, which is why Fulmer won only two SEC titles.

95. Elmer Layden, 103-34-11
Loras (1925-26 8-5-2), Duquesne (1927-33 48-16-6) and Notre Dame (1934-40 47-13-3)

He is better known as one of Notre Dame's Four Horsemen and the hero of the 1925 Rose Bowl. Layden returned to his alma mater in 1934 as the second coach to replace Knute Rockne. His record of 47-13-3 in South Bend would have been viewed as a success at any other school. But after hearing a solid drumbeat of criticism, Layden jumped at the chance to become NFL commissioner in 1940.

96. Charlie McClendon, 137-59-7
LSU (1962-79)

McClendon led the Tigers to nine ranked finishes, but they won only one SEC championship, in 1970, because he had the poor timing of coaching in the league at the same time as Alabama's Bear Bryant (for whom McClendon played at Kentucky). McClendon went 2-14 against Bryant. He led the Tigers to 13 bowl games, including two Cotton Bowls, two Orange Bowls and two Sugar Bowls.


Getting world history right: real African history

Years after the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed 2011 as “The International Year for People of African Descent”, it must be realized that the European enslavement of African people or the “MAAFA” (“great disaster”) only represents .01 per cent of the history of African people on this planet. Put another way, for the 99.9 per cent of their history, Africans were a free people.

Furthermore, “there were a thousand years of independent state formation and state management in inner West Africa called the western Sudan before the (European) slave trade.”

The purpose of this article, therefore, is to posit in its proper historical perspective, a unique Afri-centric, geo-political linkage analysis of African history.

At the outset, it must be stated quite equivocally, categorically and emphatically that contrary to the xenophobic description/label to describe Haiti and countries in Africa in derogatory language only directly resembles and refers to countries in Europe in the 15th century A.D. it certainly neither resembles nor refers to countries in Africa prior to that period.

In the case of Haiti, the leaders of the successful, violent, Islamic Haitian revolution 1791-1804 were Jean Jacques Dessalines, Henri Christophe, Toussaint L’ Ouverture and Dutty Boukman- a Jamaican-born Muslim and also known as a “man of the book”. According to Sylvaine Diouf in his treatise titled “The Muslim Factor in the Haitian Revolution” (2013): “the Muslims were essential in the success of the Haitian revolution.” During the 1791-1804 period, these Africans defeated the Euro-British and the Euro-French. In fact, these Africans defeated the all-mighty French general Napoleon Bonaparte who at that time commanded the most powerful army in Europe.

According to deceased historian C. L. R. James in The Black Jacobins (1938), the most significant, historical aspect/impact of the Haitian revolution is that it “killed the West Indian slave trade and slavery.” Furthermore, it not only served as the catalyst for subsequent slave revolts throughout the Caribbean but also most importantly, it ushered in Haiti as the først independent, sovereign nation-state in the entire Western Hemisphere ruled by Africans. Ipso facto, the stark, historical reality check is that Africans in Haiti won their political independence from Euro-France per armed revolution.

On 1st January 1804, Jean Jacques Dessalines, as Governor-General, proclaimed himself “Emperor of the New State.” In essence, then, the ultimate, albeit indisputable, historical legacy of the African- Haitian revolution is: “Europeans are not unbeatable.”

In the case of Africa, deceased, erudite, Afri-centric scholar/historian Dr. John Henrik Clarke has specifically pointed out and elucidated the salient historical reality that:
Civilization did not start in European countries and the rest of the world did not wait in darkness for the Europeans to bring the light…. Most of the history books in the last five hundred years have been written to glorify Europeans at the expense of other peoples…. Most Western historians have not been willing to admit that there is an African history to be written about and that this history predates the emergence of Europe by thousands of years. It is not possible for the world to have waited in darkness because Europeans themselves were in darkness. When the light of culture came for the first time to the people who would later call themselves Europeans, it came from Africa and Middle Eastern Asia. It is too often forgotten that, when the Europeans emerged and began to extend themselves into the broader world of Africa and Asia during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, they went on to colonize most of mankind. Later, they would colonize world scholarship, mainly to show or imply that Europeans were the only creators of what could be called a civilization. In order to accomplish this, the Europeans had to forget, or pretend to forget, all they previously knew about Africa.

And this Afri-centric, historical assertion is corroborated by R.R. Plamer and Joel Colton in their book titled A History of the Modern World (1984) to the extent that:
Europeans are by no means the pioneers of human civilization. Half of man’s recorded history had passed before anyone in Europe could read or write. The (High) priests of Egypt began to keep written records between 4,000 and 3,000 B.C., but more than two thousand years later, the poems of Homer were still being circulated in the Greek city-states by word of mouth. Shortly after 3,000 B.C., while the Pharaohs were building the first pyramids (in Egypt), Europeans were creating nothing more distinguished than huge garbage heaps.

In regard to the aforementioned quotes, it is indeed imperative to distinguish clearly between “History” and “His-story.” By way of elucidation, “History is the truth about the past. His-story is the white man’s (European’s) version of the past, a distorted, racist and often fictitious story.”

The stark reality that Western “His-storians have also contended that the Egyptians were tan-Europeans”, provides de jure evidence to distinguish between these two conflicting assertions.

However, this historical confusion is aptly clarified by the Euro-French historian Count C. F. Volney in his Ruins of Empires (1980) as follows: “There a people, now forgotten, discovered while others were yet barbarians, the elements of the arts and sciences. A race of men now rejected for their black skin and wooly hair founded on the study of the laws of nature these civil and religious systems which still govern the universe.”

And this historical narrative now reaches the vital juncture of the three “Golden Ages” of African civilization. According to Dr. John Henrik Clarke in his article titled “Africa: The Passing of the Golden Age”: “The first age coincides with archaeological work… during this period, the basic institution of all human societies was formed: the family. The establishment of a family structure forced the development of ways and means to preserve the family as an institution. In this phase too, the purely African communities… mastered the smelting of iron and the fashioning of tools and weapons and gave impetus to the high civilization of Egypt in 1600 B.C. The second Age begins in 1700 B.C. when Egypt expels Asian invaders, the Hyksos and the eighteenth Egyptian dynasty was established. The third Golden Age is that which contains the rise of the Western Sudanic kingdoms— Ghana, Songhay and Mali.”

Indeed, “the first of the great empires of the Western Sudan to become known to the outside world was Ghana. It began as a small settlement during the second century of the Christian era. It would later develop into a state and reached the height of its greatness during the reign of Tenkamenin, one of its greatest kings, who came to power in 1062 A.D. The king lived in a palace of stone and wood, which was built to be defended in time of war.” Dr. Clarke further elucidates that this “empire was well organized. The political progress and social well-being of its people could be favorably compared to the best kingdoms and empires in Europe at that time. The country had a military force of 200,000 men.”

In the final analysis, Ghana was invaded by the Almoravides under Abu Bekr in 1076 A.D. This conquest ended Ghana’s age of prosperity and socio-cultural development. In its heyday, Ghana was described as “the greatest kingdom of the Blacks” and “the most commercial of the Black countries.”

On the other hand, Timbuctoo, “the queen city of the Western Sudan”, was “the great intellectual nucleus of the Songhai Empire.” These scholars were known and respected throughout most of Africa and Europe. During this age of African history, “the University of Sankore was the educational capital of the Western Sudan.”

Mansa Musa was the emperor of the famous Kingdom of Mali. He epitomized “the whole wealth of Africa.” In addition, “he conquered the Songhai Empire and rebuilt the University of Sankore” plus, “he was the most colorful of the Black kings of the 14th century.” The empire of Mali experienced a drastic decline after the death of Mansa Musa. Songhai replaced Mali in position of power and importance in Africa under King Askia the Great. According to Dr. Clarke, King Askia the Great’s claims to fame are (1) when he came to power in 1498, he “consolidated the territory conquered by the previous ruler Sonni Ali and built Songhai into the most powerful State in the Western Sudan His realm, it is said, was larger than all Europe” (11) he is known as “one of the most brilliant and enlightened administrators of all times” (111) he “reorganized the army of Songhai, improved the system of banking and credit and made the city-states Gao, Walata, Timbuctoo and Jenne into intellectual centres” (1v) he “encouraged scholarship and literature. Students from all over the Moslem world came to Timbuctoo to study grammar, law and surgery at the University of Sankore scholars came from North Africa and Europe to confer with learned historians and writers of this Black empire ” and (v) “Askia has been hailed as one of the wisest monarchs of the Middle Ages.”

Ergo, it need occasion no great surprise hat in book titled The Progress and Evolution of Man in Africa (1961), the Euro-British historian Dr. L. S. B. Leaky asks the formidable/logical question: “What has Africa contributed to world progress?” He further suggests that “the critics of Africa forget that men of science today, with few exceptions, are satisfied that Africa was the birthplace of man himself and that for many hundreds of centuries thereafter, Africa was in the forefront of all human progress And this progress is further amplified by John W. Weatherwax in his pamphlet titled The African Contribution (1966) in which he zeroes in on The African Contribution to the early development of humankind as follows:

The early Africans made hooks to catch fish, spears to hunt with, the bola, with which to catch birds and animals, the blow gun, the hammer, the stone axe, canoes and paddles, bags and buckles, poles, bows and arrows.
The pre-history of mankind is called the Stone Age. It may have lasted half a million years. Canoes made it possible for man to travel farther from his early home. Over many centuries, canoes went down the Nile (river) and up many smaller rivers and streams. From the blow gun of ancient Africa, there followed, in later ages, many devices based on its principles. Some of them are the bellows, bamboo air pumps, the rifle, the pistol, the revolver, the automatic machine gun and even those industrial guns that puff grain. African hunters many times cut up game. There still exists from the old Stone Age, drawings of animal bones, hearts and other organs.

The early drawings are a part of man’s early beginnings in the field of anatomy. 10 The fact of the matter is that until recently, the typical Euro-centric Western historian has always maintained that the origin of all humankind had been in Asia, specifically the Java region of Southern Asia. However, the first modern-day person to suggest that Africa is “the cradle of civilization and humankind” is Charles Darwin in his magnum opus Descent of Man (1871). Of course, Darwin had already shaken up the scientific world with his theories of evolution and natural selection. His prophecy that “Africa would be found to be the origin of the human species was rejected out of hand by the scientific community and considered heresy in the social and political world.”
Conversely, scholars of the ancient world, uncontaminated by the need and desire to conform to the presumption of European superiority and supremacy, had routinely hypothesizes that indeed “Africa had been the birthplace of man.”

The stark historical reality is that Diodorus Siculus, a Euro-Roman scholar writing in the first century B.C. concluded that: The Ethiopians say that they were the first man that ever were in the world and that to prove this they have clear demonstrations. It is most possible that those who inhabit the South were the first living men that sprang out of the earth. It is rational to conclude that those nearest to the sun should have been the first parents of all living creatures.

The salient reality is that for centuries, the Euro-Western world and scholars have bitterly resisted the notion that Africa should be recognized as the birthplace of all humankind. But the evidence is too overwhelming to deny that truism out of existence. In fact, Dr. John Henrik Clarke surmises that “although much remains to be learned and several academic controversies continue to boil concerning specific details of these early ancestors, the broad outline of early human history has become increasingly clear.” It includes the following indisputable, historical truths: “As early as 600,000 B.C., there were only Africans. That is, the only ancestors of humans alive, lived on the African Continent. Between 500,000 — 400,000 B.C., Africans began to migrate to other parts of the world. Isolation and environmental differences worked to produce differing physical characteristics within migrating groups.”

Furthermore, in his book titled A Lost Tradition: African Philosophy in World History (1995), Dr. Theophile Obenga quotes the Greek philosopher Aristotle ranking ancient Kemet (Egypt) as “the most ancient archaeological reserve in the world” and “that is how the Egyptians whom we (Greeks) considered the most ancient of the human race.” According to Dr. Obenga “the ancient Greeks traced all human inventions to the Egyptians from Calculus, Geometry, Astronomy and to Writing….Since the time of Homer, Egyptian antiquity functioned strictly as a highly memoralized component of Greek history Herodotus said it, Plato confirmed it and Aristotle never denied it.” In fact, Aristotle himself confesses: “Thus, the mathematical sciences first originated in Egypt (Africa), the cradle of mathematics.” 14

Indeed, it must be pointed out here that most of the now renowned/revered Greeks (the world’s first Europeans) all studied at the Temple of Waset in ancient Kemet (Egypt) Africa. This Temple is the world’s first university. It is known as the “royal septer” and was built during the reign of Pharaoh Amenhotep 111 , in the XV111 Dynasty circa 1391 B.C. At its zenith, it educated 80,000 students. This Temple was re-named Thebes by the Greeks, namely, Alexander the so-called “great” when he invaded Kemet (Egypt) in 332 B.C. and Luxor by the Arabs when they invaded Egypt in 641 A.D. For example, Plato studied at the Temple of Waset in ancient Kemet (Egypt) Africa for 11 years Aristotle for 11-13 years Socrates was there for 15 years Euclid studied there for 10-11 years Pythagoras for 22 years Hypocrates was there for 20 years and the other Greeks who matriculated in Africa were Solon, Thales, Archimides and Euripides. Indeed, the Greek, St. Clement of Alexandria once stated that “if you were to write a book of 1,000 pages, you would not be able to put down the names of all the Greeks who went to Kemet (Africa) to be educated and even those who did not surreptitiously claim they went because it was prestigious.”

Moreover, contrary to Euro-centric geo-political, historical mis-information, (albeit edjumacation), the world’s first Olympics that was held in Olympia, Greece in 776 B.C., was not held to promote and reward sportsmanship, physical brawn or brinkmanship instead, it was held as a public spiritual ceremony to worship the African deity Amon, “ruler of the Gods.”

In fact, historiography proves quite convincingly that the European Gods and Goddesses were actually of African origin but given European names. As prima facie evidence, the African God Amon was re-named Zeus by the Greeks and Jupiter by the Romans the African God Heru was called Apollo by both the Greeks and Romans the world’s first recorded multi-genius the African Imhotep (builder of the Step pyramid at Saqqara in 2630 B.C.) was re-named Asclepius by the Greeks and Aesclapius by the Romans the African God Djhuti/Thoth (God of science, writing and knowledge) was called Hermes by the Greeks and Mercury by the Romans the African God Pluto was re-named Neptune by the Romans and Poseidon by the Greeks the African God Ausar (God of resurrection) was re-named Osiris by both the Greeks and Romans the African Goddess Hathor (Goddess of love and beauty) was called Aphrodite by the Greeks and Venus by the Romans the African Goddess Ist/Aset (Goddess of maternity) was re-named Isis and worshipped as “the Black Madonna.” More specifically, this African Goddess had such an impact on Europeans that if one were to decipher the capital city of Euro-France, it is Paris which means “Per Isis” plus the Cathedral of Notre Dame is also in honor/worship of this African Goddess Ist/Aset.

Indeed, there is absolutely no field of human endeavor, contribution, achievement in which Africans have originated save the field of medicine. And this unique African medical originality informs the Euro-centric geo-political, historical mis-information about the “Caesarean Section.”

The fact of the matter is that the two principal individuals in this scenario are the then Pharaoh of ancient Kemet (Egypt) Cleopatra V11 (Winter 69 B.C.-12 August 30 B.C.) and Euro-Roman Emperor Julius Caesar. In her seminal opus titled Cleopatra: From History to Legend (1997), Edith Flamarion states that when Egyptian Pharaoh Ptolemy X11 died in March 51 B.C., he decreed that his successors should be his two eldest children, namely, Cleopatra V11, who was then eighteen years old and Ptolemy X111, who was just ten years old.

“According to Ptolemaic dynastic law, Cleopatra had to marry Ptolemy X111 ” but this was not a sexually consummated marriage. Ergo, Cleopatra V11, then, became “mistress of the two lands”, that is, Pharaoh of Upper and Lower Kemet (Egypt). Circa 48 B.C., there was an “internal revolt against Cleopatra V11” and Julius Caesar entered the city of Alexandria “as a conqueror” and was able to pacify the Alexandrians that “as consul, he represented Roman Law.”

Julius Caesar then “summoned both Cleopatra and her brother in order to settle the conflict between them.”
However, before the meeting with Julius Caesar Cleopatra sent several “emissaries ” to him in order to ascertain “his good intentions” When she finally agreed to go to Alexandria to meet Caesar, Cleopatra travelled “in the dead of night” and hidden and wrapped “in a coverlet … rolled in a carpet” because she feared “her brother’s spies and his attempts to impede her.”

Legend has it that Cleopatra (“glory of the father”) was “smuggled into (Caesar’s) apartment.” They had sexual intercourse that night, either “for reasons of political convenience” or mere human physical attraction.
However, in the Spring of 47 B.C., both Julius Caesar and Egyptian Pharaoh Cleopatra V11 went “on a long voyage up the Nile abroad a luxurious pleasure barge.”

Depicted as “a lover’s outing”, it was a political tour intended to show the people of the country their true master. Nevertheless, when Julius Caesar left Kemet /Egypt in May 47 B.C., Pharaoh Cleopatra V11 was pregnant. This “lighting-hike eastern campaign” has given rise to Julius Caesar’s famous or infamous historical quote: “Veni, vidi, vinci”— “I came, I saw, I conquered.” Julius Caesar was circa 52 years of age at the time.

Indeed, the record reveals that on 23 June 47 B.C., Pharaoh Cleopatra V11 gave birth to her first child, a baby boy named Caesarion which means “Little Caesar”.

However, what is most significant in this scenario and in terms of real African history is that Pharaoh Cleopatra V11’s delivery was not normal. The high priests of ancient Kemet (Egypt) Africa had to perform an original, special medical procedure to deliver Pharaoh Cleopatra V11’s baby boy. And this historic, original African medical procedure performed in the B.C. era, is now globalized as the “Caesarean Section” —- to our African ancestors be the glory!

In terms of real African history in the A.D. era, evidence of this African “human progress” is clearly corroborated in 711 A.D. when the African general Tarikh ben Zaid also known as Gibral Tarik (the “Rock of Gibraltar”) and a 10,000 army of African Muslims (Moors) invaded Spain and routed the “savage” Europeans. As J.C. de Graft-Johnson, “a dean of African historians”, points out in his master-piece African Glory: “The conquest of Spain was an African conquest. They were Mohammedan Africans who laid low the Gothic Kingdom of Spain.

In terms of prior 15th century world historiography, Baba Zak Kondo validates in his book titled The Black Student’s Guide to Positive Education, the historical African linkage analysis that:
Tarik and his (African Moors) made Spain the most advanced society in Western Europe for 700 years. These Africans, among other things, introduced the common bath and undergarments to the Europeans and built Europe’s first universities. Moreover, (these Africans) made Spain a center for the arts and sciences. Moorish civilization in Spain was most visible in (the) tenth century. Indeed, the historical record reveals that the first university these Africans/Moors established/built in Europe was the University of Salamanca in Spain in 900 A.D. In other words, prior to the 15th century A.D., Africans humanized, educated and civilized European in the B.C. æra. During that era, ancient Kemet/Egypt was known as “the land of the Blacks”, “the Black land’ or “the Light of the world.”

Indeed, the 700 plus years the African Moors occupied Spain (711-1485) gave rise to the emergence of Europeans on a global scale during the period 1400-1600. As Dr. John Henrik Clarke explains in his book titled Christopher Columbus & the Afrikan Holocaust:

This was a point in history when Europeans freed themselves from the lethargy of the Middle Ages, the aftermath of the Crusades and the famines and plagues (as in the “bubonic plague”) that had taken one-third (20 million) of the population of Europe. It is also the period when Europeans freed themselves from almost a thousand-year fear of Islam and what they referred to as the Infidel Arabs, who had been controlling the Mediterranean and its trade routes since the decline of the Roman Empire in the middle of the 7th century. The renewal of European nationalism, the marriage of (King) Ferdinand and (Queen) Isabella of Spain, the expulsion of the Arabs, Moors and the Jews from Spain in 1492 and the introduction of the slave trade gave Europe a new economic lease on life. Europeans (then) had to create a rationale and a series of myths to justify their new position (in the world) and what they intended to extract from non-European people (from the 15th century onward).

On the one hand, deceased Guyanese African history scholar Dr. Walter Rodney has expounded on the first aspect of European 15th century rise to global power in his book How Europe Underdeveloped Africa). And in this process of Africa’s underdevelopment, it must be remembered that for over 400 years disparate Europeans took the “most productive elements” (skilled agricultural artisans) out of Africa, that is, young people between ages 15-25 years, at least two men to one woman. And that is exactly how Europe became developed/industrialized and Africa became underdeveloped and still remains in that status as of this writing.
On the other hand, “the greatest achievement of the Europeans was the conquest of the mind of their victims” and in this process, Europeans not only colonized the world but most importantly, they colonized/Europeanized information about the world as “part of the manifestation of the evil genius of Europe.”

Through this process of Euro-centric global miseducation, the world was “forced to forget that over half of human history was over before anyone knew that a European was in the world.” In addition, Europeans made “every effort to wipe from (the African) memory how they ruled a state and how they related to their spirituality before the coming of the European.

In the final analysis, when the Europeans entered Africa in the 15th century, “the Africans were (too) open-minded and politically naïve in their relationship with non- African people, especially the Europeans. They did not know the intentions and the temperament of the Europeans then and they do not know it now” so opines Dr. John Henrik Clarke. As the deceased leader of the 1960s Mau Mau anti-colonial revolution Jomo Kenyatta correctly surmised: “When the (European) missionaries arrived, the African had the land and the missionaries had the Bible. They taught us how to pray with our eyes closed. When we opened them, they had the land and we had the Bible.” However, as P. Olisanwuche Esedebe has prognosticated in his Pan-Africanism: The Idea and Movement, 1776-1991: Africa peoples “must live in the hope, that in the process of time, their turn will come, when they will (again) occupy a prominent position in the world’s history and when they will command a voice in the (global) council of nations (as their ancestors once did in the B.C. era)”.

Indeed, historiography postulates that Africans are the Alpha and the Omega— the beginning and the end. And in the poignant but immortal words of the millennium African hero Marcus Mosiah Garvey to African peoples all over the world: ” Up you mighty race, you can accomplish what you will.” And the flip side of this geo-political notion is strongly reinforced in the speech by Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah to the United Nations General assembly on 23 September 1960 in which he warned that “as long as a single foot of African soil remains under foreign domination, the world shall know no peace.”


Religion

Throughout much of Egypt&rsquos ancient history its people followed a polytheistic religion in which a vast number of gods and goddesses were venerated. One of the most important was Osiris, god of the underworld. Abydos was an important cult center for him and numerous temples and shrines were constructed at the site in his honor.

Navigating the underworld was vital to the ancient Egyptians, who believed that the dead could reach a paradise of sorts, where they could live forever. Egyptian dead were sometimes mummified, preserving the body, and were sometimes buried with spells that aided them in navigating the underworld.

In ancient Egyptian mythology, one of the first steps in navigating the underworld was to weigh a person's deeds against the feather of Maat. If the person had committed a great deal of wrongdoing, the person's heart would be heavier than the feather and the person's soul would be obliterated. On the other hand, if their deeds were generally good, they passed forward and had the opportunity to successfully navigate the underworld.

Figurines called shabti were often buried with the deceased &mdash their purpose being to do the work of the deceased in the afterlife for them.

Egyptian religion did not remain static, but changed over time. One major change occurred during the reign of the pharaoh Akhenaten (ca. 1353-1335 B.C.), a ruler who unleashed a religious revolution that saw Egyptian religion become focused around the worship of the "Aten" the sun disk. He built an entirely new capital in the desert at Amarna and ordered the names of some of Egypt's deities to be defaced. After Akhenaten&rsquos death his son, Tutankhamun, denounced him and returned Egypt to its previous polytheistic religion.

When Egypt came under Greek and Roman rule, their gods and goddesses were incorporated into Egyptian religion. Another major change occurred after the first century A.D. when Christianity spread throughout Egypt. At this time Gnosticism, a religion that incorporated some Christian beliefs, also spread throughout Egypt and a large corpus of Gnostic texts were discovered in 1945 in southern Egypt near the city of Nag Hammadi.

Islam spread throughout the country after A.D. 641 after the country was captured by a Muslim army. Today, Islam is practiced by the majority of Egypt's inhabitants, while a minority are Christian, many being part of the Coptic Church.


Key figures

The most important key figures provide you with a compact summary of the topic of "Brazil" and take you straight to the corresponding statistics.

Økonomi

Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in Brazil 2026

Gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate in Brazil 2026

Unemployment rate in Brazil 2020

Inflation rate in Brazil 2026

Import of goods to Brazil 2019

Export of goods from Brazil 2019

Trade balance of Brazil 2019

Made-In Country Index: perception of products made in Brazil, by country 2017

National Finances

National debt of Brazil in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) 2026

Brazil's budget balance in relation to GDP 2026

Ratio of government expenditure to gross domestic product (GDP) in Brazil 2026


Nutrition transition and obesity prevention through the life-course

The aim of this paper is to discuss concepts regarding the nutrition transition (NT), the several stages it has encompassed over human history, dietary shifts it is associated with and its implications to the life-course approach for obesity prevention. NT is a phenomenon characterized by an inversion of the nutrition profile, that is, an increase in obesity and a reduction in undernutrition. Obesity and associated chronic diseases are the most important expressions of NT today. Some important dietary changes happened in the last decades as a result of the complex determinants of NT, such as urbanization, the economic growth dynamic, cultural and behavioral shifts. The NT has involved an increased consumption of caloric beverages, ultra-processed products, animal foods, edible oils and soft drinks, accompanied by a significant reduction in the consumption of fruits, vegetables, pulses and milk. Global obesity prevalence increased from 4.8% in 1980 to 9.8% in 2008 for men, and from 7.9% in 1980 to 13.8% in 2008 for women, representing 205 million men and 297 million women with obesity and 1.46 billion with overweight in 2008. The context of the NT needs to be taken into account when developing effective obesity prevention strategies across the life-course.

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