Historien

En historie om kaffe i 10 modeord

En historie om kaffe i 10 modeord


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

1. Mokka

Selvom den muligvis blev indtaget som mad eller drikke i sit oprindelige etiopiske højland, blev den stedsegrønne busk Coffea arabica først dyrket i stor skala i Yemen, omkring det 15. århundrede. Mange af dens tidligste tilhængere var sufi -muslimske mystikere, der brugte plantens ristede frø til at erstatte den traditionelle vin, der blev brugt i nogle af deres lange religiøse ceremonier. Sufier, der rejste fra Mocha, Yemens chef ved Rødehavet, tog bønner og brugte viden i hele den islamiske verden. Drikken fik hurtigt tilhængere - og vakte kontrovers. I 1511 beordrede guvernøren i Mekka byens kaffehuse (hvor mænd undertiden var samlet for at skrive poesi, der hånede hans regime). Hans edikt blev imidlertid hurtigt vendt af den kaffeglade sultan i Kairo.

2. Java

Da osmannerne besatte Yemen i 1536, forsøgte de at opretholde et monopol på produktionen af ​​drikkevaren og forbød eksport af kaffebønner, der ikke først var blevet steriliseret. Frø blev smuglet ud af uforskammede handlende; først af muslimske pilgrimme på vej til det sydlige Indien og senere til Java, Indonesien, af hollænderne, der dyrkede det til eksport. Fordi kaffe er hjemmehørende i ækvatorialafrika, vokser den kun let i troperne, så europæiske koloniale interesser pressede på for øget kaffeproduktion i Latinamerika, Afrika, Sydøstasien og Oceanien. I Brasilien var slavearbejde rygraden i kaffeindustrien indtil slutningen af ​​1800 -tallet. I Mellemamerika og Sydøstasien indførte koloniale regeringer ofte kvoter, der tvang indfødte befolkninger til kun at producere kaffe, hvilket efterlod dem sårbare over for fattigdom og hungersnød.

3. Cafe

De første caféer og kaffehuse i Europa åbnede i 1600 -tallet. I 1663 var der 82 kaffehuse i London; 40 år senere var der mere end 500. For europæere blev kaffehuse hurtigt vigtige steder for udveksling af nyheder og ideer og for at drive forretning. London Stock Exchange og forsikringsgarantien Lloyd's fik begge deres begyndelse i kaffehuse fra 1700 -tallet. I Frankrig var caféer centrale for udveksling af revolutionære ideer. Camille Desmoulins gav sine landsmænd et berømt kald til våben på Paris Cafe de Foy, to dage før stormen på Bastillen.

4. Percolator

Kilden til meget overdreven amerikansk kaffe, perkolatoren-som uendeligt cykler boblende kaffe gennem stadig mere bitter filtreret græs-blev opfundet i 1780'erne af Benjamin Thompson, greve Rumford, en amerikanskfødt videnskabsmand, der flygtede til Europa under revolutionskrigen . Perkolatorens amerikanske storhedstid strakte sig fra omkring 1870 (da det begyndte at erstatte kogt kaffe) til 1972, hvor Mr. Coffee introducerede den første populære forbrugerdråbefilter-kaffemaskine.

5. Robusta

I 1861 fandt britiske opdagelsesrejsende en lille plettet svamp på bladene på nogle vilde kaffeplanter nær Kenyas Victoriasø. I løbet af de næste årtier spredte svampen Hemilia vastatrix (kafferust) sig til plantager over hele verden og ødelagde hele afgrøder af Coffea arabica og på steder som Ceylon tvang en engroshandel til produktion af te. I 1898 opdagede gartnere i Belgisk Congo, at en beslægtet art, Coffea canephora, var rustbestandig og generelt mere hjertelig, hurtigere voksende og mere produktiv end arabica. Tilnavnet "robusta", blev arten hurtigt populær. Robusta havde dog ulemper: dens ristede bønner var generelt mere bitre og mindre smagfulde, men indeholdt betydeligt mere koffein. Robusta bønner blev snart brugt sammen med dyrere arabica bønner til at skabe billigere blandinger.

6. Espresso

Selvom espresso er forbundet med mangeårige europæiske cafétraditioner, er den en resolut moderne opfindelse. Ved hjælp af maskiner udviklet i Italien omkring begyndelsen af ​​det 20. århundrede brygger processen kaffe med "ekspress" hastighed - cirka tredive sekunder pr. Kop - ved at tvinge varmt vand gennem finmalet kaffe ved højt tryk. Resultatet er et lille skud meget stærk kaffe, der dækker defekterne ved billigere robusta -blandinger. I 1930'erne producerede italienske producenter maskiner, der kunne producere 1.000 kopper i timen. Et væld af espresso-baserede drikkevarer, fra caffe lattes til macchiatos og cappuccinoer-blev perfektioneret på europæiske caféer, men blev først forsinket introduceret til det amerikanske marked.

7. Joe

Efter at Boston Tea Party og krigen i 1812 hjalp med at sørge for Amerikas smag af te, blev kaffe noget af en national drink, der blev indtaget af forretningsmænd på Wall Street, butiksejere i småbyer, borgerkrigssoldater i deres lejre og cowboys på sortimentet. Kaffens brug som en fast bestanddel af militære rationer var også kilden til en ofte gentaget, men usandsynlig historie; at udtrykket "Cup of Joe" kan spores tilbage til Josephus Daniels, en amerikansk flådesekretær, der forbød drikkevarer stærkere end kaffe fra hver officers rod. Mere sandsynligt kommer "joe" fra en forkortelse af jamoke, selv en hybrid af java og mokka.

8. Decaf


Koffein, en bitter krystallinsk alkaloidforbindelse, der fungerer som et naturligt pesticid for kaffeplanten, giver kaffe både sit spark og sin kontrovers. Lige siden det først blev isoleret i 1820, har koffein været i fokus for spekulationer og videnskabelige eksperimenter vedrørende kaffens potentielle sundhedsfarer. I 1906 patenterede en tysk købmand Ludwig Roselius den første proces til udvinding af koffein fra grønne kaffebønner. Han solgte sine tamme, koffeinfri bønner under en række forskellige navne; i Tyskland som "Kaffee Hag", i USA som "Dekafa" og i Frankrig som "Sanka" (fra fransk "sans koffein"). “Decaf” blev hurtigt efterfulgt af de første instantkaffe fremstillet ved industrielt tørring af brygget kaffe. De resulterende pulvere og flager sluttede sig til de cylindriske dåser, der definerede det amerikanske kaffelandskab i det 20. århundrede, med mærker som Nescafe, Folgers, Taster’s Choice og Maxwell House.

9. Fair Trade

Kaffe, kombineret med international politik og global handel, har undertiden givet en bitter bryg. Karteller, lagre, kvoter og konkurrencedygtige priser formede kaffeindustrien fra slutningen af ​​det 19. århundrede og fremefter. Nationer som USA arbejdede på at sikre stabile, billige forsyninger, mens producerende landes regeringer med Brasilien i spidsen forsøgte at maksimere deres fortjeneste. I Mellemamerika tjente mange kaffeproducenter på store jordbesiddelser, men skabte dårlige arbejdsforhold, der gjorde regionen moden til revolutionær aktivisme. I midten af ​​1980'erne begyndte en række specialkaffe-producenter i USA og Europa at undersøge måder at sikre, at deres bønner blev dyrket på måder, der understøttede de arbejdere, der plukkede dem. I 1985 dannede amerikanske roasters Equal Exchange, som hentede kaffe fra den pro-arbejder Sandanista-fest i Nicaragua. Det første Fair Trade -certificeringsinitiativ til kaffe blev lanceret i Holland i 1988. Certificeringen blev først populær blandt mindre stegere og købere, men i 2009 blev Starbucks verdens største køber af Fair Trade -kaffe.

10. Frappuccino

Selvom frappuccino, der er forbundet med den globale Starbucks-kaffekæde, blev opfundet i 1992 i Boston-kæden Coffee Connection-der spillede en lokal betegnelse for milkshake. To år senere blev kæden købt ved at udvide kaffekraftværket Starbucks. Starbucks blev grundlagt i Seattle i 1971 og var en vellykket lokal roaster og kryddeributik, da den åbnede sin første espressobar i 1984. Tre år senere købte Howard Schultz, en tidligere marketingdirektør for Starbucks, kæden og begyndte sin renæssance som espresso -drevet national kæde, der tilbyder komfortable samlingssteder i kvarteret. I løbet af de næste 25 år ekspanderede Starbucks i USA og rundt om i verden og drev næsten 21.000 butikker i 2013.


Top 10 alt fra 2008

Marcus R. Donner / AP

Da jeg flyttede til et nyt kvarter sidste år, viste det sig, at min nærmeste kaffebar var Manhattan-placeringen i en kæde med to butikker kaldet Caf & eacute Grumpy. For mit utrænede øje virkede Caf & eacute Grumpy som en typisk kaffebar, men jeg opdagede snart, at den var berømt i kaffeverdenen af ​​to grunde: 1. Butikken ejede to af kun 250 Clover -kaffemaskiner, der dengang eksisterede. Og 2. Starbucks administrerende direktør Howard Schultz havde set en lang kø på min Caf & eacute Grumpy, gik ind i butikken og erklærede senere den kaffe, som Clover lavede, for at være "den bedste kop brygget kaffe, jeg nogensinde har smagt." Clover er en smuk enhed i rustfrit stål på størrelse med en mikrobølgeovn, der kun laver en kop kaffe ad gangen. Det kræver et særligt stikkontakt og mere uddannelse end en nukleare sub til at fungere, men det producerer kaffe, der smager rig og tro mod bønnen uden at få den overbrændte smag af de fleste Starbucks-kaffe eller den underbryggede smag af, hvad der kommer fra de fleste hjemmemaskine. Ulempen: Kløverne kostede $ 11.000 og#151 eller i hvert fald de plejede. Starbucks endte med at købe virksomheden, der udviklede Clover —, som ikke længere kan sælge maskinerne til andre — og ruller single-cup Clover-bryggerier ud i et forsøg på at genoplive mega-kædens langsomme forretning. Du kan købe Clover -kaffe på Starbucks -steder i Boston, San Francisco og Seattle. Eller på Caf & eacute Grumpy i mit kvarter.


Kaffe og sundhed: en gennemgang af nyere menneskelig forskning

Kaffe er en kompleks blanding af kemikalier, der tilfører betydelige mængder af chlorogensyre og koffein. Ufiltreret kaffe er en væsentlig kilde til cafestol og kahweol, som er diterpener, der har været impliceret i kaffens kolesterolstigende virkninger. Resultaterne af epidemiologisk forskning tyder på, at kaffeforbrug kan hjælpe med at forhindre flere kroniske sygdomme, herunder type 2 diabetes mellitus, Parkinsons sygdom og leversygdom (skrumpelever og hepatocellulært karcinom). De fleste potentielle kohorteundersøgelser har ikke fundet, at kaffeforbrug er forbundet med signifikant øget risiko for hjerte -kar -sygdomme. Imidlertid er kaffeforbruget forbundet med stigninger i flere risikofaktorer for hjerte -kar -sygdomme, herunder blodtryk og plasmahomocystein. På nuværende tidspunkt er der kun få tegn på, at kaffeforbrug øger risikoen for kræft. For voksne, der indtager moderate mængder kaffe (3-4 kopper/d, der giver 300-400 mg/d koffein), er der kun få tegn på sundhedsrisici og nogle tegn på sundhedsmæssige fordele. Nogle grupper, herunder mennesker med hypertension, børn, unge og ældre, kan imidlertid være mere sårbare over for de negative virkninger af koffein. Desuden tyder de foreliggende beviser på, at det kan være forsvarligt for gravide at begrænse kaffeforbruget til 3 kopper/d, hvilket giver mere end 300 mg/d koffein for at udelukke enhver øget sandsynlighed for spontan abort eller nedsat fostervækst.


Top 10 kaffebloggere

Disse Top 10 kaffebloggere ved alle, hvordan man laver en ond kop Joe! Og fordi vi har en del anmeldelser af kafferelaterede varer som f.eks. Kaffemaskiner, kaffekværne og rejskrus, ønskede vi at give yderligere kafferelaterede oplysninger. Læs deres sider for at lære tips og tricks om, hvordan du medfølende kan købe bønner, hvordan du brygger den perfekte kop og hvilket udstyr, der er bedst. Hver blogger er etisk påvirket og drevet til at hjælpe alle involverede i branchen, fra de oversøiske landmænd, til den endelige forbruger. Du kan ikke finde en bedre flok kaffeelskere end disse mennesker!

Barista Magazine

Forfatter: Sarah Allen

Med base i Portland, Oregon, er Sarah redaktør og medstifter af Barista Magazine og har også været i spidsen for den internationale barista-bevægelse siden dens begyndelse. Hun elsker at skrive overbevisende og tankevækkende historier om håndværket og har også bidraget med artikler til adskillige blade og aviser. Barista Magazine indeholder masser af information om forskellige kaffe- og kaffeforløb over hele verden, endnu mindre kendte kafferegioner som Nepal. Tjek dem for artikler, der sammenligner forskellige slags kaffe, opskrivninger på forskellige kaffebarer og anmeldelser af det nyeste kaffegrej og udstyr.

Brygning af kaffe manuelt

Forfatter: John Giuliano

John er en selvudråbt kaffeentusiast, mand, far til to og blogger. Hans mål med sin blog er at hjælpe læserne med at nyde en fantastisk kop kaffe. Han elsker hele processen fra start til slut med at stege, brygge og i sidste ende smage sin kaffe! Han elsker især at brygge kaffe manuelt, da han føler, at det bringer et menneskeligt element til oplevelsen og fjerner den tankeløse automatisering ved bare at trykke på en knap. Det kan bremse dit sind fra den hurtige verden omkring dig og bringe en håndværksmæssig kvalitet til din kop. Hans blog dækker en lang række emner, og han håber at kunne levere indhold, der forbinder både den nybegyndte kaffeentusiast såvel som den højeste kaffekender.

Kaffebønner leveret

Forfatter: Ryd Jeavons

Ryd præsenterer sig selv online fra sit hjemland Australien med en varm hilsen og imødekommende smil. Han afslører snart, at han kalder sig sit kaffesnob for sit firma, kaffebønner leveret! Han har arbejdet i den professionelle kaffeverden i over 17 år og stadig elsker sin kaffe. Faktisk er hans yndlingsdel af dagen at vågne op og prøve sin første kop. Fordi han bekymrer sig så meget om kaffesmag og dens konsistens, startede han sit eget firma for at sikre, at den perfekte kop var tilgængelig for alle. Hos Coffee Beans Delivered er han forpligtet til at skaffe og levere den bedste kaffe, han kan, og ikke lade "god nok" være normen. Tjek hans blog for at opdage betydningen af ​​nye kaffe -buzzwords som "microlot kaffe" og "hocuspoon". Du vil helt sikkert lære noget nyt!

Kaffekammerat

Forfatter: Kevin Sinnott

Kevin Sinnott er kendt verden rundt som kaffe Kevin. Han er en nationalt anerkendt kaffebrygningsekspert samt forfatter til to populære kaffebøger og en dvd. I 1995 skabte han The Coffee Companion, den første publikation nogensinde dedikeret til verdens bedste kaffe. I dag er det vokset til et stærkt, online autoritetssted, og Kevin har endda talt butik med f.eks. Oprah Winfrey, ABC TV's 20/20 og The Food Network. Han har også været med i USA TODAY og The Chicago Tribune. Han er i øjeblikket vært på Coffee Con, verdens største forbrugerkaffe -festival, der finder sted på tværs af fire byer i USA.

Kaffe Detektiv

Forfatter: Nick Usborne

Nick, også kendt som kaffedetektiven, startede sit websted for over 10 år siden som en hobby. Han elsker kaffe og skriver til livets ophold, så det at starte Coffee Detective online var det næste, naturlige trin. Efter et stykke tid begyndte hans websted at få stadig flere besøgende og genererede endda en smule indkomst for ham. Han kalder det nu sin "hobby med fordele"! I dag finder han ud af, at hans websted er blevet populært nok til, at der ikke går en uge, før UPS -chaufføren ikke bringer ham kaffe eller kaffeudstyr til at teste og gennemgå. Han føler sig velsignet over, at kaffedetektiven er blevet så indflydelsesrig i andre kaffeelskeres liv, og han ser frem til at fortsætte på sin egen, personlige kafferejse.

Handel med højere grunde


Forfatter: Chris Treter

Højere grunde er et sandt kærlighedsarbejde. Det begyndte at tage form i 2001, mens Chris var i Mexico under en efteruddannelse, der boede og arbejdede blandt de lokale kaffebønder. Han lærte og elskede mennesker og ønskede at hjælpe dem med at få et bedre liv. Han spurgte, hvad han kunne gøre for at hjælpe, og de sagde, "du kunne sælge vores kaffe". Chris startede med at importere 1 pose grønne kaffebønner til USA, og resten er historie. I dag arbejder Higher Grounds Trading med lande over hele verden i henhold til globale fair trade -standarder, der dikterer en levetid til landmænd. Higher Grounds går også ud over og har dannet Chiapas Water Project, der hjælper med at bringe ferskvand til regionen. De er også dedikerede til at give arbejdstagere adgang til grundlæggende sundhedspleje og sikre, at børn har råd til at gå i skole. Tjek venligst dette inspirerende firma og alt, hvad de gør for kaffeens verden og verden generelt.

Fyrretræ og kaffe

/> Forfatter: Clayton Pine & amp; Lesley Pine

Startet i 1996 af Clayton Pine og hans søster, Lesley, Pine Tea and Coffee er et familiefirma med base i Castle Hill, Australien - 25 kilometer nordvest for Sydney. Clayton er en mester te -køber og smager med over 42 års erfaring. Lesley har været med i over 20 år. Sammen er de engagerede i at blande te og kaffe i høj kvalitet og elsker at bringe dig det bedst mulige produkt. Faktisk er de prisvindende detail- og engrosleverandører af både te og kaffe. I de senere år har de udvidet deres produktserier til at omfatte special-/gourmetmad, sirup og tilbehør. Tjek deres websted for at se, hvad de har gang i.

Tim Wendelboe

Forfatter: Tim Wendelboe

Tim er baseret i Oslo, Norge, men alligevel bærer hans passion frugt på kaffefarmen, han ejer i Huila, Columbia, ved navn Finca el Suelo. Det er en biologisk kaffefarm, hvilket betyder, at de kun arbejder med naturen - laver deres egen kompost og bruger den som den eneste gødning. De kontrollerer rutinemæssigt deres jord og tilføjer mere af den naturlige organisme, der er nødvendig for at hjælpe deres kaffetræer med at trives. Tim arbejder også tæt sammen med alle sine producenter og er dedikeret til filosofien om, at kvalitet, innovation, sporbarhed og socialt ansvar er hovedfokus for hans forretning. Han brænder for sit arbejde og de mennesker, han arbejder med. Hans mål er at hjælpe andre, mens han stadig er blandt de bedste kaffebrænderier og espressobarer i verden.

Transcend kaffe

Forfatter: Poul Mark

Poul grundlagde Transcend Coffee i 2006, hvilket voksede fra hans passion for god kaffe og et ønske om at opbygge et godt kaffesamfund. Han er baseret i Edmonton -området i Alberta, Canada, og selvom han ganske vist var naiv, da han startede sit eventyr, brændte hans passion ham, og i dag mener han, at han har bragt Edmonton og hans læsere over hele verden en bedre forståelse og påskønnelse for kaffe. Gennem årene har han opbygget en blomstrende forretning med mange facetter og har etableret sig som en verdensekspert inden for kaffe. Han er endda blevet inviteret til at dømme flere internationale kaffekonkurrencer, herunder dem, der blev afholdt i Panama, El Salvador og Honduras. En af hans mest meningsfulde ture var en tur til Burundi, hvor han hjalp de lokale kaffedyrkere med at finde strategier til forbedring af kvalitet og produktionsudbytter. Du kan finde Poul, der er vært for populære kaffesmagninger, producerer sin Transcend Coffee -podcast og taler ved forskellige begivenheder om kaffens vidundere!

Water Avenue kaffe

/> Forfatter: Matt Milletto

Matt voksede op påvirket af sin far, Bruce, der er kendt for sin levetid i kaffebranchen. Matt selv har arbejdet med at hjælpe hundredvis af små kaffebarer samt store kaffevirksomheder med at åbne og få succes over hele verden. Hans erfaring gav ham tilliden til at gribe øjeblikket i 2009 og købe en franskbygget, vintage Samiac-steger fra et schweizisk firma. Han og hans far så dette som en fantastisk mulighed for at udvikle en ristnings- og detailhandel inden for samme bygning, der huser American Barista and Coffee School i Portland, Oregon. Satsningen var en succes, og i dag søger Water Avenue Coffee baristaer, der ønsker at fortsætte med at udvikle sig og vokse i kaffeindustrien. De tilbyder endda et program, der gør det muligt for baristaer at rejse til oprindelse efter et års arbejde for at se vigtigheden af ​​direkte handel, og hvordan det kan påvirke landmændenes liv.

Giv et råb til disse fantastiske toere.

Se, hvordan de alle har enorme, positive virkninger på deres egne måder:

  • Men først, kaffe – http://www.butfirstcoffeeblog.com/
  • Kaffemuseum – http://www.coffeemuseum.com/
  • Coffee Scholars – http://coffeescholars.com/
  • Kaffe stilfuld - http://coffeestylish.com/
  • FRSHGRND – http://frshgrnd.com/
  • Ærlig kaffe - https://www.honestcoffees.com/
  • I Need Coffee – https://ineedcoffee.com/
  • Vægtkaffe - http://www.libracoffee.com/
  • Mommee Coffee – https://mommeecoffee.com/
  • Perfekt Daily Grind – http://www.perfectdailygrind.com/
  • Kaffekompasset - www.thecoffeecompass.com/
  • The Coffee Vine – http://thecoffeevine.com/
  • The Little Black Coffee Cup – https://www.thelittleblackcoffeecup.com/

Del på

Cheryl fører tilsyn med indholdet på Grundigt gennemgået og producerer også vores toplister. Hun har over 25 års erfaring med at rejse internationalt og købe produkter. Når hun ikke arbejder, elsker hun at bruge tid på at lave yoga, gå udenfor og tage på eventyr med sin datter.


Bag disken

4/28/16 Af Abby Reisner

Counter Culture's nye hovedkvarter ligner mere gymnasiestudiesal frem for hjemmeværelse. Det 24.000 kvadratmeter store risteri er det sted, hvor du går for at lære om kaffe, ikke tjekke ind inden dagen begynder.

Durham, North Carolina, er en af ​​Counter Cultures 10 træningscentre på landsplan. Selvom du endnu ikke har besøgt en, har du sandsynligvis prøvet kaffen, selvom den er utilsigtet. Det 21-årige firma sælger engros til mange kaffebarer rundt om i landet, som Happy Bones og Everyman Espresso i New York, samt Lavender & amp Honey og H Coffee House i Los Angeles.

Disse centre er beregnet til at være vært for baristaer fra Counter Culture-leverende kaffebarer og restauranter, lære dem at kende de forskellige stege og lære dem at lave den bedst mulige kop o 'joe. De er også åbne for offentligheden om fredagen kl. 10.00, hvor de er vært for gratis smagsarrangementer og giver medlemmer af lokalsamfundet mulighed for at komme ind på Counter Cultures store kaffekendskab, herunder klasser for kaffedrikkere i hjemmet for at finpudse deres færdigheder.

Jeg kiggede forbi i sidste uge for at se, hvordan bønnerne går fra burlap-sæk til Counter Culture-stemplet pose. Når de grønne kaffebønner ankommer, starter de opbevaret i et temperaturkontrolleret rum. Dette er nyt for virksomheden, et skridt, der forlænger kaffens holdbarhed og sikkert hjælper til i fugtige sydlige somre. Derefter går de igennem ristningsprocessen, som enten involverer en ny Loring -rister eller en af ​​centrets veteranmaskiner. Kyndige kaffeprofessionelle står ved maskinerne og holder godt øje med processen og fjerner lejlighedsvis en prøve for at afgøre, hvornår partiet er færdigstegt.

Bagefter afkøles bønnerne og bringes over til emballageområdet, hvor de lægges i poser, mærkes i hånden og emballeres, før fragtbiler foretager deres daglige afhentninger. Bønnerne ristes på bestilling, hvilket betyder, at der ikke er en bestemt mængde, de poser hver dag, det afhænger bare af, hvor mange ordrer der placeres. Dette sikrer friskhed, da det er ideelt at indtage bønner så tæt på deres stegningsdato som muligt.

Stegegulvet var i sig selv et fascinerende, Willy Wonka-esque syn, men turen var lige så spændende engang udendørs som den var indeni. Bygningen plejede at være en kornmølle, en af ​​områdets vigtigste afgrøder (sammen med tobak og bomuld), og alle aspekter af den synes at afspejle regionens historie.

Da jeg trådte rundt om ryggen, gennemsyrede en endegyldig stegearoma luften. Så lagde jeg mærke til jernbanesporene, der kører tilstødende. I en anden æra ville et tog køre op, biler ville blive fyldt med korn, og toget ville fortsætte sin vej. Counter Culture -ejendommen var en mølle indtil 1992, og den truende kornelevator, der blev bygget i 40'erne, er stadig tilbage.

Durham er et logisk valg for anlægget, siden virksomheden blev grundlagt der i 1995. Grundlægger Brett Smith forbliver administrerende direktør den dag i dag, og da jeg mødte ham, udbrød han spænding om placeringen og virksomheden på en måde, jeg forestiller mig, at han ville have 20 år siden.

Risteriet er blot en del af en generel revitalisering af East Durham, et område, der engang var kendt for relativ fattigdom. De starter med en fest for offentligheden i lørdags med mad fra Triangle -områdets kok Ashley Christensen. Så hvis du er i nabolaget, så kig forbi for en kop eller tre.


10 Overbrugte restaurant-modeord

& lsquoJumbo rejer! & rsquo Husker du komikeren George Carlin, der fik os til at grine af restaurantens absurditet ved at bruge modeordet & lsquojumbo & rsquo foran rejer? Hvad gjorde dette sjovt? Erkendelsen af, at vi så denne type ting hele tiden, lige der foran os, på menuer, og ikke tænkte noget over det.

Jeg tænkte på dette forleden, da jeg var ved at have et godt måltid på en restaurant, og på tværs af menuen lagde jeg mærke til, at forskellige lsquobuzzwords & rsquo plejede at lokke mig til at købe maden. I har alle set dem. En simpel beskrivelse er ikke god nok, selvom jeg godt ved, hvad en hamburger er, og hvordan den vil se ud og sandsynligvis smage. Nej, det enkle ord & lsquohamburger & rsquo er ikke tilstrækkeligt. For at lokke mig ind og få mig til at prøve deres hamburger, bruger de buzzwords til at beskrive det. Derfor bliver en simpel hamburger en & lsquohand-udvalgt, fritgående, græsfodret, økologisk, mest velsmagende oksekødshamburger. & Rsquo Eller sådan noget pjat. Jeg tænkte for mig selv og ndash nu her er en idé til en top ti liste!

Da jeg lavede nogle undersøgelser, blev jeg hurtigt overvældet af mulige top ti valg. Helvede, jeg kunne rasle omkring tyve bare fra hukommelsen. Mellem at spise ude og læse mange menuer og konstant mediebombardement kender vi alle disse modeord. Deres brug (og overforbrug) gør dem for det meste meningsløse. Jeg mener, kan et gigantisk fastfood-kædested med hundredtusinder af restauranter spredt rundt om i verden virkelig & lsquohand-select & rsquo noget, de serverer? Men der er den, lige der på menuen. & lsquoHånd-udvalgte salater & rsquo eller & lsquoselect prime beef. & rsquo Disse buzzwords skal fungere, eller hvorfor ville alle restauranter fortsætte med at bruge dem? Så her er ti overbrugte buzzwords for restauranter.

Ved tidernes morgen, før 1970'erne, før der var lidt øl, var der & ndash øl. Derefter dukkede en sort marketingobelisk op for mennesket og gav verden ordet & ndash & lsquolite. & Rsquo Betød at antyde & lsquolight & rsquo (som i, ikke tung), de stavede ikke engang det korrekt. Men snart blev ideen om en let (lite) øl fanget og solgte tonsvis af produkter til Miller Brewing Company. Alle sprang om bord. Ikke bare andre ølproducenter, alt og alt hvad der har at gøre med mad inden for et par korte år, ville have postskriftet & lsquolite & rsquo knyttet til det. Det fik sådan, at alt kunne være & lsquolite. & Rsquo En Mad Magazine -parodi af dette opsummerede det pænt, da det skildrede en dåse med & lsquoChicken Fat Lite. & Rsquo Da jeg skriver dette, drikker jeg & lsquolow calorie & rsquo Gatorade, selvom det lige så let kunne kaldes & lsquoGatorade Lite. & rsquo I dag har ordet & lsquolite & rsquo og alt det skal formidle overtaget. Hele sektioner af menuen på restauranter har titlen & lsquoLite, & rsquo eller & lsquoLite-Faire. & Rsquo Er maden virkelig & lsquolite & rsquo? Ja? I hvilken forstand? Er den lettere? Mindre tung? Lavere kalorieindhold? Lavere fedt? Sundere eller bedre for dig? Faktisk kan svaret være alt det ovenstående eller ingen af ​​ovenstående. Ordet & lsquolite & rsquo har simpelthen antaget en egen mytologi. Ordet smækkes på produktet eller bruges som et modeord til at beskrive et menupunkt, og vi ved bare automatisk, hvad det betyder. Ret? Don & rsquot vi?

Når du går til en restaurant, er det sjældent, hvis nogensinde, det er placeret inde i nogen & rsquos hjem. Men menuen fortæller dig, at deres kartoffelmos er & lsquohomemade. & Rsquo Synes mærkeligt? Nogle restauranter, især dem, der virkelig er små og familieejede og drevne (noget, der hurtigt forsvinder fra landskabet i USA), serverer virkelig mad, der er hjemmelavet og hjemmelavet, da det kommer fra en hjemmeopskrift og er tilberedt af en familie, der faktisk bor på restauranten (gør det til deres & lsquohome & rsquo). Men alt for ofte ser du ordet & lsquohomemade & rsquo knyttet til mad i større eller endda kæderestauranter. Der er bare ingen måde, denne mad er i nogen konventionel forstand af ordet, & lsquohomemade. & Rsquo Måske er den & lsquoprepareret i hånden. & Rsquo Du ser det også meget, men i det mindste beskriver det præcist den proces, hvormed den mad du spiser var forberedt. Lavet ikke af en maskine, men i hånden. For ofte bruges ordet & lsquohomemade & rsquo i flæng med & lsquo-håndlavet. & Rsquo

En af mine favoritter hele tiden, ordet & lsquogenerous & rsquo tilføjes normalt til ordet & lsquoportion & rsquo & ndash, der beskriver den store mængde mad, der er ved at blive lagt før du spiser. Men hvad er en & lsquogenerøs portion & rsquo af mad? Meget subjektiv ville du ikke sige? Det er meningen, at vi (restauranten) vil bunke det på! Nogle gange er dette tilfældet, og virkelig mad i portioner i amerikansk størrelse, så stort intet menneske kunne spise det hele, ankommer på din tallerken. Nogle gange, ikke så meget. Den & lsquogenerous portion & rsquo viser sig ved nærmere undersøgelse at være stort set den samme portion af den mad, du ville få fra enhver lignende restaurant. Har du nogensinde set nogen returnere et måltid på grund af mangel på generøsitet i portionerne? Eller kan du forestille dig et eller andet sted, at nogen ønsker at returnere deres måltid og sige til servitrice & lsquoJeg anmodede specifikt om den elendige portion. & Rsquo

Jeg er gammel nok til at huske, da restauranter var ligeglade med, om de serverede mad, og heller ikke forsøgte de at overbevise dig om, at den friturede, fedtede ting, du spiste, var andet end hvad det var. Folk spiste æg og bacon og kartofler til morgenmad, og det var det. Livet var simpelt dengang. Du spiste mad, uanset hvad det var, i de portioner du ønskede. Du arbejdede, du røg cigaretter, og du døde. Så kommer 1980'erne, og pludselig fortalte forskere os, at æg var dårlige! Bøf var dårlig! Alt fra en gris var virkelig dårligt! Overnatning & lsquoMr. Bøf & rsquo blev til & lsquoFinley & rsquos. & Rsquo & lsquo Kentucky Fried Chicken & rsquo forvandlede sig til & lsquoKFC. & Rsquo Ordene & lsquosteak & rsquo og & lsquofried & rsquo gik fra at være enkle beskrivelser af, hvilken mad der blev serveret, til ord, der spiste livsstil og spisning. Med andre ord & ndash dødens kys for kæder i 1980'erne-1990'erne, da folk pludselig ville spise og spise sundt. ville ikke dræbe dit hjerte og din lever, det var faktisk godt for dig! Eksempler inkluderede & lsquowholesome, & rsquo & lsquofresh, & rsquo og & lsquonatural. & Rsquo

Af alle de seneste mad-modeord, du kan finde på restaurantmenuer, skal det mest buzz-værdige være & lsquosignature. & Rsquo Dette ord er beregnet til at betyde for dineren, at det, de vælger fra menuen, og er ved at spise og nyde, blev lavet af nogen, der satte deres underskrift på den. OK, maybe not actually made as in prepared. The cook is not going to sign your food. But someone, somewhere, maybe came up with a new recipe or a new way to prepare the food, and as such, is personally certifying, through his or her signature, that what you are getting is, well, &lsquosignature.&rsquo To be honest, I don&rsquot know what this is meant to imply really.

Premium is a buzzword used to describe all manner of things, but at least here in the USA, we associate the word &lsquopremium&rsquo mostly with gasoline. &lsquoPremium gas.&rsquo It&rsquos the most expensive button on the gas pump, the one we seldom push unless we are driving a car with an engine that requires it. Just what does the word &lsquopremium&rsquo describe when I see it on a restaurant menu? Top-of-the-line? OKAY. The very best? OKAY. But how do I know what is being served to me is in fact &lsquopremium&rsquo beef? What exactly is it that separates this chunk of cow meat from all the others and makes it deserving of the title? There was a time, not long ago, when the government decided, and enforced through regulation and inspection, certain grades of food, especially meat. To call meat &lsquoGrade A&rsquo or &lsquopremium&rsquo really meant something then. There was a described and quantifiable method to ensure that what you were getting really was &lsquopremium&rsquo (as opposed to just, run of the mill and ordinary). But today you see the word &lsquopremium&rsquo attached to all manner of food.

The word artisanal literally means &lsquoa worker who practices a trade or handcraft&rsquo or &lsquoone who produces something, usually a food, in limited quantities using traditional methods.&rsquo Wow. The word brings to mind real artisans: potters, barrel makers, monks cloistered away somewhere making beer, shepherd&rsquos churning butter and making cheese. But today, you open a menu and there you see &lsquoartisanal&rsquo cheese, or &lsquoartisanal&rsquo beer. Even &lsquoartisanal sausage.&rsquo The word &lsquoartisanal&rsquo is now somewhat interchangeable with the &lsquolocal&rsquo or &lsquoslow&rsquo food movement. Where food is prepared by hand, in small amounts, using traditional and sustainable methods. See, I used several buzzwords to describe a buzzword. But really that is what we are being sold when we pick up a menu and select an item with the word &lsquoartisanal&rsquo on it. An image that in all likelihood, is a phantom. Was the cheese you are eating really made from hand-milked cows, and hand churned? Måske. Was the &lsquoartisanal sausage&rsquo ground up from the meat of a pig fed, well, fed what exactly? Pigs will eat anything. What makes the meat from a pig (sausage) &lsquoartisanal&rsquo? Did the sausage come from a pig that was &lsquofree-range&rsquo? Pigs are not free range animals. It does get a bit confusing. And I do not mean to make fun of the actual local food movement which I believe is a great thing and a more sustainable lifestyle would do all of us, and this world, a great favor. But really. &lsquoartisanal sausage&rsquo?

I live in the tomato capital of the world (how is that for a geographical food description buzzword?). Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, and to be specific, the little hamlet of Washington Borough, PA. Some of the very best tomatoes in the world are grown right here. Come visit the annual Washington Borough tomato festival some summer and see for yourself. I would have called it the &lsquoWorld Famous&rsquo Washington Borough tomato festival, but it isn&rsquot. That would be using an inaccurate buzzword to try to get you to come to the festival. I would not do that to Listverse readers.

Now, back on topic. I am no farmer, but having grown up here, I can attest to one undeniable fact about tomatoes. You need the sun to grow them. Yet, for some reason, restaurants everywhere want me to know that the tomatoes they are serving me are &lsquosun-grown,&rsquo or &lsquosun-ripened.&rsquo Well smack me upside the head in the county square! You don&rsquot say? These tomatoes I am eating were &lsquosun-ripened&rsquo?! I am impressed. I am even more impressed when I find my tomatoes were &lsquosun-dried,&rsquo or the coffee I am drinking was made with &lsquosun-roasted&rsquo beans, or the lettuce on my salad was &lsquosun-grown.&rsquo

One of my personal pet peeve restaurant menu buzzwords. I know what a food award is, or at least is supposed to be. Some products, like certain beer and whisky brands, actually print the awards and medals they have won right on the can or bottle. Pabst Blue Ribbon beer is named after its award for goodness sake. It&rsquos right there, on the can &ndash a blue ribbon! So when I see &lsquoaward-winning salad&rsquo on a restaurant menu, I ask &ndash &lsquowell, where is the award?&rsquo &lsquoIs it hanging on the wall somewhere, maybe next to the rest rooms?&rsquo &lsquoWhat was the award for?&rsquo &lsquoGreenest colored lettuce?&rsquo Call me a skeptic and a cynic, but I won&rsquot believe the salad won any award, or at least not any award that counts, until I see it.

My #1 choice for overused food buzzword. Tuscan. Tuscan. You see it everywhere. Tuscan this, Tuscan that. What is it supposed to mean? I think it is supposed to implant in my mind some sort of vision of a sunny Mediterranean villa, with the light glistening off the sea and open air markets of fresh produce &ndash the Tuscany region of Italy and the various Tuscan forms of cuisine from that area. But does what I am ordering off the menu have anything remotely to do with the Tuscany form of cuisine? And thus, more and more things on the menu bear the title &lsquoTuscan.&rsquo Deserved or not.

Advertising is a cruel game. Especially in the fast food chain restaurant business. People want, or expect, something new from these chains, all the time. And marketers and advertisers are challenged with coming up with these new food choices. One of the latest developments I have seen, mostly on pizza and Mexican fast food advertising is the proliferation of words to describe the food, or food titles that simply make no sense at all. What is &lsquogreen tomatillo sauce&rsquo? A Pico de Gallo? An Enchirito? What is a P&rsquoZolo? Or a P&rsquoZone? Who comes up with these words? They are tossed out there at you, in the fast-paced TV advertisement, usually with the food literally flying through the air too! They sound Mexican, or pizza-like, so they must be actual foods, right? Quick, did you see it? Flying across the TV screen through a perfect sheet of flowing vertical water. It was a P&rsquoZone!


Previous Issues

We hope you are as excited as we are about our return with the release of 25, Issue 13. A return to print and the availability of these features across sca.coffee/newswouldn’t have been possible without our generous underwriting sponsors for this issue: Bellwether Coffee,DaVinci Gourmet,og Pacific Foods.Thank you so much for your support!

In some ways, this issue is all about rebuilding our industry’s foundations.

DAGMAWI I.E. explores the long, obscured history of Ethiopian coffee as told by others, and how owning and changing the narrative can lead it to a more sustainable future.

Postdoctoral scholar SCOTT FROST, PhD candidate MACKENZIE BATALI, Professor JEAN-XAVIER GUINARD, and Professor WILLIAM D. RISTENPART share the results of sensory descriptive experiments at the UC Davis Coffee Center, revealing new trends in brewed coffee that suggest an updated brewing control chart.

LISA ANTOSHAK og EVIE SMITH share the results of an interdisciplinary research project conducted during the summer of 2019 that sought to learn more about the biggest challenges facing coffee producers today.

NICOLE LIN og CHARLEY BIDDLE share their view of the Chinese coffee market, tracing its rise through to the unexpected impacts of 2020’s COVID-19 pandemic.

Professor LOURIVAL CARMO MÔNACO, a geneticist who took part in the coffee journey that identified several coffee varieties we enjoy nearly 60 years later, recalls the mission. As told to JONAS LEME FERRARESSO.

JESSICA HERNANDEZ visits Oaxaca, Mexico.


Internet Explorer version

Listen over websteder, du har besøgt.

Cachede billeder midlertidige internetfiler

Kopier af sider, billeder og andet medieindhold, der er gemt på din pc. Browseren bruger disse kopier til at indlæse indhold hurtigere, næste gang du besøger disse websteder.

Oplysninger, som websteder gemmer på din pc for at huske dine præferencer, f.eks. Dit login eller din placering.

Listen over filer, du har downloadet fra internettet. Dette sletter kun listen, ikke de faktiske filer, du har downloadet.

Kun Internet Explorer 11 og Internet Explorer 10

Oplysninger, som du har angivet i formularer, f.eks. Din e -mail eller en forsendelsesadresse.

Adgangskoder, som du har gemt til websteder.

Sporingsbeskyttelse, ActiveX -filtrering og Spor ikke data

Websteder, du har ekskluderet fra ActiveX -filtrering, og data, som browseren bruger til at registrere sporingsaktivitet.

Listen over websteder, du har gemt som favoritter. Slet ikke favoritter, hvis du kun vil fjerne individuelle websteder - dette vil slette alle dine gemte websteder.

Gemte data, der bruges af InPrivate Filtering til at opdage, hvor websteder muligvis automatisk deler oplysninger om dit besøg.

Kun til Internet Explorer 9 og Internet Explorer 8

Bemærk: Se Vis og slet browserhistorik i Microsoft Edge for at arbejde med browserhistorik i Microsoft Edge.


Wicked Buzz: A Day Of Coffee & Beer On Wichita’s Wicked Brew Tour


I love me a good coffee crawl. It is a surefire way of seeing all that a city has to offer. It’s why (much to the chagrin of my non-coffee-obsessive wife) I always end up spending one day of a vacation checking out a city’s coffee scene via three-to-six cafe stops. (It’s called “me time.” Deal with it.)

And as an American adult male, I also have a favorable view of beer. Much like coffee, there’s a lot to nerd out on in the beer world from the making to the consuming, there is a nuance to beer that finds a common kin in coffee. But there are only enough hours in the day for one liquid love, so I can really only classify my beer-dom as aggressively interested, nowhere near expert level. Just give me a fresh hopped IPA or a sour and I’m a happy camper.

When I first heard about Wichita, Kansas’ Wicked Brew Tour, a self-guided romp around seven coffee shops and six breweries, I thought it sounded like a cool idea. Once I found out you get a shirt for visiting eight of the 13 places, I knew I had to do it. All in one day. And, being a semi-obsessive completionist, I was visiting all 13 stops or I wasn’t going at all.

So that’s what I did. With the help of my tour guide, Reverie Coffee‘s Andrew Gough, I went to all 13 places, taking thorough and increasingly incoherent notes. It seemed like a good idea at the time, though not so much the next day. (A few days removed, though, I’m back to considering it a good idea.) But either way, I did it. I went on the Wicked Brew Tour, and all I got was this T-shirt.

Reverie Coffee

Stop 1: Reverie Coffee Roasters

The tour starts at the home base for my tour guide, Reverie Coffee Roasters on Douglas Avenue. The nearly 100-year-old building is home to both Reverie’s cafe and roasting facility. The space is reminiscent of other specialty shops that take root in smaller cities across the US: older buildings lovingly cared for and maintained as a means of preserving some small portion of the town’s history. And indeed, Gough has removed plaster from the walls to reveal the building’s original brick structure.

As I do with most crawls, I have to start this one with an espresso. Normally, by the end, I won’t even want to see one, so I need to ride the high while it lasts. Gough suggests the Nameless Espresso, Reverie's ever-changing single-origin offering. During my visit, the Nameless was a washed Peru, a really solid coffee: well-structured, good body, tastes like it would hold up well in milk. It’s what your everyday espresso should be.

It’s a good start to the day. I feel like I need more coffee, but I’m sure that sentiment won’t last.

Collect 'em all (if you're crazy): the Wicked Brew Tour stamp book gets baptized at Reverie.

Stop 2: Churn & Burn Ice Cream and Coffee.

Nitro action at Churn & Burn.

Moving to the south side of town, our next stop is Churn & Burn Ice Cream and Coffee. All the ice cream is made in-house using nitrogen pumped through metallic tubes hanging from the ceiling. There are three basic components from which innumerable variants can be created: the Churn, the Burn, and the Churn & Burn.

The Churn is the ice cream, the Burn is espresso—from local specialty items purveyor The Spice Merchant & Company—and the Churn & Burn is a combination of the two. And while this is a brew tour, Gough strongly suggests the Churn & Burn. I’m not a huge fan of sweets, so this will be a test of my fortitude. Have so much coffee that I’m vibrating? Jo da. Get exceptionally drunk while acting as an ambassador for Sprudge? Most definitely. Consume sugar? Every man has his limits.


But I’m here to see it all, to experience each stop at its best, to step out of my comfort zone. Give me a salted caramel Churn & Burn, dammit, and add some extra drizzle. It is, of course, delicious on a 90-plus-degree Wichita summer day. My teeth may fall out of my head, but it will be worth it. It could use more espresso, but that may just be me still needing coffee.

Coffee Count: 2, Sugar Count: 1


Stop 3: Cocoa Dolce Artisan Chocolates

Sure, let’s double down on the sugar rush. Hvorfor ikke? In truth, Cocoa Dolce Artisan Chocolates is more chocolate shop and wine bar than coffee shop. So in keeping with that, a 16-ounce dark chocolate mocha is in order. I haven’t had one of these in probably 10 years, but I must say, they use some pretty damn good chocolate. And with coffee roasted by Reverie, it makes for a tasty beverage. I think there’s a trip to the dentist in my very near future.

Coffee Count: 3, Sugar Count: 2

Stop 4: Wichita Brewing Co. & Pizzeria (East Location)

Finally, a beer stop. Thus far there has only been one kind of brew on this “brew tour,” and a beer sounds pretty great right about now. I may have gone a little overboard with the eight-beer flight though Wichita Brewing Company had a nice selection of sours and IPAs, so I had to get them all. And they are all mini-pours, so I should be fine. Ret? Ret.

Taking flight at WBC East.

Probably should have eaten here. This may be the turning point where things start to nosedive. Only time will tell…

Coffee Count: 3, Sugar Count: 2, Beer Count: call it 3

Stop 5: The Donut Whole

The Donut Whole is pretty easy to find in Wichita. It’s the building with the giant rooster on top of it. The 24-hour doughnut shop touts “Wichita’s best coffee,” which seems like a bold claim. But in fairness, the sign seems to have been made more than 50 years ago, so I’ll cut them some slack. Inside the shop has a very '90s vibe, with lots of vintage-looking circusy kitsch. The big plastic lion really ties the room together.

Perhaps not the best coffee in Wichita, but the Nitro Joe’s cold brew is still pretty tasty. It’s roasted a little darker than I normally go for, but the nitrogen adds a silky mouthfeel that smooths out the edges. And it goes great with a cinnamon-sugar cake doughnut.

Just what's in this photo alone could fell a normal human.

Coffee Count: 4, Sugar Count: 3, Beer Count: 3

Stop 6: River City Brewing Company

Then there was this delightful, farmy saison from River City Brewing Company. It was accompanied by another missed opportunity to eat. Things are heading to a bad place.

The saison at River City Brewing.

Coffee Count: 4, Sugar Count: 3, Beer Count: 4

Stop 7: Espresso To Go Go

We’re only about a mile and a half from our starting location yet it feels like we’ve gone so far. This corner cafe has the cleanest design thus far on the crawl. The big windows on two sides of the building pump a lot of natural light into the all-white space. And there’s a giant disco ball, the biggest one I’ve ever seen. It’s not really out of place, but it is the focal point of the space. Like, “Hey, did you know there was a coffee shop around that disco ball? I hadn’t noticed.”


Gough says Espresso To Go Go makes a really excellent Vietnemese iced coffee. You know how I said earlier about not liking sugar? That sentiment doesn’t extend to Vietnamese iced coffee. Sugary though it may be, it is one of my favorite beverages of all time, and Espresso To Go Go’s doesn’t disappoint. It’s made with Spice Merchant coffee that cuts through the sweetened condensed milk nicely.

No whip for me, thanks. I don’t like sugar.

Vietnamese iced coffee at Espresso To Go Go. (Whip? Nay, nay.)

Coffee Count: 5, Sugar Count: 4, Beer Count: 4

Stop 8: The Hungry Heart and WHOLE Brewing Company


Maybe it’s because the fifth beer is always better than beers one through four, but this blackberry-jasmine lambic from WHOLE (Wichita’s House of Living Elixir) may be the best beer I have on the Brew Tour. It’s at least the most recent one.

Manna from heaven for hungry stomachs at The Hungry Heart.

Food is finally happening too, my first nosh of the day, and it’s pretty exceptional: ahi tuna nachos and smoked salmon toast. The bartenders were really friendly, and we talked about Wes Anderson, Coen Brothers, and Christopher Guest movies, which took my mind off the painful realization that doing the entire Wicked Brew Tour in one day is a bad idea. So that was nice.

Coffee Count: 5, Sugar Count: 4, Beer Count: 5

Stop 9: Mead’s Corner


Next up is Mead’s Corner, and guess what, it’s on a corner. The awning states that it’s a “fair trade coffeehouse,” which kinda sounds like a jumble of coffee buzzwords. Turns out, they’re using PT’s Coffee Roasting Company coffee—the first out-of-town roaster to make an appearance on the crawl—so they get a pass on the whole fair-trade thing.

Mead’s is also the first place to sport a three-group Synesso Hydra, or anything non-La Marzocco for that matter. The espresso is good, but unlike beer, the sixth coffee is never as good as coffees one through five. Right now, it’s just caffeine and perseverance that are carrying me through. Pray for mojo.

Coffee Count: 6, Sugar Count: 4, Beer Count: 5

Stop 10: R Coffeehouse

Please don’t make me drink any more coffee. Ok, focus.


R Coffee House is a cool neighborhood shop in what looks to be an old corner house. There’s an older, hippie Jimmy Buffett-looking dude with an acoustic guitar about to start his set. He compliments my Tweed Coffee Roasters shirt because Tweed is his last name. Jeffy Tweed maybe?

Like Mead’s before it, R is also rocking PT’s espresso. It’s great. I drank it. It was great. I’m done with coffee for the day. Is that a juice bar next door?

Coffee Count: 7, Sugar Count: 4, Beer Count: 5, Juice Count: 1


Stop 11: Wichita Brewing Company & Pizzeria (West Location)

I’m not sure how they got two stops on the brew tour. Sneaky little bastards. I had a beer there. I think it was a sour or something. It was the best yet.

Coffee Count: 7, Sugar Count: 4, Beer Count: 6

Stop 12: Hopping Gnome Brewing

We’re back on Douglas Avenue. You’re not going to believe this, but this ICT IPA from Hopping Gnome is the best beer I’ve had today. Maybe it’s because it is 8% ABV and is boozy enough for me to actually taste it.


This patriotic gnome riding an owl is giving me the stink eye.


Coffee Count: 7, Sugar Count: 4, Beer Count: 7

Stop 13: Central Standard Brewing


Sour beers, Bretts, goses—Central Standard is speaking my language. And it’s the last stop. I’m not sure if I havde multiple beers or just took photos of them. There would be no way of knowing. I got that all-important last stamp, and that’s all that matters. I could definitely see myself hanging out here, drinking more and eating the tasty food truck food. But I’ve got a date with destiny and I don’t want to be late.

Stamped up at Central Standard.

Coffee Count: 7, Sugar Count: 4, Beer Count: 8, 9?

Stop 14: Visit Wichita Bureau

They said it couldn’t be done and that I was crazy for even trying. But here I stand (“stand” being used liberally). Beruset. Caffeinated. Underfed. Triumphant. Jessica from the visitor’s bureau was nice enough to take a photo with the T-shirt. She also said Gough and I were the first people to ever do the entire tour in one day. Well, there’s a tale of another intrepid soul hitting all the spots in one day, but he didn’t turn in his tour card until the next day, so I’m taking the honor as the first to do it all.

Hi Jessica!

It took a full day of no-nonsense, action-packed crawlin’, but I did it. I’ve seen all that Wichita has to offer a thirsty out-of-towner, and I must say, I’d do it all again. But probably not all in the same day. Now someone give me a whiskey and put me to bed.


Colonialism and Imperialism

According to Wolfgang Reinhard, colonialism in terms of a history of ideas constitutes a "developmental differential" due to the "control of one people by an alien one". 4 Unlike the more dynamic, but also politically more judgmental and emotionally charged form of imperialism, colonialism as the result of a will to expand and rule can initially be understood as a state that establishes an alien, colonial rule. It has existed in almost all periods of world history in different degrees of expression. Even after the official dissolution of its formal state in the age of decolonisation, it was possible to maintain it as a myth, as in Portugal after the Carnation Revolution in 1974, when the dictatorship of António de Oliveira Salazar (1889�) was debated but hardly ever the colonial past in Angola , Mozambique , Goa , Macao and East Timor . Already in 1933, the Brazilian sociologist Gilberto Freyre stated the thesis that the Portuguese as the oldest European colonial nation had a special gift for expansion in his controversial book Casa-grande e Senzala (The Masters and the Slaves). It consisted of peacefully intermingling the cultures without racism and colonial massacres. Using the example of Brazil , he rationalized colonial paternalism with the allegedly successful relationship between masters and slaves.

But other colonial powers also claimed this for themselves. Even the harshest critics of expansion policies – starting with Bartolomé de las Casas (1474�) to the Marxist-Leninist criticism of the 20th century – did not doubt the civilising mission that justified colonial hegemony. 5 Similar to the abolitionists , they criticised the colonial excesses that could mean mismanagement, corruption and, in the extreme case, genocide. However, that the colonies became an integral part of the mother country, that therefore the colonial nation is indivisible, at home on several continents and, thus, incapable of doing any fundamental evil, can be shown to be part of the European colonial ideology since its earliest beginnings. Intellectual transfer processes had already taken place at this time, in the Age of Enlightenment most noticeably in the mutual influence of Adam Smith (1723�), Denis Diderot (1713�), Johann Gottfried Herder (1744�)[] and their contemporaries. 6 They agreed on a moderate critique of colonial expansion and a simultaneous enthusiastic, cosmopolitan exuberance for appropriating the world outside of Europe. Though slavery and cosmopolitanism could theoretically not be brought to a common denominator, in practice the conquest explained its legitimacy since the 16th century with its own success. The Dutch, English, Portuguese, Spanish, French and Russian colonial enterprises, which each surveyed the world in its own manner with soldiers, scientists, merchants and missionaries, shared the common perception of the "Other" on the basis of the presumed cultural superiority of the "Self". As different as the spread of Christianity proceeded with the nonconformist, dissenting elements of Protestantism in North America and the Catholic forces in South America so, too, was the result different in the end. Spain, for example, was not able to use Latin America for a profitable export economy, but by contrast the British succeeded in monopolising the slave trade as a most lucrative long-distance business.

When, during the course of the 19th century, the Italians, Belgians and Germans raised a claim to their share of the world in addition to the old colonial powers, the term "Imperialism" became an ideologically loaded and overall imprecise, but probably irreplaceable historiographical concept. 7 During the phase of High Imperialism between 1870 and World War I, every larger European nation state as well as the USA and Japan participated in acquiring territories outside Europe. That is what makes this period so unique in European history, though measured against other criteria, such as time and space, it was not more spectacular than previous ones. Thus, the European conquest of North and South America in the 16th and 17th centuries or of India in the 18th and early 19th centuries was no less incisive in its spatial dimension or the number of people brought under European rule as was the "Scramble for Africa" that became synonymous with the unsystematic and overly hasty intervention of Europeans in the entire African continent. But unlike in earlier periods, a broad European public for the first time participated politically, economically and culturally directly in the process of that expansion. It had deep-reaching effects on the historical development of the European societies themselves, which is reflected, for example, in the professional careers of politicians, diplomats and high-ranking military men. After all, it was caused by massive economic and diplomatic rivalries between the European colonial powers and a widespread chauvinism.

Likewise, this process was to a significant extent triggered by internal crises in Africa itself. As in the 16th century, the rivalry between Christian and Islamic missions again erupted in the North of Africa. In a classic of the historiography of imperialism, Ronald Robinson and John Gallagher explain that Europe is not the only place for understanding the motives of European expansion. According to Robinson and Gallagher, this motivation was primarily founded in Africa, at least, as far as late Victorian society was concerned. 8 If non-Western societies were no longer just the victims of Europe and quite a few of their elites participated in colonial and imperial rule, a layer of European settlers, Christian missionaries, colonial officers etc., who bridged the "periphery" and the "centre", became a third force known in research as the "men on the spot". Their lobbying influence on the expansion of the colonial empires was no less than that of political and economic interest groups in the metropole, even though their motivations depended more situationally on the events in the colonies than could be or would be the case in the European centres of power. This can be shown equally for the Asian, the African and the Pacific regions . Colonial sites of remembrance and their culture of monuments recall to this day conflicts and ambivalences of European colonial rule in public memory. 9

This circumstance made High Imperialism a European and global project at both the centre and the periphery. Furthermore, it illustrates the critical significance of political and military force in the imperial process. "Gunboat diplomacy", one of the historical buzzwords for Europe's intercourse with Africa in the final third of the 19th century, also occurred in Turkey and China . Informal imperialism, often equated with the dominance of free trade over other methods of colonial influence, lost ground to the extent that coercion could only be exercised by violence. This is well illustrated by the war with China over the opium trade (1840�). The brutal suppression of the Indian "mutiny" in 1857/1858 by the British constitutes the opposite of the Manchester School of Economics' view that, based on free trade rather than unilateral exploitation, the world would find a balance of peaceful and cooperative exchange between Europe and the non-European sphere. The protection of national economic interests or the defence of prestige later led several German observers to the conclusion that the English were conducting a commercial imperialism, whereas the French wanted to enhance the respect for their nation in the world.

Nevertheless, the "informal empire" was the prevailing model. In the British context, this led to the exaggerated thesis that the nation was not interested in expansion and that in this regard it was characterized by "absentmindedness". 10 Those who currently perceive global capitalism as the successor of formerly direct territorial rule because it exercises no less pressure on the political and social systems to impose its economic interests, see the origins of informal imperialism reaching deep into the 19th century. Until the recent past, this thesis could be countered by noting that it not only underestimates the scale of the creation of global empires but also their dissolution. 11 The consequences of the problematic withdrawal of the French from Algeria , the Italians from Eritrea or the British from India and Ireland still remain present. In this respect, colonisation and decolonisation were two historical processes referring to each other, comparable to the systole and diastole of the metropolitan heart beat. Only the interaction of these two as well as numerous other factors resulted in the world historical consequences of European expansion.


What does a former coffee-maker-turned-AI say about AI policy on the verge of the 2020s?

‘This is what we have now. We can say this kind of research has been done in human behavior. We can refer to other kind of research that focuses on machine learning systems. Not only the AI systems, but try to understand the origins of these systems and how they are working. How did they get here? What are the implications of this for the social contract?’

As we approach a new decade of policy discussions, we could say that this quote presents common thoughts, without providing a substantial input on AI ethics and black box algorithms. Besides their possibly worrying repetition, what makes these words we heard during the main AI session of IGF2019 notable? Well, probably the fact that they are not meant to bring new words into the discussion. But they do bring a new voice. One of a peculiar nature, built out of a neural network.

Last year, on the fringes of the UN High-Level Panel on Digital Cooperation, it was debated whether AI should be offered a seat at the table regarding our digital future: Will we or should we talk about AI with AI in the future? What kind of AI would that be exactly? The narrow type, built on vast amounts of data, patterns, and machine learning algorithms? Or a new superior kind, not yet conceived? What would the embodiment of an AI system look like? A deus ex machina, which comes to compensate for human deficiencies? Or would it be a Frankensteinian extra-dimensional being of unknown origin, between the living and the unliving? Perhaps it would be a version of Q, a being that ‘possesses immeasurable power over normal human notions of time, space, the laws of physics, and reality itself, and is capable of altering it to its whim’. Or maybe it would be closer to a submissive companion, such as the hologram partners from Blade Runner 2049 or the current ‘I’d blush if I could’ voice assistants?

That being said, one would not imagine something like, for example, a coffee maker. Sitting on the far right of the stage was a small construction made out of plastic, wires, and web cameras.

This repurposed coffee machine represents a non-anthropomorphised embodiment of AI, with its neural network built by the Diplo AI Lab, as a mechanism representing the inner workings of neural networks. But above all, it is an inquiry into the tension between the expectations of supernatural forces and of mundane appliances between feeding one’s desire versus the reality of feeding data into the neural networks of the everyday. The intervention IQ’whalo’s performance presents is partially a check into what is called ‘automation bias’ - the default trust we place in an automated system rather than in our own observations.

The name of this coffee-maker-turned-AI comes from the Serbian word for coffee maker, ‘kuvalo’. The Q in IQ’whalo, besides being a reference to Star Trek, is also a nod to Q, the first genderless voice created with the idea of breaking down gender binarism. IQ’whalo applied this concept by altering the pitch of the synthesised voice in order to create a genderless expression.

The task of deanthropomorphing goes a long way. The ungendering of IQ’whalo has presented countless obstacles to the common human need to classify. When referring to ‘it’, IQ’whalo is often either attributed male or female qualities, depending on the context through which the observer views it. It so happens that the most difficult characteristic to maintain is that of no anthropomorphic identity features.

However, ascribing features of agency opens a whole new can of worms when we step out of purely human traits. Here we come to the basic foundations of what is at the core of our social expectations of advanced technologies. Eric Kluitenberg calls this space of expectation ‘the compensation machine’, as technologies come to aid human deficiencies. As the gap between the outer functions of a technology and the inner workings grows, so does the space of imagination. And that should come as no surprise, considering the lack of understanding of how opaque, black-boxed systems work. Just thinking of common scenarios interacting with devices already in one’s surroundings, expectations from these systems range from overestimating the scope of technical possibilities, to presuming they offer solutions that anticipate potential problems, to acquiring actual mind-reading capabilities. AI has above all become a concept that feeds desires.

While we hear it everywhere these days, artificial intelligence is a surprisingly new term in the land of buzzwords. If we look at the history of the IGF through transcripts, we can see that discussions on AI, though seemingly following us through time, have shown up with the exact term only since 2015.

So where does IQ’whalo step in this story and what does it actually do?

IQ’whalo started as an invitation to open and reexamine the face value of negotiating artificial intelligence in light of increasing complexity of technology, coupled with automation. It was an in vivo experiment, to observe what would happen if a neural network was to generate a speech on regulating AI based on previous IGF discussions, and include that speech to play out in the setting of AI policy experts.

IQ’whalo currently works by using the open-source GPT-2 transformer-based language model to generate synthetic text based on the input of policy papers and transcripts. For its speech in the main AI session, IQ’whalo generated texts based on the existing AI-related transcripts from the IGF.

The content it produced resembled a poetic or Dadaist stream of consciousness, including some segments of completely coherent text, out of which its speech was extracted. It also produced some repetitive logical fragments that had no meaningful connection to the rest of its text. These results showed that a basic neural network can generate some meaningful sentences and ideas. They also showed that a continuous stream of thought presents a challenge for this type of system. The general impression that IQ’whalo’s speech left on the audience was not surprising - they expected to hear something new, while in the end, it sounded too familiar. But the familiarity accounts to the fact that a neural network creates new content based on the content it is fed by, in other words - it cannot create something strikingly different from its input. On the other hand, IQ’whalo showed observers what kind of patterns, phrases, and statements come out of these types of talks. Pointing out these commonalities could actually prove to be a more valuable contribution than hearing what the imagination thinks of as the voice of a futurist living intelligent technology. What it offers is a mirror of digital policy both in discussions and in the history behind them, through transcripts as written documents of a certain time and context, including their misheard language, misspellings, and nuances that are building blocks of social exchange and dialogue. What IQ’whalo could account to be is a manifestation of the current status of AI policy.

As we head into an exciting new decade in which automation provides as much hope as it does fear, what can we expect the role of neural networks or novel models of AI to be? Can they help in building more effective prediction dictionaries? If AI proves to be an effective mirror of our doings, do we look away, or should we use it to improve our social habitat towards a more healthy, just, and inclusive one?
IQ’whalo’s coming adventures, as well as future explorations within the AI lab, can be found on the HumAInism website.


Se videoen: Roars (Kan 2022).


Kommentarer:

  1. Jeoffroi

    Efter min mening er de forkerte. Vi er nødt til at diskutere. Skriv til mig i premierminister, tal.

  2. Duman

    Det ser ud til, at det nærmer sig.

  3. Kajikasa

    Hmm ... Nothing at all.



Skriv en besked