Historien

Gamle georgiske søjlehovedstad



Gamle georgiske søjlehovedstad - Historie

De kendetegnes ved en dekorativ, klokkeformet hovedstad med voluter, to rækker acanthusblade og en udførlig gesims. I mange tilfælde rifles kolonnen. Kolonner i denne stil findes inden for og uden for bygningerne på Capitol Hill, herunder U.S. Capitol, Supreme Court Building, Russell Senate Office Building, Cannon House Office Building og Library of Congress.

Ydersiden af ​​Capitol -bygningen indeholder eksempler på en modificeret korintisk søjleform, herunder East Front center portico og West Front. På første sal i Capitol's House -fløjen er den dramatiske, højloftede søjlesal, der har sit navn fra de 28 riflede, hvide marmorsøjler, der ligger langs korridoren.

Søjlehovedstæderne er en variation af den korintiske orden, der ikke kun indeholder klassiske acanthusblade, men også tidsler og indfødte amerikanske tobaksplanter. Tidligere anvendelser af amerikansk vegetation i bygningens hovedstæder inkluderer Benjamin Henry Latroves majskolhovedstæder i en vestibule på første sal og hans tobaksbladehovedstæder i Small Senate Rotunda.

Højesteretsbygningen blev designet i den klassiske korintiske arkitektoniske stil, valgt for at harmonisere med de nærliggende kongresbygninger. Dens monumentale indgang, vendt mod U.S. Capitol Building, indeholder en central tempellignende pavillon foran en monumental portik med 16 korintiske marmorsøjler, der understøtter en udførlig entablature og pediment.

I Cannon House Office Building og Russell Senate Office Building indeholder deres identiske rotundas 18 korintiske søjler, der understøtter en entablature og en kuffert, og hvis glaserede okulus oversvømmer rotunden med naturligt lys.


Placering og første funktion af Katskhi -søjlen

Katskhi -søjlen ligger i Imereti, som er en region i den vestlige del af Georgien. Denne søjle stiger til en højde på cirka 40 meter og har udsigt over den lille floddal Katskhura. Da Katskhi er et så fremtrædende træk i landskabet, er det ikke overraskende, at folk tillagde det en særlig betydning. Inden kristendommens ankomst blev det for eksempel antaget, at Katskhi -søjlen var blevet brugt som et helligt sted af hedninger allerede for 2.000 år siden. Man troede, at monolitten repræsenterede en lokal frugtbarhedsgud, og derfor blev der udført frugtbarhedsritualer der.

Med kristendommens fremkomst fik Katskhi -søjlen imidlertid en ny funktion. Kalksøjlen var ikke længere forbundet med frugtbarhed. I stedet blev det betragtet som en måde at løsrive sig fra verden. Den asketiske praksis med at leve på en søjle / monolit har sin oprindelse i figuren St. Simeon the Stylite, en hellig mand fra det 4. / 5. århundrede, der besluttede at leve oven på en søjle. St. Simeon gjorde dette for at komme væk fra samfundet og afsætte sin tid til bøn.


Egenskaber

Et hus i føderal stil er typisk en simpel firkantet eller rektangulær kasse, to eller tre etager høj og to rum dyb. Nogle hjem i føderalstil er blevet gjort større, modificeret med fremspringende vinger, tilknyttede afhængigheder eller endda begge dele. I nogle føderale hjem og bygninger kan man finde en detaljeret buet eller polygonal plantegning, f.eks. Med Octagon House i Washington, DC (1799), der ligger på 18 th Street og New York Avenue NW. I det historiske kvarter i Rockville på 103 West Montgomery Avenue er Beall-Dawson-huset et glimrende eksempel på føderal stil.

Mange designelementer i føderal stil er især undervurderede. For eksempel er udvendig dekoration i føderale stilarter og designs generelt begrænset til en veranda eller indgangselement. Sammenlignet med et georgisk hus er søjlerne og listerne i føderal arkitektur smalle og ret enkle.

Arkitektur i føderal stil viser ofte geometriske begreber. Elliptiske, cirkulære og blæserformede motiver dannet af riflede udstrålende linjer er almindelige dekorationer, der findes i hjem og kontorbygninger i føderal stil. Et af de ældste amerikanske eksempler på sådanne blomstrer er på spisestuens loft på Mount Vernon. Udført i gips indeholder det føderale design en dekorativ rinceau -kant, der er prydet med majsskaller og en central roset.

Materialer

Ikke overraskende varierer byggematerialerne i arkitektur i føderal stil med placering. Boligerne i Nordøst var typisk lavet af spånplader, mens sydlige huse ofte var mursten, ligesom de fleste hjem i føderal stil i det urbane nord, hvor brandsikring var meget ønsket.

Hofte tage, der er dækket af en balustrade og enkle gavlformer (som dem på mange føderale byhuse i Washington, DC) og endda tage med en midter gavl kronet af en frontfacade, er blandt de mest populære føderale tagstilarter. Friendship House, der ligger på South Carolina Avenue SE på Capitol Hill (ca. 1795), er et eksempel på frontfacadepedimentet.

Dormers gennemborer ofte taget for at bringe lys og plads ind på et loft. Carberry House (1803) på 421½ Sixth Street S.E. i Capitol Hill -området i Washington, DC er et særligt godt eksempel.

Windows

Windows er aldrig grupperet i et hus i føderal stil, men er arrangeret individuelt i streng vandret og lodret symmetri. Typisk er de forreste vinduer i et hjem i føderal stil fem-rangeret, selvom der er eksempler på tre og syv-rangerede vinduer. Vinduer i palladisk stil bruges ofte i gavle som et arkitektonisk flor. Vinduer består næsten altid af dobbelthængte træskærme med det øverste vinduesramme på plads af metalnåle (modvægtvægte var ikke opfundet endnu). Tynde tremmønter deler vinduet i små lamper (ruder). Før revolutionskrigen var standardlyset 6 "x 8", men efterhånden som ruderteknologier blev forbedret, steg størrelsen til 8 "x 13". Generelt har vinduerne seks over seks lamper, selvom ni over ni og andre konfigurationer også kan findes i flere hjem i føderal stil.

Indgang

Til trods for dens betydning, især når det er centrum for en strengt symmetrisk facade, er hoveddøren til et føderalt hjem normalt den mest dekorerede del af hjemmets ydre. På denne score er en halvcirkelformet eller elliptisk ventilator lys over døren med eller uden flankerende sidelys en yndlingsenhed, der bruges i føderal arkitektur.

En døråbning kan også omfatte udsmykkede støbninger eller en lille entré. Nogle designere i føderal stil forstærker ofte hovedindgangens drama med krumme linjer, trappeskinner foran, jernbalkoner og endda buede fronter. Dekorative lister, såsom tandlignende dentils, bruges ofte til at understrege gesimser i det føderale design.


Den korintiske orden

Korintisk hovedstad

Den korintiske orden

For at sikre, at bygninger gentog en sammenhængende stilfølelse, skabte grækerne tre ordrer af arkitektur, grupper af designelementer beregnet til at gå sammen om en bygnings udvendige dekoration. Alle ordrer inkluderede specifikke slags kolonner, hovedstæder og dekorationer. De tre græske arkitektoniske ordener var doriske, hvilket var den mest simple ioniske, som var lidt mere dekorative og den græske korintiske orden.


Korintiske søjler på en bygning i nyklassisk stil (U.S. Post Office på Broadway) i New York City

Ordenernes proportioner blev dannet på menneskekroppens. Det Korintsammen med Composite er den mest udsmykkede af ordrerne. Denne arkitektoniske stil er kendetegnet ved slanke riflede søjler og udførlige hovedstæder dekoreret med acanthusblade og -ruller. Som det er for andre klassiske stilarter, kan den slags bygninger anmode om ændringer af selve stilens kanon.

Vesta -templet, Rom. Den har 20 udvendige korintiske søjler, der står på et 360 graders, 5-trins tufapodium.

Stilkarakteristika

Det vigtigste funktioner af korintisk orden er:

· Den hængende hovedstad, der er udskåret med to forskudte rækker af stiliserede acanthusblade og fire ruller.

· Akslen har fireogtyve skarpkantede fløjter, mens kolonnen er ti diametre høje. I sine proportioner er den korintiske kolonne sammenlignelig med Ionisk søjle, selvom den er mere slank og skiller sig ud ved sin særpræget udskåret kapital.

· Det abacus på hovedstaden har konkave sider der er i overensstemmelse med hjørnerne af hovedstaden, og den kan have en roset i midten af ​​hver side.

Struktur af en korintisk søjle

Denne ordre har altid været relateret til skønhed. Samlet set blev det udviklet af romerne til et udtryk for det flotteste arkitektoniske show . Vitruvius beskrev den korintiske søjle som en efterligning af en piges slankhed. Den ældste kendte bygning designet i overensstemmelse med denne ordre er Choragic Monument of Lysicrates i Athen.

En gengivelse af Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, Sidney

Betydningen af ​​Acanthus Leaves

Acanthusbladene blev også vedtaget i kristen arkitektur, i de gallo-romerske hovedstæder og i gravmonumenterne for at symbolisere opstandelsen, tydelig i den romanske kunst, fordi den korintiske orden hovedsageligt blev brugt til hovedstæder i et kirkekor, var bevarede relikvierne fra de helgener, som opstandelsen var og er lovet, ofte med et nummer symbolsk for blade eller blomsterknopper.

En korinthisk hovedfigur af en søjle fra den indvendige dekoration af cellen i templet i Concordia


Egenskaber

Klassisk arkitektur værdsatte begreber som dristighed, ydmyghed og intellekt. Disse værdier hjælper med at definere individuelle komponenter, der kan findes i flere klassiske arkitektoniske stilarter. Nogle af disse nøgleelementer omfatter følgende.

  • Symmetri og proportioner. Klassiske bygninger er normalt symmetriske og har elementer som søjler og vinduer, der er jævnt fordelt.
  • Kolonner i en bestemt stil (eller rækkefølge). Disse klassiske ordrer kan være doriske, ioniske eller korintiske for græsk arkitektur. Romerne havde også toscanske og sammensatte ordrer.
  • Verandaen toppet med en pediment. Mange boliger og bygninger har en veranda i fuld højde, der er indstillet med et klassisk pediment øverst. Døren er normalt placeret i midten af ​​huset.
  • Holdbare byggematerialer. Klassisk arkitektur indeholder materialer som marmor, beton og mursten.
  • Klassiske designmotiver. Hjem har ofte tandstøbning, mellemhøje tage, kuffertramme, dekorative døromgivelser og ødelagte pedimenter over indgangsdøren.
  • Rektangulære vinduer. Windows var ofte dobbelthængt og omfattede en række forskellige symmetriske vindueskonfigurationer.

Arkitekturhistorie (3.000 fvt. - nu) Evolution af bygningsdesign


Peterskirken, Rom, viser
Madernos facade og den tilpassede
Dome, oprindeligt designet af
Michelangelo. Renæssancestil.


Taj Mahal, Indien (1632-54)
Et fantastisk eksempel på Mughal
(Mogul) arkitektur.

RESSOURCER
For arkitektoniske termer, se:
Arkitektur Ordliste.
For at se, hvordan arkitektur passer
ind i udviklingen af ​​kunst,
se :: Kunsthistorie.

Forholdet mellem arkitektur og kunst

Lige siden antikken har arkitektur - kunsten at designe og opføre bygninger - altid været tæt forbundet med kunsthistorien af ​​mindst tre grunde. For det første blev mange offentlige værker (især religiøse bygninger) designet med æstetik i tankerne samt funktionalitet. De blev bygget til at inspirere og tjene en offentlig funktion. Som et resultat involverede de tjenester fra en bred vifte af 'kunstnere' og dekorative håndværkere såvel som arbejdere. For det andet fungerede ydre og interiør i mange af disse bygninger som udstillingsvinduer for kunstmaleri (f.eks. Det Sixtinske Kapel), frise- og reliefskulptur (f.eks. Parthenon, europæiske gotiske katedraler), glasmalerier (f.eks. Chartres -katedralen) og andre kunstværker som mosaikker og metalarbejde. For det tredje gik offentlige byggeprogrammer typisk hånd i hånd med udviklingen af ​​billedkunst, og de fleste større 'kunst' -bevægelser (f.eks. Renæssance, barok, rokoko, nyklassicisme) påvirkede både arkitektur og kunst.

Tidlig arkitektur havde to hovedfunktioner: (1) at konsolidere sikkerhed og magt (2) for at behage guderne. Jo rigere samfundet var, desto vigtigere blev disse funktioner. Se også: Kunsthistorie: Tidslinje.

Egyptisk arkitektur

Den første store civilisation, der opstod omkring Middelhavsområdet, var Egyptens (ca. 3100-2040 fvt). Ud over sit eget skriftsprog, religion og dynastiske herskende klasse udviklede den en unik egyptisk arkitektur, der stort set bestod af massive gravkamre i form af pyramider (i Giza) og underjordiske grave (i den øde Kongedal, Luxor). Designet var monumentalt, men ikke arkitektonisk komplekst og beskæftigede stillinger og overligger i stedet for buer, selvom egyptisk ekspertise inden for sten havde en stærk indflydelse på senere græsk arkitektur. Berømte eksempler på egyptisk pyramidearkitektur omfatter: Djoser trinpyramide (ca. 2630 f.Kr.) designet af Imhotep - en af ​​de største arkitekter i den antikke verden - og Den store pyramide i Giza (ca. 2550 fvt), også kaldet pyramiden af Khufu eller 'Pyramid of Cheops' - den ældste af de syv vidundere i verden, som udarbejdet af Antipater fra Sidon (170-120 fvt). Senere, i løbet af mellem- og senriget (ca. 2040-300 e.Kr.), konstruerede egypterne en række paladser ved Karnak (f.eks. Amons tempel, 1530 f.Kr. og fremefter). Disse strukturer blev prydet med en bred vifte af kunstværker - hvoraf få overlever - herunder vægmalerier, panelmalerier, skulpturer og metalarbejde, der skildrer forskellige guder, guder, herskere og symbolske dyr i den unikke egyptiske hieratiske kunststil sammen med hieroglyfiske indskrifter . For mere specifikke detaljer, se: Tidlig egyptisk arkitektur (3100-2181) Egyptisk mellemrigsarkitektur (2055-1650) Egyptisk nyt rigs arkitektur (1550-1069) Sen egyptisk arkitektur (1069 f.Kr.-200 CE).

For en sammenligning med pyramidearkitekturen i det tidlige Amerika, se: Pre -columbiansk kunst (ca. 1200 f.Kr. - 1535 CE).

Sumerisk arkitektur

I mellemtiden udviklede den sumeriske civilisation i Mesopotamien og Persien (c.3200-323 fvt) sin egen unikke bygning - en type trinpyramide kaldet en ziggurat. Men i modsætning til pyramiderne i de egyptiske faraoer blev ziggurater ikke bygget som grave, men som menneskeskabte bjerge for at bringe de sumeriske herskere og mennesker tættere på deres guder, der angiveligt boede højt oppe i bjergene mod øst. Ziggurater blev konstrueret af lerfyrede mursten, ofte færdige med farvede glasurer. For flere detaljer, se: Sumerian Art (c.4500-2270 BCE). For andre kulturer i det gamle Irak, se: assyrisk kunst (ca. 1500-612 f.Kr.) og hetitisk kunst (ca. 1600-1180 f.Kr.). For et samlet overblik, se: Mesopotamisk kunst (ca. 4500-539). Se også: Tidslinje for forhistorisk kunst.

Tidlig irsk arkitektur

Mod slutningen af ​​stenalderen begyndte ceremonielle megalitter (strukturer bygget af store sten) som Knowth megalitiske grav (ca. 3300 f.Kr.) og Newgrange passage -grav at dukke op i Nordeuropa (Denne form for megalitisk kunst er eksemplificeret ved Stonehenge stencirkel.) Enten arrangeret opretstående i det fri eller begravet og overdækket til at danne en 'dolmen', menes disse tunge stenstrukturer af de fleste arkæologer at have haft en religiøs eller ritualistisk funktion og i nogle tilfælde justering af deres sten afslører en sofistikeret viden om astronomi. De komplekse graveringer, der blev opdaget i Newgrange, markerer begyndelsen på billedkunst i Irland. For mere om gamle og middelalderlige bygninger, se Arkitektoniske monumenter i Irland. For ældre typer historiske steder, se Irlands arkæologiske monumenter.

Den første europæiske kunst i klassisk antik blev skabt af minoerne, baseret på øen Kreta. Minoansk arkitektur anvendte en blanding af sten, muddersten og gips til at konstruere udførlige paladser (f.eks. Palace of Knossos c.1700-1400 fvt) samt kuplede gravkamre (tholos) gemt i bakkerne. Mange af disse bygninger var dekoreret med farverige vægmalerier og freskomalerier, der skildrede mytologiske dyresymboler (f.eks. Tyren) og begivenheder. Desværre blev den mest minoiske arkitektur ødelagt af jordskælv omkring 1200 fvt. Kreta blev derefter overtaget af mykenerne fra fastlandet Grækenland, hvorfra en samlet græsk kultur og civilisation opstod nogle få århundreder senere.

Kunst- og arkitekturhistorien i det antikke Grækenland er opdelt i tre grundlæggende epoker: Den arkaiske periode (ca. 600-500 f.Kr.), den klassiske periode (ca. 500-323 f.Kr.) og den hellenistiske periode (ca. 323-27 f.Kr.) ). [Se også: Ægæisk kunst.] Omkring 600 fvt, inspireret af teorien og praksis fra tidligere egyptiske stenmestre og bygherrer, begyndte grækerne at udskifte træstrukturer i deres offentlige bygninger med stenstrukturer - en proces kendt som 'forstening'. Kalksten og marmor blev brugt til søjler og vægge, mens terracotta blev brugt til tagsten og ornamenter. Dekorationen blev udført i metal, som bronze.

Ligesom malere og billedhuggere nød græske arkitekter ingen af ​​de forbedrede status, som deres efterfølgere blev givet. De blev ikke set som kunstnere, men som håndværkere. Således kendes ingen navne på arkitekter før omkring det 5. århundrede fvt. De mest almindelige former for offentlige bygninger var templer, kommunale strukturer, teatre og sportsstadioner.

Arkitektoniske metoder i det antikke Grækenland

Græsk arkitektur brugte enkle post-og-overligger byggeteknikker. Det var først i romertiden, at buen blev udviklet for at spænde over større afstande. Som et resultat blev græske arkitekter tvunget til at ansætte mange flere stensøjler til at understøtte korte vandrette bjælker over hovedet. Desuden kunne de ikke opføre bygninger med store indvendige rum uden at have rækker af interne støttesøjler. Standardkonstruktionsformatet, der blev brugt i offentlige bygninger som Hephaesteum i Athen, anvendte store blokke af kalksten eller en let porøs sten kendt som tuff. Marmor, som var sjældnere og mere værdifuld, var forbeholdt skulpturel dekoration, undtagen i de flotteste bygninger, f.eks. Parthenon på Akropolis.

Græsk bygningsdesign

Det typiske rektangulære bygningsdesign var ofte omgivet af en søjler på alle fire sider (f.eks. Parthenon) eller mere sjældent kun foran og bagpå (f.eks. Athena Nike -templet). Tage blev lagt med træbjælker dækket af terracotta fliser og var ikke kuplede. Pedimenter (den flade trekantede form i hver gavlende af bygningen) var normalt fyldt med skulpturel dekoration eller friser, ligesom rækken af ​​overligger langs toppen af ​​hver sidevæg, mellem taget og søjletoppene. I slutningen af ​​4. og 5. århundrede fvt begyndte græske arkitekter at afvige fra den strengt rektangulære plan for traditionelle templer til fordel for en cirkulær struktur (tholos), pyntet med sort marmor for at fremhæve visse arkitektoniske elementer og give rige farvekontraster.

Disse bygninger var berømt prydet med et stort udvalg af græsk skulptur - pedimentale værker, friser, relieffer og forskellige former for fritstående statue - af figurativ karakter, der skildrer mytologiske helte og begivenheder i græsk historie og kultur.

Principper for græsk arkitektur: Klassiske ordrer

Teorien om græsk arkitektur - uden tvivl den mest indflydelsesrige form for klassisk græsk kunst - var baseret på et system med 'klassiske ordrer' - regler for bygningsdesign baseret på proportioner af og mellem de enkelte dele. Dette resulterede i en æstetisk tiltalende konsistens af udseende uanset størrelse eller anvendte materialer. Der var tre ordrer i den tidlige græske arkitektur: Dorisk, Ionisk og Korint. Den doriske stil var almindelig på fastlandet Grækenland og spredte sig senere til de græske kolonier i Italien. Den joniske stil blev brugt i byerne Ionia langs Tyrkiets vestkyst og andre øer i Det Ægæiske Hav. Hvor den doriske stil var formel og streng, var den ioniske mindre behersket og mere dekorativ. Den tredje stil, korintisk, kom senere og repræsenterede en mere udsmykkede udvikling af den ioniske orden. Forskellene mellem disse stilarter er tydeligst synlige i forholdet mellem basediameteren og højden af ​​deres søjler. Dorisk arkitektur (eksemplificeret med græske strukturer, som Parthenon og Hephaestus-templet i Athen) var mere populær i den klassiske tidsalder, mens den joniske stil tog overhånd i den mere afslappede periode med hellenistisk kunst (ca. 323-30 fvt.) ).

Berømte bygninger i det antikke Grækenland

Berømte eksempler på gammel græsk arkitektur omfatter: Akropolis-komplekset (550-404 fvt) inklusive Parthenon (447-422 fvt), templerne i Paestum (550 fvt og fremefter), Zeustemplet i Olympia (468-456 fvt), Temple of Hephaistos (c.449 BCE), Temple of Athena Nike (427 BCE), Theatre at Delphi (c.400 BCE), Tholos Temple of Athena Pronaia (380-360 BCE), and the Pergamon Altar of Zeus (ca.166-156 fvt). Se også: Skulptur af det antikke Grækenland.

I modsætning til de mere kreative og intellektuelle grækere var romerne i det væsentlige praktiske mennesker med flair for teknik, konstruktion og militære anliggender. I deres arkitektur, som i deres kunst, lånte de stærkt fra både etruskerne (f.eks. I deres brug af hydraulik til sumprensning og til konstruktion af buer), og også grækerne, som de betragtede som deres overordnede i alt visuelt kunst. Men uden romersk kunst - med sit geni til kopiering og tilpasning af græske stilarter - ville de fleste af de kunstneriske præstationer i græsk antik være gået tabt.

Arkitektoniske prioriteter i det antikke Rom

Romersk arkitektur tjente behovene i den romerske stat, som var ivrig efter at imponere, underholde og tage højde for en voksende befolkning i relativt begrænsede byområder. Afløb var et almindeligt problem, ligesom sikkerheden. Dette, sammen med Roms voksende ønske om at øge sin magt og majestæt i hele Italien og videre, krævede, at offentlige bygninger var imponerende, store og yderst funktionelle. Dette eksemplificeres af romerske arkitektoniske præstationer inden for dræningssystemer, akvædukter (f.eks. Akvedukten ved Segovia, 100 e.Kr., og over 11 akvædukter i selve byen Rom, såsom Aqua Claudia og Anio Novus), broer (f.eks. Pont du Gard) veje, kommunale strukturer som offentlige bade (f.eks. Caracallas bade og Diocletians bade), sportsfaciliteter og amfiteatre (f.eks. Colosseum 72-80 CE), endda centralvarmeanlæg. Talrige templer og teatre blev også bygget. Senere, da deres imperium spredte sig, greb de romerske arkitekter muligheden for at oprette nye byer fra bunden og designede byplanlægningsplaner baseret på to brede gader-en nord-syd-akse (cardo) og en øst-vest-akse (decumanus) . Byens centrum var placeret i krydset mellem de to veje. De byggede også opad, f.eks. Ostia, en rig havneby nær Rom, pralede med en række etageboliger på 5 etager.

Arkitektoniske fremskridt: Buer og beton

Romersk arkitektur blev hjulpet af store fremskridt inden for både design og nye materialer. Designet blev forbedret gennem arkitektoniske udviklinger i konstruktionen af ​​buer og tagkupler. Buer forbedrede broer og akvædukters effektivitet og kapacitet (færre støttesøjler var nødvendige for at understøtte strukturen), mens kuplede tage ikke kun tillod opførelse af større åbne områder under dækning, men gav også ydersiden et imponerende udseende af storhed og majestæt, som i flere vigtige sekulære og kristne basilikaer, som Pantheon.

Materialeudviklingen var også afgørende, som den romerske arkitekt Vitruvius (c.78-10 fvt) skrev i sin bog De Architectura. Dette eksemplificeres ved den romerske opfindelse af beton (opus cementicium), en blanding af kalkmørtel, sand, vand og sten i det 3. århundrede fvt. Denne usædvanligt stærke og bekvemme erstatning for sten revolutionerede romersk teknik og arkitektur. Da flisebelagt beton begyndte at erstatte marmor som hovedbygningsmaterialet, kunne arkitekter være mere vovede. Bygninger blev frigjort fra den rektangulære græske designplan (med dets ubevægede tage og søjler, der understøtter flade arkitraver) og blev mindre geometriske og mere fritflydende.

Ligesom deres egyptiske og de græske forgængere pyntede arkitekter i det gamle Rom deres offentlige bygninger med en bred vifte af kunstværker, herunder: Romersk skulptur (især relieffer, statuer og buster af kejseren), freskomalerier og mosaikker.

Berømte bygninger i det antikke Rom

To af de største strukturer i det antikke Rom var Colosseum (det elliptiske flaviske amfiteater i centrum af Rom) og Trajans søjle (et monument for kejser Trajanus). Beliggende øst for Forum Romanum tog Colosseum 8 år at bygge og havde plads til 50.000 tilskuere. Historikere og arkæologer anslår, at svimlende 500.000 mennesker og over 1 million vilde dyr omkom i 'legene' på Colosseum. Trajans søjle, der ligger tæt på Quirinal Hill, nord for Forum Romanum, blev færdig i 113 CE. Det er kendt for sin storslåede og meget detaljerede spiralbasreliefskulptur, der cirkler rundt om monumentets skaft 23 gange og fortæller Trajans sejr i Dacian Wars. Selve skaftet er lavet af 20 enorme blokke af Carrara -marmor, der hver vejer omkring 40 tons. Den står omkring 30 meter i højden og 4 meter i bredden. Et mindre, men ikke mindre vigtigt romersk monument var Ara Pacis Augustae (13-9 f.Kr.).

Politik og religions indvirkning på romersk arkitektur

I 330 e.Kr., omtrent dengang Peterskirken var færdig, erklærede den romerske kejser Konstantin I, at byen Byzantium (senere omdøbt til Konstantinopel, nu Istanbul i Tyrkiet), skulle være hovedstaden i Romerriget. Senere, i 395 CE, efter kejser Theodosius 'død, blev imperiet opdelt i to dele: en vestlig halvdel baseret først i Rom, indtil den blev fyret i det 5. århundrede CE, derefter Ravenna (Se Ravenna -mosaikker) og en østlig halvdel baseret i den mere sikre by Konstantinopel. Derudover blev kristendommen (tidligere en minoritetssekt) erklæret den eneste officielle religion i hele imperiet. Disse to udviklinger påvirkede arkitekturen på to måder: For det første hjalp flytning til Konstantinopel til at bevare og forlænge den romerske kultur, som ellers kunne være blevet ødelagt af de barbariske angribere i Italien for det andet, fremkomsten af ​​kristendommen gav det, der blev det dominerende tema for arkitektur og billedkunsten i de næste 1.200 år.

Byzantinsk arkitektur (330-554 CE)

Byzantinske arkitekter - herunder mange italienere, der var flyttet til den nye hovedstad fra Italien - fortsatte den fritflydende tradition for romersk arkitektur og konstruerede en række storslåede kirker og religiøse bygninger i den tidlige tidlige kristne kunst, såsom: Chora -kirken (c.333) Hagia Irene (c.360) og St. Sergius og Bacchus Kirke, alle i Istanbul St. Sophia Kirke i Sofia, Bulgarien (527-65), den fantastiske Hagia Sophia (532-37 ), som erstattede den afskedigede domkirke i Konstantinopel og Kirken Hagia Sophia i Thessaloniki. Store sekulære bygninger omfattede: Det Store Palads i Konstantinopel og Basilica Cistern.

Nye arkitektoniske teknikker omfattede brugen af ​​konkave trekantede sektioner af murværk, kendt som pendenter, for at bære vægten af ​​loftskuppelen til hjørnepirer. Dette førte til opførelsen af ​​større og mere storslåede kupler og større åbent rum inde i bygningen, som eksemplificeret i Hagia Sophia. Nye dekorative metoder omfattede introduktionen af ​​blændende mosaikker fremstillet af glas, frem for sten, der blev brugt af romerne. Interiøret i kirker var også rigt dekoreret med byzantinsk kunst, såsom forgyldning, vægmalerier og reliefskulpturer - men ikke statuer, da disse ikke blev æret som ikoner.

Brug af ikoner i byzantinsk religiøs arkitektur

I den byzantinske eller østortodokse tradition for kristen kunst er kun flade billeder eller skulpturer med lav relief tilladt inden for religiøs kunst. Denne kulturelle tradition fastholdt, at tredimensionelle repræsentationer forherligede det menneskelige aspekt af kødet frem for åndens guddommelige natur, og dermed modsatte det sig 3D-religiøse billeder. (De romerske kristne vedtog ikke disse forbud, derfor har vi stadig religiøs skulptur i katolsk og protestantisk arkitektur.) Som det var, udviklede den byzantinske ikonografi stil på en meget stiliseret måde og havde til formål at præsentere kompleks teologi på en meget enkel måde , hvilket gør det muligt at uddanne og inspirere selv de analfabeter. F.eks. Var farve meget vigtig: guld repræsenterede himlens røde udstråling, det guddommelige liv blå var menneskelivets farve hvid var Guds uskabte essens, brugt for eksempel i ikonmaleriet af Kristi opstandelse. Typisk har Jesus en rød undertøj på med en blå yderbeklædning (hvilket betyder, at Gud bliver menneske), mens Maria bærer en blå undertøj med en rød yderbeklædning (hvilket betyder, at mennesker faktisk kan nå Gud). For mere information, se: Kristen kunst (byzantinsk periode).

Efter den tidlige periode med byzantinsk arkitektur (c.300-600), som stort set var en fortsættelse af romersk arkitektur, kom der en mellemperiode (c.600-1100), kun kendt for populariteten af ​​cross-in-square-typen arkitektonisk kirkedesign (eksempler inkluderer Hosios Lukas-klosteret i Grækenland (c.1000) og Daphni-klosteret nær Athen (c.1050) efter dette kom komneniske og paleologanske perioder (c.1100-1450), kun kendt for sjældne præstationer som Elmali Kilise og andre klippereservater i Kappadokien, Pantokrator -kirkerne og Theotokos Kyriotissa i Konstantinopel.

Da det østromerske imperium fortsatte, blev den byzantinske arkitektur gradvist mere påvirket af de østlige traditioner for konstruktion og dekoration. Bygninger steg i geometrisk kompleksitet, mens mursten og gips blev anvendt ud over sten til dekorative formål, ligesom de ydre zig-zag-mønstre. De tidligere 'klassiske ordrer' eller stilarter blev fortolket mere frit, og vinduer filtrerede lys gennem tynde alabastark for at skabe blødere belysning. De to grundlæggende designplaner var den basilikaanske eller aksiale type (f.eks. Basilikaen ved Det Hellige Grav, Jerusalem) og den cirkulære eller centrale type (f.eks. Den store ottekantede kirke i Antiokia).

Byzantinsk arkitektonisk arv

I Vesten påvirkede byzantinske designs den europæiske kunstneriske genoplivning i form af karolingisk kunst (750-900) og ottonsk kunst (900-1050), hvilket førte til romansk og gotisk arkitektur. I øst fortsatte det med at have en betydelig indflydelse på tidlig islamisk kunst og arkitektur, som eksemplet er på Umayyad -moskeen i Damaskus og Klippekuplen i Jerusalem, mens den i Bulgarien, Rusland, Serbien, Georgien, Ukraine og andre ortodokse lande, det varede endnu længere.

The term Romanesque architecture is sometimes used to cover all immediate derivations of Roman architecture in the West, following the collapse of Rome until the flowering of the Gothic style in about 1200. More usually however, it denotes a distinctive style that emerged almost simultaneously in France, Germany, Italy and Spain (the latter also influenced by Moorish designs) in the 11th century. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale, inspired by the greater economic and political stability that arrived after centuries of turmoil.

Charlemagne I and Otto I

The Romanesque revival of medieval Christian art began with Charlemagne I, King of the Franks, who was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in St. Peter's Rome, by Pope Leo III in 800. Famous for his Carolingian art, curiously, his major architectural achievement - the Palatine Chapel in Aachen (c.800) - was not inspired by St Peter's or other churches in Rome, but by the octagonal Byzantine-style Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. See also Medieval Sculpture.

Unfortunately, the Carolingian empire rapidly dissolved, but Charlemagne's patronage of architecture and the arts to promote Christianity, marked a vital first step in the re-emergence of a European-wide culture. Moreover, many of the Romanesque and Gothic churches and monasteries were built on the foundations of Carolingian architecture. Charlemagne's pre-Romanesque architectural efforts were later continued by Otto 1 (Holy Roman Emperor 936-73), in a style known as Ottonian Art, which gave way to the fully fledged 'Romanesque.' (Note: the Romanesque style in England and Ireland is commonly referred to as Norman architecture.)

Christianity continued to be the dominant driving force for most significant building works. The flowering of the Romanesque style in the 11th century coincided with the reassertiveness of Rome, as the capital of Christianity, and its influence upon secular authorities led to the Christian re-conquest of Spain (began 1031) and the Crusades to free the Holy Land from Islamic control. The acquisition of Holy Relics by the Crusaders, together with the fervour aroused by their campaigns, triggered the construction of a wave of new churches and cathedrals across Europe. In Italy, they include the Cathedral of Pisa with its famous leaning campanile (bell tower), Modena Cathedral and Parma Cathedral, as well as famous churches like the Santa Maria (Rome), the Baptistery (Florence), and San Zeno Maggiore (Verona). In France, they include Laon Cathedral (among others), and the abbeys of Cluny, Aux Dames (Caen) and Les Hommes (Mont Saint-Michel). In England, they include 26 out of 27 ancient Cathedrals, such as Winchester, Ely and Durham. In Germany, they include Augsburg and Worms Cathedrals (among others) and the abbeys of Mainz, Worms, Speyer and Bamberg. (See German Medieval Art.) In addition to its influence over international politics, the Roman Church also exercised growing power through its network of Bishops and its close association with Monastic orders such as the Benedictines, the Cistercians, Carthusians and Augustinian Canons. From these monasteries, Bishops and Abbots exercised a growing administrative power over the local population, and devoted huge resources to religious works, including illuminated gospel manuscripts, cultural scholarship, metalwork, sculpture and church building. This is exemplified by the powerful Benedictine monastery at Cluny in Burgundy, whose abbey church typified the Romanesque style of architecture and became the largest building in Europe until the Renaissance.

Features of Romanesque Architecture

Although they relied on several design features from Greek and Roman Antiquity, Romanesque architects had neither the imagination of the Greeks, nor the engineering ability of the Romans. For example, Roman building techniques in brick and stone were largely lost in most parts of Europe. In general, the style employed thick walls, round arches, piers, columnsgroin vaults, narrow slit-windows, large towers and decorative arcading. The basic load of the building was carried not its arches or columns but by its massive walls. And its roofs, vaults and buttresses were relatively primitive in comparison with later styles. Interiors were heavy with stone, had dim lighting and - compared with later Gothic styles - simple unadorned lines. Romanesque churches tended to follow a clearly defined form, and are recognizable throughout Europe. Only rarely did one see traces of Byzantine or Eastern influence, except along trade routes. A notable example is the domed St Mark's Basilica in Venice.

Despite its relative simplicity of style, Romanesque architecture did reinstigate two important forms of fine art: sculpture (which had largely disappeared since the fall of Rome) and stained glass. But given the size of windows in Romanesque style buildings, the latter remained a relatively minor element in Medieval art until the advent of Gothic designs. See also: Romanesque Sculpture.

Romanesque Revival architecture was a 19th century style championed by architects like the Louisiana-born Henry Hobson Richardson (1838-86), who was responsible for "Richardsonian Romanesque", as exemplified by the Marshall Field Wholesale Store (1885-87), in Chicago.

NOTE: For a comparison with Eastern designs of the same period, see: the 11th century Kandariya Mahadeva Hindu Temple (1017-29) in India and the 12th century Angkor Wat Khmer Temple (1115-45) in Cambodia.

The term 'Gothic' denotes a style of architecture and art that superceded Romanesque, from the mid-12th century to the mid-15th century. Coined originally as a term of abuse by Italian Renaissance artists and others like Christopher Wren, to describe the type of Medieval architecture they considered barbaric, as if to suggest it was created by Gothic tribes who had destroyed classical art of Antiquity, the Gothic art style is characterized by the use of pointed arches, thinner walls, ribbed vaults, flying buttresses, huge stained glass windows and elaborate tracery. Think of it as a sort of finer, more vertical, more detailed, brighter, more exciting and more inspirational form of Romanesque. The Gothic style as applied to cathedrals is usually divided into two variations: Rayonnant Gothic Architecture (c.1200-1350) and Flamboyant Gothic Architecture (1375-1500). Modern critics like John Ruskin had a high opinion of the Gothic style. For more, see: Gothic Architecture. See also: Gothic Sculpture.

The 12th century was a period of growth in trade and urban development throughout Europe. This inceasing prosperity, together with advances in science and geometry, plus new ideas about how cathedrals could be built in order to inspire religious devotion among the masses, were all important factors in the development of gothic architecture. Although the new style was closely associated with the promotion of religion, and although much of the gothic building program was financed by monastic orders and local bishops, it was not a religious architectural movement. In a way, Christianity was a product brand used by secular authorities, to compete for prestige and influence. As a result, Kings and lesser administrators saw cathedrals as major civic and commercial assets, and supported their construction accordingly.

Key Feature of Gothic Architecture

The principal feature of the Gothic style is the pointed arch, believed by many experts to originate in Assyrian, and later, Islamic architecture. This feature, which channeled the weight of the ceiling onto weight-bearing piers or columns at a much steeper angle than was previously possible with the Romanesque 'rounded' arches, permitted architects to raise vaults much higher and thus create the impression of 'reaching towards heaven'. It also led to the adoption of numerous other features. Instead of massively thick walls, small windows and dim interiors, the new Gothic buildings had thin walls, often supported by flying buttresses, and huge stained glass windows, as exemplified by Sainte Chapelle (1241-48) in Paris. The soaring ceilings and brighter light revolutionized ecclesistical design by tranforming the interior of many cathedrals into inspirational sanctuaries. (See also: Stained Glass Art: Materials and Methods.)

The Gothic Cathedral - A Mini-Universe

In keeping with the new and more confident philosophy of the age, the Gothic cathedral was seen by architects and churchmen as representing the universe in miniature. Each element of the building's design was intended to convey a theological message: the awesome glory of God. Thus the logical and ordered nature of the structure reflected the clarity and rationality of God's universe, while the sculptures, stained glass windows and murals illustrated the moral messages of the Bible.

The Church of Saint-Denis (c.1137-41)

The building which marks the real beginning of the Gothic era was the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, near Paris. Begun under the direction of Abbot Suger, friend of the French Kings, Louis VI and Louis VII, the church was the first structure to use and unify all of the elements that define Gothic as an architectural style. Although pointed arches, column clusters and cross-rib vaulting had all been used before, it wasn't until Saint-Denis that these features came together in a coherent whole, and the building became a sort of prototype for more churches and cathedrals in the region known as the Ile de France. In due course, the style spread throughout France, England, the Low Countries, Germany, Spain and Italy. (See also: English Gothic Sculpture and German Gothic Sculpture.)

Examples of Ecclesiastical Gothic Architecture

Although used in the design and construction of palaces, castles, municipal town halls, guild halls, abbeys and universities, the Gothic style is best exemplified by the Gothic cathedrals of Northern France. The greatest examples include: Notre-Dame Cathedral Paris (1163-1345) Reims Cathedral (1211-1275) Chartres Cathedral (1194-1250) and Amiens Cathedral (1220-1270) (in Germany) Cologne Cathedral (1248-1880) (in Austria) St Stephen's Cathedral Vienna (in Spain) the cathedrals of Burgos, Toledo and Leon (in Italy) Florence, Milan and Siena while English Gothic architecture is best represented by Westminster Abbey, York Minster and the cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Winchester, Canterbury and Lincoln.

Renaissance-Style Architecture (1400-1620)

Financed by commercial prosperity and competition between city-states, such as Florence, Rome and Venice, as well as rich families like the Medici banking dynasty in Florence and the Fuggers banking family in Germany, the Renaissance was neverthess a triumph of will over world events. Not long before, there had been a run of disastrous European harvests (1315-19) the Black Death plague (1346) which wiped out one third of the European population the 100 Years War between England and France (1339-1439), and the Christian Church was polarized by schism. Hardly ideal conditions for the rebirth or rinacimento der fulgte. As it was, the 16th century Popes in Rome almost bankrupted the Church in the early 16th century due to their profligate financing of fine buildings and the visual arts.

Renaissance architecture was catalyzed by the rediscovery of architectural styles and theories of Ancient Rome. The first depictions of this Classical architecture emerged in Italy during the early 15th century when a copy of De Architectura ("Ten Books Conerning Architecture") by the 1st century Roman architect Vitruvius, was sudddenly unearthed in Rome. At the same time, the Florentine architect and artist Filippo Brunellesci (1377-1446) had begun studying ancient Roman designs, and was convinced that ideal building proportions could be ascertained from mathematical and geometrical principles. It was Brunellesci's magnificent 1418 design for the dome of the Florence Cathedral (1420-36) - now regarded as the first example of Renaissance architecture - which ushered in a new style based on the long-neglected placement and proportion rules of Classical Antiquity.

Famous Renaissance Architects

Another important Renaissance architect was Leon Battista Alberti (1404-72), who is still revered as one of the founders of modern architectural theory. Believing that ideal architectural design was based on the harmony of structure, function and decoration, he was greatly inspired by the theory and practice of ancient Roman architects and engineers.

Other famous Italian architects included: (1) Donato Bramante (1444-1514), the leading designer of the High Renaissance (2) Guiliano da Sangallo (1443-1516), an important intermediary architect between the Early and High Renaissance periods (3) Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564), a leading architect, as well as one of the greatest sculptors and painters of the age (4) Baldassare Peruzzi (1481-1536), an important architect and interior designer (5) Raffaello Santi (Raphael) (1483-1520), a visionary designer as well as painter (6) Michele Sanmicheli (1484-1559), the most famous pupil of Bramante (7 & 8) Jacopo Sansovino (1486-1570) and Andrea Palladio (1508-1580), the two top figures in Venetian Renaissance architecture (9) Giulio Romano (1499-1546), the main exponent of Italian Mannerist-style architecture (10) Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574) who designed the loggia for the Uffizi gallery and the connecting Vasari Corridor and (11) Vincenzo Scamozzi (1548-1616) one of the great theorists of the late Renaissance.

Features of Renaissance Architecture

Put simply, Renaissance buildings were modelled on the classical architecture of the Greeks and Romans, but retained modern features of Byzantine and Gothic invention, such as complex domes and towers. In addition, while replicating and improving on Classical scupture, they also incorporated modern mosaics and stained glass, along with outstanding fresco murals. Renaissance architecture can be seen in countless examples of churches, cathedrals and municipal buildings across Europe, (eg. in many French Chateaux, such as Fontainebleau Chateau, home of the Fontainebleau School: 1528-1610) and its style has been reapplied in later ages to famous structures as diverse as the US Capitol and the UK National Gallery. (In England, the style is sometimes known as Elizabethan architecture.)

Supreme Examples of Renaissance Architecture

The two greatest Renaissance-style structures are undoubtedly the redesigned St Peter's Basilica in Rome and the cathedral in Florence, both of which were highlights of the Grand Tour (1650-1850).

Inspired by civic rivalry between the Ducal States, Brunellesci's dome made the Florentine cathedral the tallest building in Tuscany. In its architectural design, it combined the Gothic tradition of stone vaulting and the principles of Roman engineering. Its herring-bone bonding of brickwork and concentric rings of masonry blocks dispensed with the need for centring, which was unmanagable at the height involved.

Commissioned by Pope Julius II (1443-1513), the rebuilding of the 1,100 year old church of St Peter's in Rome (1506-1626) was the work of numerous architects, including Bramante, Raphael, Sangallo, Maderno, Michelangelo and Bernini, and extended beyond the High Renaissance into the Mannerist and Baroque eras. Its features include a 87-feet high lantern on top of a huge ovoid dome (altered from Michelangelo's hemispherical design due to fears of instability), and a frontal facade incorporating a gigantic Order of pilastered Corinthian columns, each 90 feet high. At 452 feet, St Peter's is taller than any other Renaissance church.

Baroque Architecture (1550-1790)

As the 16th century unfolded, the religious, political and philosophical certainties which had prevailed during the Early (c.1400-85) and High (1486-1520) Renaissance periods, began to unravel. In 1517, Martin Luther sparked the Protestant Reformation, casting European-wide doubt on the integrity and theology of the Roman Church. This was the catalyst for several wars involving France, Italy, Spain and England, and led directly to the Counter-Reformation movement, launched by Rome, to attract the masses away from Protestantism. Renewed patronage of the visual arts and architecture was a key instrument in this propaganda campaign, and resulted in a grander, more dramatic style in both areas. For the rest of the century, this more dynamic style was known as Mannerism (style-ishness), and thereafter, Baroque - a term derived from the Portugese word barocco, meaning 'an irregular pearl'.

Key Features of the Baroque Style

Baroque architecture can be seen as a more complex, more detailed, more elaborate, more ornamented form of Renaissance architecture. More swirls, more complex manipulation of light, colour, texture and perspective. On the outside of its churches, it featured more ostentatious facades, domes, columns, sculpture and other embellishments. On the inside, its floor-plans were more varied. Long, narrow naves were displaced by wider, sometimes circular shapes separate chapels and other areas were created, along with trompe l'oeil effects ceilings were covered in fresco paintings. The whole thing was designed to interest, if not dazzle, the spectator.

Baroque was an emotional style of architecture, and took full advantage of the theatrical potential of the urban landscape. This is exemplified above all by Saint Peter's Square (1656-67) in Rome, in front of the domed St Peter's Basilica. Its architect, Giovanni/Gianlorenzo Bernini rings the square with colonnades, which widen slightly as they approach the cathedral, conveying the impression to visitors that they are being embraced by the arms of the Catholic Church. The entire approach is constructed on a gigantic scale, to induce feelings of awe.

In general, Baroque architecture constituted part of the struggle for religious superiority and for the hearts and minds of worshippers across Europe. On a more political level, secular Baroque architecture was employed to buttress the absolutism of reigning monarchs, like King Louis XIV of France, among others. From Italy, it spread to the rest of Europe - especially Catholic Europe - where each country typically developed its own interpretation. See also: German Baroque Art.

Celebrated Baroque Architects

Famous Baroque architects included: Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola (1507-73), papal architect to Pope Julius III and the Farnese family Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), a designer who perfectly expressed the ideals of the Counter Reformation Francesco Borromini (1599-1667), a lifelong rival of Bernini Pietro Berrettini da Cortona (1596-1669), a protege of Pope Urban VIII (see also quadratura) Francois Mansart (1598-1666), designer of French townhouses and chateaux like the Château de Maisons, whose name was given to the mansard roof (sic) his great-nephew Jules Hardouin Mansart (1646-1708), designer of the great dome of Les Invalides in Paris and Louis Le Vau (1612-70), another famous French Baroque architect, responsible for the church of Saint-Sulpice in Paris and the Wings of the Louvre. Jules Hardouin Mansart and Louis Le Vau were the main architects of the Palace of Versailles (begun 1623), creating such extravagancies as the Hall of Mirrors and the Marble Court. In Germany, an iconic Baroque structure is the Wurzburg Residenz (1720-44), designed by Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753).

In England, the leader of the Baroque style was Sir John Vanbrugh (1664-1726), designer of Blenheim Palace while in Russia, Bartolomeo Rastrelli (1700-1771) was chiefly responsible for the style known as Russian Baroque, but which incorporated elements of both early Neoclassical and Rococo architecture. Rastrelli designed the Winter Palace (1754-62), Smolny Cathedral (1748-57) in St Petersburg, and redesigned Catherine's Palace, outside the city.

Rococo Architecture (1715-89)

During the last phase of Baroque, the reign of King Louis XV of France witnessed a revolt against the earlier Baroque style of Louis XIV's court, and the emergence of a more decorative, playful style of architecture, known as Rococo. An amalgam of the words 'rocaille' (rock) and 'coquillage' (sells), reflecting its abundance of flowing curved forms, Rococo was championed by Nicolas Pineau, who partnered Jules Hardouin-Mansart in designing interiors for the royal Château de Marly.

Unlike other major architectural movements, like Romanesque, Gothic or Baroque, Rococo was really concerned with interior design. This was because it emerged and remained centred in France, where rich patrons were unwilling to rebuild houses and chateaux, preferring instead to remodel their interiors. And the style was far too whimsical and light-hearted for the exteriors of religious and civic buildings. As a result, Rococo architects - in effect, interior designers - confined themselves to creating elaborately decorated rooms, whose plasterwork, murals, tapestries, furniture, mirrors, porcelain, silks, chinoiserie and other embellishments presented the visitor with a complete aesthetic experience - a total work of art (but hardly architecture!)

Rococo perfectly reflected the decadent indolence and degeneracy of the French Royal Court and High Society. Perhaps because of this, although it spread from France to Germany, where it proved more popular with Catholics than Protestants, it was less well received in other European countries like England, The Low Countries, Spain and even Italy. It was swept away by the French Revolution and by the sterner Neoclassicism which heralded a return to Classical values and styles, more in keeping with the Age of Enlightenment and Reason.

Neoclassical Architecture (1640-1850)

Early Neoclassical Forms

Neoclassicism did not appear overnight. In its early forms (1640-1750), it co-existed with Baroque, and functioned as a corrective style to the latter's more flamboyant excesses. Thus in England, Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723) designed St Paul's Cathedral, the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Royal Chelsea Hospital and the Sheldonian Theatre in Oxford, in a style which is much more classicist than Baroque, even though he is still classified as a Baroque architect. Other early English Neoclassicist designers included Inigo Jones (1573-1652) and William Kent (1685-1748).

Features of Neoclassicism Proper (1750-1850)

A timely support for ancien regimes throughout Europe, from St Petersburg to Vienna, and a model for youthful empires-to-come like the United States of America, Neoclassical art was yet another return to the Classical Orders of Greek and Roman Antiquity. Although, as in the Renaissance, the style retained all the engineering advances and new materials of the modern era. It was characterized by monumental structures, supported or decorated by columns of Doric, Ionic or Corinthian pillars, and topped with classical Renaissance domes. Technical innovations of late 18th century architecture like layered cupolas and inner cores added strength to domes, and their dimensions increased, lending increased grandeur to civic buildings, churches, educational facilities and large private homes.

Neoclassical architecture originated in Paris, largely due to the presence of French designers trained at the French Academy in Rome. Famous French architects included: Jacques Germain Soufflot (1713-80), who designed the Pantheon (1756-97) in Paris Claude Nicolas Ledoux (1736-1806), designer of the Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans (1773-93) and the Cathedral of Saint-Germaine (1762-64) and Jean Chalgrin, who designed the Arc de Triomphe (1806). In England the tradition was maintained by Paris-trained Sir William Chambers, Robert Adam (1728-92), John Nash (1752-1835), Sir John Sloane (1753-1837), William Wilkins (1778-1839) and Sir Robert Smirke (1780-1867). It was quickly adopted by progressive circles in Sweden as well. In Germany, Neoclassical architects included: Carl Gotthard Langhans (1732-1808), designer of the Brandenburg Gate (1789-91) in Berlin Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781-1841), responsible for the Konzerthaus on Gendarmenmarkt (1818-21), the Tegel Palace (1821-4), and the Altes Museum (1823-30), all in Berlin. These two architects transformed the Prussian capital of Berlin to rival Paris or Rome in classical splendour.

Russian Neoclassicism

Rastrelli's Baroque style Russian buildings, like the Winter Palace (1754-62), did not find favour with Catherine the Great (1762-1850), who preferred Neoclassical designs. As a result, she summoned the Scottish architect Charles Cameron (c.1745�), who built the Pavlovsk Palace (1782-86) near St Petersburg, the Razumovsky Palace in the Ukraine (1802) and the Alexander Palace outside St Petersburg (1812). Other important neoclassical architects for the Russian Czars included: Vincenzo Brenna (Cameron's pupil), Giacomo Quarenghi og Matvey Fyodorovich Kazakov.

American Neoclassicism

The United States Capitol Building, with its neoclassical frontage and dome, is one of America's most recognizable and iconic structures. Begun in 1793, its basic design was the work of William Thornton (1759-1828), reworked by Benjamin Latrobe (1764-1820), Stephen Hallet og Charles Bulfinch (1763-1844). The dome and rotunda were initially built from wood, but later replaced with stone and iron. The overall design was inspired by both the eastern facade of the Louvre Museum in Paris, and by the Pantheon in Rome. Latrobe himself went on to design numerous other buildings in America, in the Neoclassical style including: the Bank of Pennsylvania (1789), Richmond Capitol (1796), the Fairmount Waterworks, Philadelphia (1799), and the Baltimore Exchange (1816), to name but a few. Bulfinch completed the Capitol in the 1820s, setting the template for other state capitols in the process, and then returned to his architectural practice in Boston. A key figure in the development of American architecture during the early 19th century, was the third US President Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), whose strong preference for neoclassicism, in the design of public buildings, had a strong influence on his contemporaries.

19th Century Architecture

19th-Century architecture in Europe and America witnessed no new important design movements or schools of thought. Instead, there emerged a number of revivals of old styles. These included: The Greek Revival (American followers included Jefferson and Latrobe) the Gothic Revival - led by Viollet-le-Duc in France American followers included Richard Upjohn (1802-78) and James Renwick (1818-95) a Neo-Romanesque Revival (1849-1880), led by Henry Hobson Richardson Beaux-Arts architecture - a fusion of neo-Renaissance and neo-Baroque forms, practiced by Richard Morris Hunt (1827-95) - best known for designing the plinth of the Frihedsgudinden (1870-86) - and by the Ohio-born Cass Gilbert (1859-1934) and the Andet imperium style (1850-80) in France, which was characterized by a revival of the Mansard Roof. The only monumental architectural masterpiece was the Eiffel Tower (1885-89), built by the French architect Stephen Sauvestre and the French engineer Gustave Eiffel (1832-1923). Wrought iron frameworks were also a feature of Victorian architecture in Britain (1840-1900) - thanks to Robert Stephenson (1803-59) and Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-59) - as were other new materials, like glass - as used in the construction of Crystal Palace, designed by Joseph Paxton (1801-65). Popular Victorian styles included Neo-Gothic and Jacobethan. A giant replica of a viaduct pylon, the tower is built entirely from iron girders. The only significant exception to the above Revivalist movements was the fin de siecle appearance of Art Nouveau architecture, pioneered by Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926), Victor Horta (1861-1947) and Hector Guimard (1867-1942), and by Secessionists like the Viennese architect Joseph Maria Olbrich (1867-1908).

The greatest ever American architect, Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) revolutionized spatial concepts with his Prairie house style of domestic architecture, introducing open-plan layouts and the widespread use of unfinished natural materials. Prairie School architecture is exemplified by Robie House (1910), Fallingwater (1936-37), Unity Temple (1936-39), Imperial Hotel Tokyo, Textile Block Houses, Johnson Wax Building (1936-39), Usonian House (mid-1930s), Price Tower (1955), Guggenheim Museum NY (1956-9). Influenced by American colonial architecture, 19th century Shingle style designs and Japanese architecture, as well as the Arts and Crafts movement, he also paid the closest attention to the detail of interior fixtures and fittings and the use of natural, local materials. Wright's work showed that European traditionalism (and modernism) was not the only answer to architectural issues in the United States.

However, an immense amount of development in both building design and engineering took place in American architecture, at this time, due to the Chicago School and the growth of skyscraper architecture, from 1849 onwards. These supertall buildings came to dominate later building design across the United States. The Chicago School of architecture, founded by the skyscraper architect and engineer William Le Baron Jenney (1832-1907), was the pioneer group. Other important contributors to supertall tower design included the ex-Bauhaus designers Walter Gropius (1883-1969) and Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969) Philip Johnson (1906-2005), Skidmore Owings and Merrill, their leading structural engineer Fazlur Khan (1929-82), I.M.Pei (b.1917).

For details of the greatest architectural designers in the United States, see: American Architects (1700-2000).

20th Century Architecture

Twentieth century architecture has been dominated by the use of new technologies, building techniques and construction materials. Here is a brief outline of the century's main architectural schools and movements. For details, see: 20th Century Architecture (1900-2000).

• 1900-20 Art Nouveau
• 1900-25 Early Modernism (See:Le Corbusier and Peter Behrens)
• 1900-25 Continental Avant-Garde (De Stijl, Neue Sachlichkeit)
• 1900-2000 Steel-frame Skyscraper Architecture
• 1907-33 Deutscher Werkbund
• 1919-33 Bauhaus Design (see the biography of Walter Gropius) this evolves into the International Style of Modern Architecture (1940-70).
• 1925-40 Art Deco
• 1928-40 Totalitarian Architecture (Germany/USSR) - see Nazi art (1933-45)
• 1945-70 Late Modernism: Second Chicago School of Architecture
• 1945-2000 High Tech Corporate Design Architecture
• 1960-2000 Postmodernist Art
• 1980-2000 Deconstructivism - see Frank O. Gehry (b.1929).
• 1990-2000 Blobitecture

• For more details of types and history of architecture, see: Visual Arts Encyclopedia.


Ancient Georgian Column Capital - History

Temples were built in ancient Greece using three orders of columns. Wanting to emulate this style, Thomas Jefferson was the architect of neo-classical buildings in the United States.

Most Greek temples are fine examples of the Doric or Ionic orders.
The Doric order was the earliest and simplest of all three columns. It is thicker than the others and top of the column (capital) is plain, without a column base.

The Ionic order began in the Greek cities of Ionia (on the western coast of modern Turkey). It has thinner columns, a decorated capital (volute). The decoration may have been inspired by the curve of a ram’s horn.

Lastly, the Corinthian column, originally designed by Callimachus, was the most elaborate. Acanthus leaves were carved around the capital, possibly smaller leaves on the bottom rising to larger leaves on top. A smaller version of the volutes (helix) may have been incorporated. The Corinthian style was particularly popular with the Romans.

In the second half of the 18th century, expeditions to Greece would help foster the first volume of "The Antiquities of Athens," published in 1762.
In the 19th century archeological digs were organized by Greece, France, and Germany. Interest in the classical period brought about excavations in the cities of Delphi and Olympia.

Wanting to emulate the Greek style in architecture, what is known as "Greek Revival" was prevalent from 1818-1850 in the U.S. and abroad. Colonial and Georgian style houses were changed so as to resemble the Parthenon of Greece.

In the U.S., Thomas Jefferson, minister to France in 1784, studied architecture while in Europe. He owned a copy of "The Antiquities of Athens" and was also impressed with drawings by Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio, who was influenced by ancient Rome.

Thomas Jefferson, as architect, introduced neo-classical architecture to the U.S. with the Virginia state capitol at Richmond, his home at Monticello (1767-1770), and the University of Virginia (1825).

Other fine examples of Greek Revival architecture are: William Strickland’s "Second Bank of the U.S." (Philadelphia 1824) and Alexander Parris’ "Faneuil Hall" (Boston 1825-1826).

You can own a print of Thomas Jefferson's Monticello home.

For a nice photographic print of Boston's Faneuil Hall (with Greek Revival pillars on left building).

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Italian Renaissance Interiors

Interior unity became important during the Renaissance. Most interior rooms were rectangular. Domestic interiors were sparsely furnished and lavishly decorated. Grotesque were the Renaissance interpretations of ancient Roman ornament. They were usually underground. They were made of paint or stucco, and had colorful depictions of animal flowers animals, flowers, mythological creatures, and architecture.

Interior color comes from construction materials and fresco paintings. Textiles and wallpaper give color in residences. Colors used include scarlet, cobalt blue, gold, deep green, and cream.


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