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Persisk hjelm

Persisk hjelm


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3D -billede

En jernhjelm med bronze og sølvstykker. Fra mellem slutningen af ​​det 6. til det 7. århundrede CE, nord for Iran, Cheragh Ali Tepe. Lavet med ReMake og ReCap Pro.

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Episk Armory persisk hjelm

Denne hjelm er baseret på historisk asiatisk rustning og er fantastisk til LARP eller Cosplay af østlige historier som Aladdin. Hjelmen er fuldt funktionel og tilbyder fremragende hovedbeskyttelse i LARP -kampe. Den lange næsebeskytter på forsiden giver hjelmen et eksotisk udseende og giver samtidig et godt synsfelt og beskytter ansigtet. Næseværnet kan også fjernes, hvis du vil have hjelmen med et andet twist. Hjelmen har en bred åbning til øjnene og en aventail bestående af stødringe. Kanterne på kædeposten eventail foran har et læderfor. Dette ser godt ud, men det sikrer også, at kædeposten ikke ubehageligt gnider mod dit ansigt. Du kan fastgøre hjelmen sikkert med en læderrem under hagen. Hjelmen leveres inklusive en råhvid turban, som du kan fastgøre til stålet ved hjælp af de fire huller bag på hjelmen.

Detaljer:
Materiale: kulstofstål
Tykkelse: 1 mm
Størrelse: S-M & amp L-XL (størrelsesskema se nedenfor)
Finish: poleret
Aventail: buttede ringe
Leveres inklusive hvid turban
Transportvægt (gram): 3000 *

Størrelse (cm)S-ML-XL
Fuld højde2223
Bredde1819
Kronens højde2020
Dybde2324
Maks. hovedets omkreds5863

Denne vare produceres kun i begrænsede mængder. Det betyder, at hvert stykke er unikt. Størrelser og forstærker finish kan variere let fra stykke til stykke.

Vedligeholdelse og pleje af forstærkere
Undgå rust og korrosion ved regelmæssigt at smøre din rustning. Fjern let rust med sort sandpapir.

Fjern rust fra din kædepost ved at gnide ringene sammen (ligesom ved håndvask af tøj, men uden vand). Ringene sliber sammen, og rusten forsvinder.

Vælg den størrelse, der passer dig bedst
Tilføj 3,5 cm til din hovedomkreds, hvis du bærer en beskyttelseskappe under hjelmen.
Tilføj 2,5 cm til din hovedomkreds, hvis du bærer en chainmail coif under hjelmen.
Tilføj 6 cm til din hovedomkreds, hvis du bærer både en armeringshætte og en chainmail coif under hjelmen.

Vedhæftning af rustning og forstærkerkædepost
For at vedhæfte din rustning eller kædepost sikkert kan du vedhæfte læder snørebånd til din gambeson og fastgøre disse til din rustning / kædepost. Rustningen forbliver således på plads under en kamp.

Denne rustning er 1 mm tyk og velegnet til LARP -kampe, kostumer og cosplay.

Tip: Sådan justeres finishen på dit rustning og våben
Luksuriøst (poleret)- polér stålet med metalpolering eller tandpasta. Du kan endda give varen en spejllignende polering. Test først på en lille overflade!
Håndlavet (mat)- blødgør stålet i cola i 40 minutter til 20 timer. Kontroller regelmæssigt og behandl med sort sandpapir.
Antik (patineret) lad stålet ruste et stykke tid i fugtige omgivelser, helst udenfor. Fjern det røde rustlag for at afsløre det korroderede toplag.

Bemærk venligst. Efter at du selv er færdig med produktet, udløber garantien og returretten. Celtic WebMerchant er ikke ansvarlig for det opnåede resultat. "

Produkt detaljer

Materiale: kulstofstål / / Tykkelse: 1 mm / / Størrelse: S-M & L-XL (størrelsesskema se nedenfor) / / Finish: poleret / / Finish: poleret / / Leveres inklusive hvid turban /

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Persisk hjelm

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Miltiades

Miltiades (c.555-489): Athensk adelsmand, kommandør og politiker, berømt for sin sejr ved Marathon.

Da Miltiades, søn af Cimon, blev født, blev byen Athen styret af en tyran ved navn Pisistratus. Senere traditioner præsenterede Miltiades som en modstander af tyrannen og hans søn Hippias, men dette er sandsynligvis ikke hele sandheden, fordi vi ved af en indskrift, at han indtog kontoret for archon i 524/523, hvilket tyder på, at han samarbejdede med den herskende familie. Han tilhørte også landsretten, areopagus.

I ca. 520 arvede Miltiades Chersonese, halvøen nord for Troy og vest for Hellespont. Den græske forsker Herodotus fra Halicarnassus, der skrev i 430'erne, fortæller os, at hans onkel Miltiades den ældste en generation før Miltiades havde fået råd fra Orphet i Delphi til at acceptere regeringen i dette land, som blev tilbudt ham af en ambassade af Chersonesianere, der frygtede tabet af deres uafhængighed. Sammen med athenske bosættere havde den ældste Miltiades overtaget halvøen. (Dette kan kun være sket med støtte fra Pisistratids.)

Han havde bygget en mur på tværs af Chersonese for at holde sine fjender ude, havde angrebet byen Lampsacus, var blevet taget til fange, men var blevet løsladt efter en diplomatisk intervention af den lydiske konge Croesus (c.560-c.547). Han var blevet efterfulgt af sin nevø Stesagoras, der døde uden børn og overlod chersonese til sin bror Miltiades den yngre.

Herodotus fortæller, at da Miltiades ankom til Chersonese, forblev han hjemme, som om han sørgede over sin bror. Da chersonesianernes ledere ankom for at bede deres kondoleanser, arresterede han dem. En vagt på fem hundrede soldater nævnes også, og vi ved, at Miltiades styrket sin position ved at gifte sig med en trakisk dame ved navn Hegesipyle, datter af Olorus.

Kronologien for hans ophold er ikke fuldt ud forstået, men følgende begivenheder ser ud til at have fundet sted mellem 520 og 494:

  • Ved en lejlighed blev han tvunget til at flygte for en invasion af en nomadisk stamme (skytere), men vendte tilbage.
  • Efter at han havde besejret et band af skytere eller thrakere, dedikerede han byttet i Olympia til den øverste gud Zeus. Hans hjelm blev fundet af arkæologer.
  • Han erobrede øerne Lemnos, Imbros og Tenedos, som skulle forblive athenske.
  • Han sluttede sig til den persiske konge Darius I den Store, da han angreb skyterne (i 514 eller 513). Det er uklart, om han gjorde det, fordi han var presset, eller fordi han simpelthen var loyal over for sin konge.
  • Hans familie er registreret som bosat i Athen i 507, efter bortvisning af Hippias søn af Pisistratus.

I 499 gjorde de joniske grækere oprør mod kong Darius, og det ser ud til, at Miltiades støttede dem. Dette bevises af de mønter, han udstedte, som viser løven fra Miletus, oprørernes hovedstad. Da perserne undertrykte oprøret, var Miltiades i fare, og da hans fjenders flåde nærmede sig i 494 eller 493, opgav han chersonese og flygtede til Athen. Hans søn Metiochus blev fanget og deporteret til Persien, hvor han ser ud til at have giftet sig og levet lykkeligt nogensinde. Miltiades bosatte sig selv i Athen. Hans berømmelsesøjeblik skulle stadig komme.

Efter det joniske oprør var det klart for den persiske regering, at besiddelserne i Lilleasien kun kunne være sikre, når grækerne i vesten også blev udsat for. Derfor blev general Mardonius sendt ud for at erobre Makedonien (492). Hans første offer var Makedonien, som han tilføjede til det persiske imperium. Darius skrev stolt i indskriften på sin grav ved Naqš-e Rustam, at han havde erobret Yaunâ takabarâ, 'grækerne med solhatte', en henvisning til det makedonske hovedbeklædning.

To år senere sendte Darius en ny ekspedition mod vest. Dens chefer var Datis og Artaphernes. Herodot præsenterer ekspeditionen som en straffereaktion mod Eretria og Athen, som havde hjulpet ionerne under deres oprør i 499. Men han tager næsten helt fejl, fordi hæren var for lille til at angribe Athen. I virkeligheden var ekspeditionens formål at føje De Ægæiske Øer til imperiet og dermed skabe en bufferzone mellem Ionia og det græske fastland. De forsøgte også at bringe den tidligere Pisistrad -hersker i Athen, Hippias, tilbage til sin hjemby.

Perserne havde succes. Først tilføjede de Naxos til deres imperium, den største ø i Det Ægæiske Hav, beliggende i centrum. Det græske kultcenter Delos blev beslaglagt umiddelbart efter den græske gud Apollo modtog et kæmpe offer, sandsynligvis fordi perserne identificerede ham med deres øverste gud Ahuramazda. Et par dage senere, den 1. september 490, erobrede Datis og Artaphernes Eretria. Dens indbyggere blev deporteret til Elam.

Kort over slaget ved Marathon

Nu avancerede perserne til Marathon, den del af det athenske område overfor Eretria og en glimrende slette til kavalerikamp. Omkring 10.000 stærkt pansrede athenere under kommando af flere strategoi herunder Miltiades, besatte vejen til Athen, og en nervekrig startede. Athenerne udsatte forlovelsen og ventede på forstærkninger. Angreb var umuligt, fordi det persiske kavaleri var overlegen: ingen infanterilinje kunne krydse sletten, fordi dens bagside ville blive udsat for angreb fra persiske ryttere. Deres modstandere havde derimod travlt, fordi de vidste, at athenerne forventede spartanske forstærkninger.

En dag modtog Miltiades gunstige varsler og flyttede sin hær i position. Han lod midten være svag, men forstærkede vingerne. Ved daggry beordrede han pludselig sine stærkt pansrede mænd til at løbe mod deres fjender, cirka to kilometer væk. Herodotus bemærker, at perserne betragtede denne anklagelse som "selvmordsvanvid". På vingerne dirigerede athenerne, der kæmpede med bedre rustning og længere spyd end deres fjender, angriberne, og efter dette første sejrrige engagement angreb vingerne det persiske center i bagenden.

/> De 192 atheners grav ved Marathon

Ifølge Herodotus mistede athenerne 192 mand i den efterfølgende nærkamp, ​​deres modstandere 6.400. Dette er overdrevet (192 × 100/3), men uden tvivl led angriberne hårdt. En tysk officer, Hauptmann Eschenburg, der besøgte sletten i 1884/1885, nævner, hvordan en græsk landmand havde opdaget enorme masser af menneskelige knogler, der syntes at tilhøre hundredvis af mennesker. Eschenburg lavede en kort grave og var i stand til at bekræfte udsagnet. Det faktum, at der overhovedet ikke var noget monument, tyder på, at denne massegravning blev foretaget i en fart. (At athenerne begravede perserne var en from handling, men perserne må have været chokerede, da de hørte om det: det var deres praksis at udsætte deres døde for gribbe.)

Athenerne og deres allierede, plataerne, modtog mere anstændige grave. Tumulusen, der dækker atheniernes grave, er midt på sletten, og platanernes grav kan ses nær det lille museum i en landsby, der hedder Vrana. Det var usædvanligt, at græske krigere blev begravet på slagmarken. Eksemplet på denne begravelse må have været det homeriske digt Iliaden, hvor vi læser, hvordan helterne i den trojanske krig modtog begravelser på slagmarken.

/> Sarkofag med slaget ved Marathon, baseret på maleriet i den athenske Stoa Poikile.

Et mysterium er tilbage: hvordan kunne athenerne krydse sletten uden frygt for et kavaleriangreb? Herodot antyder, at deres anklager var for hurtige, men modsiger dette, når han siger, at kampen længe var trukket ud. Der er imidlertid en anden historie om dette slag, der findes i biografien om Miltiades af den romerske forfatter Cornelius Nepos (første århundrede f.Kr.) og Suda, et byzantinsk leksikon fra det tiende århundrede. De siger, at en nat kom deserterne fra den persiske hær til den athenske lejr og fortalte, at kavaleriet var væk.

Men hvorfor? En mulig forklaring er, at perserne var blevet urolige med dødvandet, havde besluttet at forlade sletten for at angribe den athenske havn og havde beordret kavaleriet om at tage ombord på transportskibene. Hvis denne spekulation er korrekt, angreb athenerne bare den persiske bagvagt.

/> En hjelm, som Miltiades dedikerede Zeus efter en kamp. Hans navn kan læses på kinden.

Uanset sandheden er det sikkert, at kavaleri deltog i kampens sidste stadier, fordi mindst en persisk rytter blev afbildet i et nutidens maleri, der repræsenterede slaget (i den athenske bygning kendt som Stoa Poikilê). Dette maleri gik allerede tabt i 400 CE, men i den italienske by Brescia kan man se et relief, der er baseret på det.

Efter sejren ved Marathon leder Miltiades et angreb på Kykladerne, øgruppen, som perserne for nylig havde tilføjet deres imperium. Det var ingen succes: han blev såret og blev tvunget til at vende tilbage til Athen. Her blev han anklaget af sin modstander Xanthippus og fordømt. Miltiades døde af koldbrand.


KAVALERI

Cyrus den Store ønskede at bruge mere monterede soldater, fordi han vidste, hvor vigtige de var, især da to af hans største fjender brugte kavaleri eller soldater til hest. Den persiske hær blev organiseret på en ny måde. Kavaleriet flankerede begge sider af hæren i midten, som bestod af bueskytter, der angreb først på afstand. Bagefter angreb rytterne enhver, der stod tilbage i den modsatte hær ved at kaste spyd, som var lette spyd, der blev kastet i hånden.

Rustningsmaterialer: jern eller bronze (til vægt rustning og hjelm) og linned (til cuirass). Guld kunne bruges i stedet for jern og bronze til elitesoldater.

Rytteren blev beskrevet til at bære 2 spyd, et til kast og et til fending samt et skjold (ikke vist på billedet). Han bar også en hjelm med en græsk stil polstret linnekorselet dækket med metalskala. Disse rustninger blev grundlæggende vedtaget fra den græske hær af perserne. Se afsnittene Grækenland for flere detaljer.


Den persiske [Achaemenid] hær

Persiske militære styrker blev trukket fra alle områder af imperiet, medlemmer af elitekorpset samt værnepligtige opkrævet til lokal aktion eller til større kampagner. Mærket "persisk" skal således ikke forstås som at beskrive den etniske sammensætning, men snarere troppernes troskab, der kæmper under persiske embedsmænd eller befalingsmænd. Som det er set, var kommandostrukturen imidlertid heller ikke grundigt persisk på nogen måde, undtagen helt i toppen af ​​hierarkiet, inklusive de fleste satraper og selvfølgelig kongen selv. Det gamle persiske ord kra kan oversættes enten som "hær" eller som "folk". Dette afslører hærens ultimative oprindelse - blandt perserne selv, hvoraf mange kom til at danne korpset i den stående hær - da det resulterer i lejlighedsvis forvirring i moderne oversættelse. Når kra vises i en tekst, er det ikke altid tydeligt for os, om menneskene som en kollektiv gruppe eller den specifikke delmængde af hæren er ment.

Herodotus giver en fuldstændig og farverig redegørelse for de store og forskelligartede kræfter i den kejserlige afgift, den fulde hær og flåde af persere og undersåtter, når han tæller de store kræfter, som Xerxes styrede mod Grækenland i 480 fvt. Herodot navngiver også mange af kommandørerne, en udførlig skildring af imperiets folk med beskrivelser af deres tøj og udstyr (7.61–100). For eksempel var både persere og medere klædt i filtkapper, farvede tunikaer over skalapost, bukser, fletskærme og en række forskellige våben. Etiopierne (nubianerne) bar leopard- eller løveskind og bar store buer. Paphlagonere bar vævede hjelme og bar små skjolde og spyd. At hele Herodotos fremstilling bedre beskriver en parade end en kampgruppe er længe blevet forstået. Men det kendetegner den mangfoldighed af folk og våben, som de persiske kommandanter måtte svejse ind i en effektiv kampstyrke. Persiske styrker, både infanteri og kavaleri, var kendt for deres brug af buen: en hyppig taktik var frigivelse af pilestorme bag en skjoldmur eller for ryttere at ødelægge fjenden med salve af pile.

Lærde debatterer effektiviteten af ​​de persiske styrkers rustning og taktik, især i forbindelse med Xerxes 'invasion af Grækenland i 480 og Alexanders invasion af det persiske imperium i slutningen af ​​330'erne. Herodot (9.62) beskriver persernes sidste knusning mod spartanerne i slaget ved Plataea i 479:

På den ene side var perserne ikke mindre end grækerne i mod

og styrke, men perserne var uden skjolde og ud over dette,

var ufaglærte og ikke lig med deres modstandere i erfaring.

Denne passage giver kun et eksempel på de vedvarende problemer med kildeevaluering. Hvad betyder det, når Herodot siger, at perserne var "uden skjolde" (græsk anoploi)? Var skjoldene tabt i kamp? Var denne kontingent i den persiske hær simpelthen ikke med skjolde? Og hvilken gruppe var det, etniske persere eller en anden? Nogle oversætter anoploi som "uden rustning", hvilket tilføjer endnu et lag til problemet. Spartanerne var de mest (langt) professionaliserede græske soldater på deres tid, så selv den persiske hærs elitekorps ville have haft hænderne fulde mod dem. Ud over eliten havde opkrævede tropper fra provinserne naturligvis ikke den samme slags rustning, våben eller taktik som f.eks. De persiske udødelige og lignende kontingenter. Mange andre passager i græske kilder giver lignende perspektiver: stærkt bevæbnet græsk infanteri, der kæmpede i stramme falanksformationer, trumfede (som generelt beskrevet i græske kilder) let bevæbnede, mindre erfarne, ringere persiske infanteri hver gang - undtagen når de ikke gjorde det. Det er svært at sile de græske stereotyper fra realiteterne i individuelle kampe. At perserne var i stand til at erobre og beholde så meget territorium så længe vidner om deres hærs effektivitet.

Den elite persiske styrke, der talte 10.000 ifølge Herodot (7,83), blev kaldt udødelige. Når et af deres antal døde eller blev såret eller syg, ville et andet tage hans sted, så antallet af bataljonen forblev altid 10.000. De var den mest effektive og frygtede persiske infanteristyrke og omfattede klart elite medlemmer af det persiske samfund: mænd i fremtrædende familier eller høj rang. Tusind af dem havde granatæbler af guld på deres spyd, hvoraf nogle omfattede kongens personlige livvagt, og de andre 9.000 havde sølv. Herodotos tilfældige detalje om, at de udødelige var iøjnefaldende for deres guld (armbånd eller andre mærker af status og ære), og at de blev ledsaget af vogne med konkubiner og mange tjenere, indikerer, at vi ikke har at gøre med rang og fil. Prestige -emner nævnes ofte i forbindelse med persiske officerer og adelige, et fænomen, der også fodrede græske stereotyper om persisk kvindelighed og svaghed. Men disse emner var mere symbolske end praktiske og kommunikerede helt andre budskaber - ære og status - i en persisk kontekst.

Græske kilder fremhæver ofte fremtrædende og dygtige græske lejesoldater, og ud fra dette perspektiv var det kun takket være bedre uddannede og bedre udstyrede græske fagfolk, at imperiet var i stand til at udstede enhver form for værdifuld kampstyrke i det fjerde århundrede. Denne trope bidrog stærkt til stereotypen af ​​det kvindelige, forfaldne persiske imperium, før det faldt til Alexander den Store. Og selvom græske lejesoldater var et stigende fænomen i det fjerde århundrede og bestemt blev brugt af persiske befalingsmænd, synes deres betydning ofte overvurderet i græske kilder.

Herodot beskriver nogle detaljer i arme og udstyr fra Xerxes ’hær. Perserne selv bar floppy filthatte, tunikaer og rustninger, der udviste en overflade af fisklignende jernskæl og bukser. De bar fletskærme. Deres våben var store buer, korte spyd og dolk, som blev hængt op fra bælterne i højre side. Således udstyret kan de måske monteres eller ikke. Persiske hære stolede generelt på det store antal af deres ryttere og buefolk.

Bortset fra perserne selv giver Herodotos oplysninger om de andre nationale kontingenter, som de persiske konger var i stand til at mobilisere, selvom den statistik, som han baserede sine oplysninger på, kan have henvist til den potentielle kampstyrke i hele det persiske imperium snarere end til Xerxes ' ekspeditionsstyrke, gigantisk selvom denne styrke utvivlsomt var. Vi hører om assyrere og andre med bronzeshjelme, men generelt var asiaterne kun beskyttet af forskellige slags blødt hovedbeklædning, og de ser ikke ud til at have båret nogen væsentlig kropsrustning. Bortset fra dolk, buer og pile inkluderede deres våben jernspidsede køller, økser og lassoer.

Kavalerister - især kavaleri officerer - kan have båret mere beskyttende rustning. Masistius, den persiske kavalerikommandant, der blev dræbt i de tidlige stadier af Plataea -kampagnen, bar rustning i guldskala under sin skarlagenrøde frakke. Da hans hest blev ramt af en pil, forsvarede han sig kraftigt til fods og kunne ikke bringes ned af kropsslag. Endelig gættede athenerne, der omgav ham, hemmeligheden og slog i ansigtet på ham.

Persiske bueskytter, både monterede og umonterede, bar deres pile i en dirren slunget på hoften. Denne praksis adskilte sig fra de græske bueskytter, hvis koger blev slynget på ryggen. Hoftestillingen var uden tvivl mere hurtig, da der var krav om hurtig brand.

Herodotus henviser til krigsvognene i det indiske kontingent, men der nævnes ikke, at disse vogne blev brugt i kampene. Persiske konger gik normalt i krig i vogne, som også var ansat af perserne til jagt. Grækerne i den klassiske periode brugte kun vogne til sportsbegivenheder. Generelt var krigsvognen på tidspunktet for de persiske krige blevet erstattet af manden på hesteryg. Ændringen var uden tvivl skabt af den forbedrede effektivitet af hestebit, hvilket gjorde det lettere for rytteren at kontrollere sin hest.

Den persiske overkommando

De persiske tal i de to invasioner var så overvældende overlegne, at man har en tendens til at bebrejde de persiske chefer for den overraskende mangel på succes. Initiativet til begge virksomheder kom fra de store konger selv, og der synes ikke at have været tale om nogen betydelig "magt bag tronen". Alligevel er der ikke noget særligt skyldværdigt i deres gennemførelse af de to operationer-bortset fra selve virksomheden. Der kommer en tid i hvert imperiums historie, hvor ekspansion er gået langt nok, og stabilitet og konsolidering, hvis ikke nedskæring, er nødvendig. Den håndfuld athenske og eretriske skibe, der havde støttet det joniske oprør, var et dårligt påskud for en så massiv militær og flådeindsats.

Hvis vi vender os til Aeschylos ’skuespil, finder vi en vis kontrast mellem karaktererne i Darius og Xerxes. Persæerne præsenterer historien om Xerxes 'kam-faldne tilbagevenden til Persien efter hans nederlag ved Salamis. Darius ’spøgelse dukker op og fordømmer den dårskab, der har ført til den nylige débâcle. Darius er streng og værdig i kontrast, Xerxes er petulant og ineffektiv. Ved første øjekast kan Herodotus 'beretning synes at bekræfte dette skøn. Man husker hændelsen, da stærk vind ødelagde den første bro, som Xerxes havde konstrueret over Hellespont, hvorefter Xerxes beordrede, at de oprørske farvande skulle piskes som en straf for forargelsen. Men måske var dette ikke blot barnslighed fra hans side. I hans multinationale vært var der mange enkle stammefolk, der intet kendte til persernes oplyste zoroastriske religion, for at genoprette moralen var det uden tvivl nødvendigt at demonstrere, at selv vindens og bølgernes guder var underlagt de store konger af Persien.

Igen er vi tilbøjelige til at betragte Xerxes ’tilbagevenden til Susa, hans fjerntliggende hovedstad, efter katastrofen i Salamis, som svag og fej. Mardonius, hans general, ser ud til at have været overladt til sin skæbne i Grækenland. Men sagen kan ses helt anderledes. De persiske kongers succes lå meget stort i deres evne til at delegere magten. Cyrus havde, da han erobrede Lydia, delegeret færdiggørelsen af ​​sin erobring til sin general Harpagus, og sandsynligvis forventedes det, at Mardonius gennemførte erobringen af ​​Grækenland på samme måde. Men når alt er sagt, skal afgrænsningen af ​​karakter i Aeschylos 'spil ikke let afvises. Aeschylos skrev trods alt meget tæt på de begivenheder, han beskrev, og han kan ikke helt have overset det omdømme, som Darius og Xerxes havde tjent til sig selv blandt deres samtidige.

Hvad angår Mardonius, var han Darius 'svigersøn og havde kommando over den persiske flåde, da den mødte en katastrofe på klipperne ud for Athos-bjerget. Darius 'utilfredshed med ham er klar, for i den efterfølgende ekspedition, som den monark lancerede mod Grækenland, var Mardonius ikke under kommando. Datis og Artaphernes havde ansvaret for flåden, der sejlede over det centrale Ægæiske Hav til Eretria og Marathon. Mardonius var imidlertid en mand uden nogen form for evne, og hans senere genindsættelse beviser, at han nød Xerxes tillid. Efter Xerxes 'tilbagevenden til Persien forsøgte Mardonius med fornuftigt diplomati at dele de græske stater mod hinanden, inden han besluttede at gå i kamp med dem. Hans chancer for succes i dette diplomatiske initiativ var meget gode, og med lidt mere vedholdenhed kunne han have haft succes. Men afskåret fra forsyninger til søs havde han måske svært ved at fodre sin store hær og var derfor under pres for at nå til en afgørelse med størst mulig hastighed.

Den persiske flåde

Ingen, der læser Herodotos fortælling, kan undervurdere betydningen af ​​søfaktoren i de to persiske invasioner. Perserne var en indlandsmagt og havde ingen egen flåde. Det siger endnu mere for de store kongers organiseringsevne - især Xerxes - at de var i stand til at mønstre så store armadas. Det tyder også på, at deres viden om græsk sømandsskab og kampkraft var sådan, at de på ingen måde foragtede fjenden, som de måtte forholde sig til.

Den største kontingent i den persiske flåde bestod af fønikiske fartøjer, bemandet med fønikiske besætninger. Snarere overraskende stolede perserne også på skibe og besætninger fra de græske joniske byer, som de havde underlagt. Uundgåeligt må de have følt en vis tvivl om loyaliteten mellem de græske kontingenter i deres egen flåde. Ved flere lejligheder under kampagnerne synes den joniske indsats at have været halvhjertet, og i slaget ved Mycale forlod de joniske grækere endelig deres persiske herrer for at hjælpe deres landsmænd.

Artemisia, den græske prinsesse, der regerede Halicarnassus (underlagt persisk velvilje), var til stede selv om bord på slaget ved Salamis og kæmpede på persisk side. Imidlertid ser det ud til, at hun har sluttet sig til hverken flåden, som omstændighederne dikterede på et bestemt tidspunkt, for da den blev forfulgt af et athensk fartøj, væltede hun bevidst og sank endnu en kabysse af sit eget kontingent. Athenerne, der troede, at hun havde skiftet side, opgav forfølgelsen, og Artemisia fik hende til at flygte uden yderligere hindringer.

Sandheden er muligvis, at Xerxes fandt det mindre risikabelt at tage den joniske flåde med sig end at lade den ligge i ryggen. På hvert skib var der en styrke af soldater, enten persere, medere eller andre, hvis loyalitet var til at stole på. Persiske chefer indtog ofte sted for lokale kaptajner, og Xerxes holdt sandsynligvis lederne af emnefællesskaberne under hans personlige overvågning. Deres position lignede tæt på positionen som gidsler til perserne.

Bortset fra de fønikiske og græske flådekontingenter var der i Xerxes ’flåde en egyptisk eskadrille, der skulle skille sig ud under kampene. Vi hører også om skibe fra Cypern og Kilikien. Cypern indeholdt både græske og fønikiske byer, og befolkningen i Kilikien var stort set af græsk udvinding. Om cilicierne følte nogen form for sympati med grækerne på fastlandet er et andet spørgsmål, men kun imperiets forbindelser forenede dem med perserne. Andelen af ​​den samlede søstyrke til landhærens er registreret: landstyrkerne, når de tælles af Xerxes ved Doriscus i Thrakien, var ifølge Herodotus 1.700.000 stærke: flådens styrke er givet med en vis præcision som 1.207 skibe, inklusive transport.

Persisk flådestrategi

Det er interessant, at Xerxes vendte tilbage til sin fars oprindelige plan og besluttede at invadere Grækenland fra nord. Han må have overvejet, at hans kanal gennem Athos -halvøen eliminerede hovedfaren ved denne rute. Det er klart, at han kunne indsætte en meget større hær i Grækenland, hvis hans landstyrker kunne komme deres vej langs kysten. På samme tid indeholdt flåden, der holdt tempo på hærens flanke, transporter, der betydeligt lette hans forsyningsproblem. Landstyrkerne bar en hel del af deres egen bagage og udstyr ved hjælp af kameler og andre byrder. Disse omfattede ikke heste. Det var ikke sædvanligt i den antikke verden at bruge heste til sådanne formål, og det er bemærkelsesværdigt, at Xerxes transporterede sine heste til søs på særlige skibe. Hestesko var ukendte i de gamle civilisationscentre, og det er muligt, at det persiske kavaleri kunne have nået Grækenland med halte bjerge, hvis deres heste havde været forpligtet til at foretage hele rejsen til lands.

Krigsskibe var naturligvis nødvendige for at beskytte både transporterne og landstyrkerne. Uden flådeforsvar ville den persiske hær have været udsat for faren for græske amfibieangreb på dens flanke og bagside. Desuden var det Xerxes 'håb, at han straks ville knuse enhver græsk flådeenhed, uanset hvor han mødte dem.

Han mødte dem først på Artemisium, på den nordlige udbredelse af Euboea. Flere aktioner blev udkæmpet der, med varierende resultat. Den græske position var godt valgt. I den smalle kanal mellem den euboanske kyst og fastlandet kunne grækerne ikke være omsluttet af overlegen antal. Samtidig vogtede de flanken af ​​Leonidas styrker ved Thermopylae. Hvis perserne sejlede rundt om Euboea for at angribe dem i bagenden, ville de persiske landstyrker blive adskilt fra deres søbårne støtte. Det, der overraskede grækerne, var den enorme størrelse af Xerxes 'styrke, som trods alle rapporter langt oversteg deres mest pessimistiske skøn. Det var muligt for Xerxes at sende en del af sin flåde rundt i det sydlige Euboea, mens han engagerede grækerne på Artemisium med resten. En sådan manøvre medførte intet tab af numerisk overlegenhed på begge sider. Men sommerstorme samlede sig over Thessalien og hjalp grækerne. The very size of Xerxes’ fleet meant that there were not sufficient safe harbours to accommodate all the ships a considerable part of it had to lie well out to sea in rough weather. In this way many ships were wrecked. When a squadron was dispatched to round Euboea and sail up the Ruripus strait, which divides the long island from the mainland, this contingent also fell victim to storms and treacherous currents. The task assigned to it was never carried out.

Quite apart from the figures given by Herodotus, events themselves testify to the huge size of the Persian armada. Despite the heavy losses suffered at Artemisium, Xerxes’ fleet still enjoyed the advantage of dauntingly superior numbers when, late in the same season, the battle of Salamis was fought. Even after Salamis, the number of surviving ships and crews was such that the Greek fleet at Mycale hesitated long before attacking them.

Communication Networks – The Royal Road

Reliable and efficient communications throughout the Empire were a necessary component for its success. The construction, maintenance, and guarding of an extensive network of roads and bridges required a great deal of engineering expertise, manpower, and expense. The Persians adopted and adapted their predecessors’ systems, and greatly expanded them, to facilitate communication across vast distances. Individuals or groups on state business carried sealed documents that allowed access to supplies or provisions en route to their destination.

The most famous of these roads, though it was only one of many, was what Herodotus called the Royal Road from Susa in Elam to Sardis in Lydia (5.52–53). Any “royal” road would have, in fact, run through Persepolis and points eastward, so Herodotus’ terminology reflects a Greek view, which usually viewed Susa as the main Achaemenid capital. From the west it ran through Cappadocia and Cilicia in Anatolia to Armenia and then south through Arbela – along the Tigris River – and on toward Susa. Herodotus notes that there were 111 royal staging posts interspersed on it and mentions several of them specifically (5.52). By his calculations this route ran roughly 1,500 miles and took a journey of ninety days. That was for a traveler in no great haste. Royal dispatches could move with surprising speed, a relay system with fresh horses and messengers at each staging post. Herodotus also describes these royal messengers: “There is nothing mortal that travels faster than these messengers … for as many days as the whole route there are horses and men stationed, one horse and one man set for each day. Neither snow, nor rain, nor heat, nor night hinders them from accomplishing the course laid before them as quickly as possible. After the first one finishes his route, he delivers the instructed message to the second, the second does likewise to the third from there in rapid succession down the line the message moves.” (8.98)

There were similar routes in all directions from the Empire’s core in Fars.11 Ctesias alludes to other roads running from Mesopotamia and Persia proper to Central Asia. The primary route to Bactria across northern Iran is called in modern works either the (Great) Khorasan Road or, for later periods, by its better known appellation the Silk Road. Administrative documents from Persepolis, Syro-Palestine, and Egypt record disbursements to travelers in all directions. From the Persepolis documentation we gain a sense of the itineraries of a number of the network of roads running between Susa and Persepolis. An Aramaic document tracks travelers journeying from northern Mesopotamia to Damascus and on into Egypt, with several stops along the way listed by name.

Large work crews were involved in the construction and maintenance of these roads. Herodotus’ account of Xerxes’ invasion of Greece describes roadmakers at work, not infrequently the army on campaign. The main roads, constructed wide enough to allow chariots or wagons to travel on them, served to move military forces quickly, but they were also used by travelers or merchants to transport cargo. Roads also at times had to cross obstacles such as rivers. Some permanent bridges, such as one spanning the Halys River in Anatolia, were guarded by a fort. Pontoon bridges allowed crossing of other rivers, for example, at many spots on the northern Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers and their tributaries. Temporary pontoon bridges afforded the means for Persian armies to cross into Europe: Darius I over the Bosporus on his campaign against the Scythians and Xerxes’ bridge over the Hellespont against the Greeks. Of course, rivers and larger waterways were sometimes part of the route. Diodorus Siculus (14.81.4) records a journey on a well-known route at sea along the coast of Cilicia, on land from northwestern Syria to the Euphrates, then down the river to Babylon. Similar sea trading routes connected other parts of the Empire to the core, such as through the Persian Gulf and along the southern coast of Iran to the Indus Valley.


Reviews (0)

To Whom It May Concern: I received the 'Persian Helmet Kulah Khud' your company made for me today! It was far better than I expected it to be! I am a machinist and sheet metal worker my self and I know about metal working especially at this age of 72 yrs. I can tell you that I have inspected every detail of this helmet and I have found the craftsmanship to be excellent! The thickness of the metal is perfect not to thick and not to thin. I would have expected the brass decoration to be only .5 mm but it is twice that thick. The rivets are all perfectly riveted with out damage to the surrounding areas. The chain mail is of the highest quality for not riveted rings and again, I was very surprised to see that the steel ones were of the highest quality. The brass rings were of and even of a thicker gage which helped to make the designs in the chain mail its self even more distinct. I can go on and on praising the craftsmanship but I will control my self and stop here. All I can say is thank you, thank you for this perfect helmet which by the way fitted my head perfectly! This tells me that you ‘did’ use the dimensions of my head which I sent you and created the ‘long oval’ shape required for my head and not just the 'closest" size you might have on the shelf! For the person or persons who actually made this helmet, I give them my highest praise and approval! I have already shown it to several of my associates in the SCA and Mounted Archery and they as well are overwhelmed with every aspect of this beautiful helmet. I am so anxious for everyone to see it in my first mounted archery event as I know they will ‘all’ be just as impressed as I am. I will certainly tell them all where I bought this helmet with my highest recommendation’s. Honestly because I have bought other helmets from other suppliers I can tell you I would now have paid more for the quality in this helmet than the price shown on your catalog page. Virkelig! Thanks again, Sidney J. Treherne (I live near Seattle, Washington, USA)


1. Not completing your professional military education

The Air Force requires each of its NCOs to complete PME according to their rank and skill level. These courses are usually held in other locations rather than at home base. NCOs also get book-length volumes to study at home. Up until recently, PME wasn’t so much a factor in an NCO’s career. Now, if an NCO hasn’t completed the required PME course for their rank, they will not promote. Did you read that? Will not promote.

Get to reading, Airmen. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman John Nieves Camacho)

This means that a staff sergeant who doesn’t complete their PME will never become a tech and might even be subject to discharge. Air Force NCOs are moving along with the times but there are still many who fight the change and remain perpetual staffs or techs until they retire. Nobody wants to be 20 years in and retire at E-5. Get your PME done!


Armament and Fighting Style – Greek vs. Persian

Herodotus refers to Greek hoplites as `men of bronze’ in a reference to the armour that they wore and this is a perfectly apt description. The equipment carried by a Greek hoplite was designed for only one thing-straight-up, hand-to-hand, combat. To fight as a hoplite only two pieces of equipment were necessary-the shield and the spear-everything else was an optional extra.

The hoplite shield (aspis) was a weighty piece of defensive armament specifically designed for the rigours of close combat and the Greek formation (the phalanx). The aspis was made from a solid wooden core turned on a lathe to create a shallow bowl-like shape which allowed its weight to be supported by the left shoulder. The left arm was inserted through a central armband (porpax), which the playwright Euripides states was custom made to suit the arm of the bearer, while the left hand grasped a cord (antilabe) that ran around the inner rim of the shield. Occasionally faced with bronze (or having only its offset rim covered in bronze), and nearly 1m in diameter, the Greek shield weighed in the vicinity of 7kg. The hoplite’s primary offensive weapon was a long thrusting spear (doru) which was approximately 2.5m long with a leaf-shaped iron head at the tip and a large bronze spike, known as a sauroter or `lizard killer’, on the back. The total weight of this weapon was around 1.5kg.

On his body a hoplite could wear some form of armour (thorax). This could have been one of two types: a bronze plate cuirass approximately 1.5mm thick, or a linen composite armour (linothorax) made from gluing several layers of linen and/or hide together to make a material not unlike modern Kevlar. The bronze cuirass of the fifth century BC was beaten into a stylized musculature representing a human torso. This served a number of purposes. It was a demonstration of wealth due to the cost of having such armour made it made the wearer look more impressive and frightening to an enemy and it reduced the amount of flat surfaces on the armour. These curved surfaces on the front of the cuirass deflected incoming weapon strikes by increasing the respective angle of impact-thus requiring a greater amount of energy delivered in the strike to pierce it. The total weight of either bronze or linen armour was around 5.6kg.

On his head a hoplite may have worn a helmet (kranos). The most common style of helmet worn in Greece in the fifth century BC was the Corinthian helmet-an all encompassing, solid bronze helmet which protected the whole head from throat to crown, and which could be adorned with an additional crest made of stiffened horse hair. The total weight of the helmet and crest was around 2.4kg. On his legs a hoplite may have worn bronze greaves (knemis). Shaped to fit onto the lower leg, and held in place via the elasticity of the metal, greaves were designed to protect the lower legs from missile impacts and weighed around 1kg. The sword (xiphos/machaira) was the hoplite’s secondary weapon in close combat. Depending upon the style employed, the sword weighed around 2kg. All up, when a tunic, footwear and padding under the armour are taken into consideration, a full panoply worn by the Greek hoplite weighed around 21kg. Due to the extent of the armour worn and the formation adopted, when a hoplite positioned himself for battle, a person of average size (170cm tall) wearing a full panoply had only 395cm2 (or 5.5 per cent) of their body exposed.

The average weight of the head of the doru was 153g, while the average weight of the sauroter, the large bronze spike on the rear of the shaft, was 329g. Due to the difference in weight between the head and the butt-spike, the hoplite spear had a point of balance around 90cm from the rear end of the weapon. The doru was wielded by tucking it up into the armpit in what is known as the `underarm position’ much in the same way a medieval knight carried his lance during a joust. Due to the weapon’s rearward point of balance, a doru held in the underarm position projected forward of the man wielding it by about 1.6m.

If a contingent of Greek hoplites adopted a close-order formation, in which each man occupied a space 45-50cm in size both front-to-back and side-to-side, the shields of the men in each rank would overlap to create a strong, interlocking `shield wall’. The shield wall was primarily a static defensive formation, although it was also used offensively by experienced troops who could advance slowly to maintain the integrity of the line. In a narrow pass like that at Thermopylae, a contingent of Greeks (such as the famous 300 Spartans) could have deployed a close-order phalanx thirty-five men across and about eight ranks deep. In such a formation, the spears held by the second rank also projected well forward of the formation and could easily reach an attacking enemy. Due to the space occupied by the men in each rank of a close-order formation, their spears were separated by only 45-50cm. Additionally, as the spears held by the second rank also projected forward of the line, a formation of thirty-five men across would have presented two serried rows of seventy levelled spears-all of which could have engaged the enemy. This made the Greek hoplite individually, and the Greek close-order phalanx as a whole, very well suited to hand-to-hand combat and almost impervious to missile fire.

Unfortunately for the Persians, their entire system of warfare was based upon a much more open style of fighting and they were armed accordingly. There are numerous passages in the ancient narrative histories which describe how the weapons and armour of the Greeks were superior to that of the Persians in close combat-in particular the doru which is always described as longer than the Persian spear. Herodotus does not provide a lot of detail on the armament of the Persian troops that fought at Marathon in 490 BC, but he does give a detailed description of the troops that accompanied the second Persian invasion of Greece a decade later. The best armed troops within the invasion force at that time were the 10,000 strong Persian `Immortals’, closely followed by the Median contingent. The Immortals were armed with a short spear (paltron), a bow with reed arrows and a dagger. For protection they wore a cloth cap, scale armour and carried a shield made from woven wicker which would have been completely inadequate in terms of protection against a strong spear thrust.

However, the majority of the Persian army that fought in 480 BC were not as well equipped as the Immortals and the Medes. All of the contingents within the Persian army were armed in their particular native styles-most of which were not suited for hand-to-hand combat. Herodotus tells us that the contingent from Ethiopia, for example, wore only animal skins, and were armed with a bow and stone tipped arrows, spears tipped with antelope horns and wooden clubs. In another example, Herodotus describes the Libyan contingent as wearing only a leather loincloth and being armed with a sharpened stick that had been hardened in a fire. Other contingents in the Persian army were either equipped with bows and arrows or with melee weapons such as swords, clubs, axes and maces which would have had a much shorter reach than the lengthy Greek spear. Troops such as this, while well suited to a more mobile, hit-and-run style of warfare or an open melee form of combat, were completely outclassed when fighting against men who were almost fully encased in plate bronze, and who were arranged in a close-order combative formation like the Greek hoplite. Even before the first blow was struck the Persians at Marathon (and later at Thermopylae and Plataea) were at a disadvantage. This was due to the Greek hoplite, and his equipment, being designed for hand-to-hand combat while the Persian way of war was based around skirmishing, hit-and-run tactics, and using missile weapons to hit your enemy from a distance while relying on weight of numbers and cavalry. This accounts for why the Persians were so lightly armoured in comparison to the Greeks as recorded by Herodotus and for the references in the ancient texts which outline the superiority of Greek weapons and armour.

The different fighting style employed by the Persians also explains the different configuration of the Persian paltron to the Greek doru. The paltron was slightly shorter than the Greek spear-about 2m in length-just as many of the ancient texts describe. Importantly, the paltron had only a small butt on the rear end of its shaft and this gave the weapon a central point of balance. This was because the paltron was designed to be both a missile and a thrusting weapon and was generally held in the overhead position in preparation to throw it or to stab downwards with it (as is shown on Persian cylinder seals). A further indication that the paltron was designed primarily to be a missile weapon is that it had a much thinner shaft-only 19mm in diameter. This created a weapon that was lighter and easier to throw, but was much more susceptible to breakage than the more robust Greek spear, which had a thicker shaft of 25mm in diameter, and which was specifically designed for the rigours of hand-to-hand combat. Due to the different ways in which the two weapons were held, a Greek hoplite had a reach of more than 2.2m with his weapon when he extended his arm forward into the attack. The Persians on the other hand, holding a centrally balanced weapon above their head and stabbing forwards and downwards with it, had a reach of only 1.4m. This means that in most engagements, the Persians would not have been able to reach the Greeks with their weapons, let alone overcome their superior armament, while the front of the Persian line was vulnerable to attacks delivered by the first two ranks of the Greek phalanx. This disparity in both armament and fighting style accounts for the large differences in the number of casualties sustained by the Persians compared to those suffered by the Greeks at battles like Marathon, Thermopylae and Plataea.


Why The Persians Should Be The Good Guys In 馄' - Hilarious Helmet History #1


Member of Pakistan's ancient tribes perhaps who may be connected to the soldiers / forces that came with Mecedonian Alexander the great. In old times when a region was won, the Victor Commander would leave his subordinate incharge of region and then either return home or continue journey to next city after a resting period

The bigger point I wanted to make is that Pakistan/Iran/Iraq/Syria/Egypt/Palestine/Turkey alle har shared universal borders with multiple empires in past so it was common they were all citizen of same empire (same passport etc)

The Kalasha have nothing to do with Greeks or Macedonians. They are the old indigenous people who migrated in to this region thousands of years ago. They are mostly related to other populations close by to them like the Nuristanis, Pamiris etc.

With all due respect, stop latching on to Greek and Macedonian propaganda.

On Topic: I never watched 300, precisely for it's portrayal of the Persians and glorification of fascist Spartans.

ValerioAurelius

FORBUDT


Is there any event equivalent in history to Europe’s extraordinary peace record? Europe is living in the longest peace in its known history. That peace was based on supranational principles and initiated by Robert Schuman after a lifetime’s work.

An amazing peace process took place two thousand years ago between two fighting superpowers. They divided the planet as much as the Soviet Union and the USA did in recent times. And conflict covered the exact area that is the source of today’s conflict in the Near and Middle East — Turkey, Israel, Syria, Iraq and Iran.

In the middle of the earth at the point of contact of these two superpowers lay Israel. It was conquered first by one power, the Roman Empire and then by the other, the Parthian Empire. Who won? Rome was humiliated. Its armies were decimated. It renounced any further attacks on the superpower of the East.

Then a peace treaty was forged. At this time and because of this peace, trade was boosted from the Far East to Gaul in the West. An era of prosperity allowed the Temple at Jerusalem to be rebuilt.

During this Augustan-Parthian peace, Jesus Christ was born at Bethlehem. Why have most Europeans not learned the facts behind this key event in Christian civilization? What did most people learn about the Parthian Empire at school or even university?

Yet every year many people send each other cards with Parthians on them. Hvem er de? The Magi! Why does the real identity of the Magi remain obscure to most people?

Early in the Middle Ages great confusion, not to say false propaganda, arose about the supposed three Magi who visited the infant Jesus in Bethlehem. First, it is important to go to the record itself in the New Testament (NT) and get the facts.

* There were not three Magi. The number is not specified. It is only stated that they brought three types of gifts, gold, frankincense and myrrh.
* The Magi came from the East. No names are mentioned.
* The event took place more than a year after the birth of Jesus as he is called a ‘toddler’ in Greek. That means he was about a year and a half old.
* No other children are mentioned which means that James, the brother of Jesus, was probably not yet born.
* The visit took place in Bethlehem. When Jesus was born, the David’s ancestral home no longer existed. Hvorfor? Because Herod the Great had destroyed all trace of the Davidic dynasty and the ‘castle’ of David there. James says in Acts 15, that the ‘Tabernacle of David had fallen down’. Herod did not hesitate to kill off his own sons and wives if he thought they would usurp him. It is therefore certain that he would wipe out any trace of a Davidic dynasty he could find.

The NT says that at the time of the Magi’s visit Joseph had a house there. How come? Joseph was of direct royal lineage. He had the temerity and obligation to register the lands of David as his own. The registration took place as the first one under Quirinus, governor of Syria. (He made two.) This coincided with the celebration of twenty-five years of Augustus’s reign and the 750th anniversary of the foundation of the city of Rome. (See Dr Ernest L Martin: The Star that astonished the World).

Augustus was proclaimed Pater Patriae, Father of the Fatherland. Prominent citizens were required to register their smaller fatherlands and acclaim allegiance to Caesar. Thus Joseph registered his right under Roman and Israelite laws as patriarch of the tribe of Judah. This was a very dangerous move as his life was at immediate risk by Herod. But Joseph also had protection under Roman law. Herod could not simply kill a Davidic son without Roman acquiescence. As James said, the ruins were prophesied by Amos to be rebuilt.

So why in the Middle Ages did the Magi become a source of controversy? Firstly, the Magi were not Christian or even Jewish as far as the ignorant scholars of the time could say. People asked: why did pagans come and worship the infant Jesus? Why did they come at all? How many were there? Why didn’t Herod kill them?

The answers are clear once we understand the dilemma faced by the Roman State Church founded under Constantine in the 300s CE. Constantine’s amalgam of paganism and Christianity replaced Rome’s ancient pantheon. The Roman Empire had its capital in Constantinople, today’s Istanbul.

The lasting shame of the Roman Empire is that it destroyed the kingdom of Judah, its capital Jerusalem and its Temple. The term ‘Magi’ relates to the rival super power of Rome, the Parthian Empire. It extended from the River Euphrates to India and modern Afghanistan. Parthians traded with the Far East. It was a feudal confederation of kingdoms, not a military dictatorship like Rome.

The Head of the Parthian Empire was called Arsaces, ‘King of kings’. A single dynasty had a succession of 30 Arsakoi kings. They ruled from 255 BCE for nearly half a millennium, more than any dynasty there before or since. The kings were selected, elected and sometimes rejected by a Council of Wisemen, priestly scientists. Its name? The Magi! (See Rawlinson’s Parthia or Steven M Collins: Parthia, Forgotten Ancient Super-power.) Rawlinson says that Parthia divided ‘with Rome … the sovereignty of the earth.’

There is good reason why Europeans are so ignorant about Rome’s super-power rival. The Magi again! The paradox became an intense political problem for the Roman Empire of Constantinople. Hvorfor? Because, although the ruling Arsakoi tribes of the Parthian Empire had migrated by then, the Roman Empire was still at war with the successor Sassanian Persian Empire.

It was excruciatingly painful for the priests of the Roman ‘Mother Church’ to explain why the Magi of Persia had worshiped the infant Jesus and the Roman Empire had destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple. Parthia worshiped Jesus. Rome pillaged Jerusalem and destroyed the Jews. How could Romans justify a Christian heritage?

The Roman Mother Church therefore blamed the Jews for the death of Jesus although the crucifixion was conducted by the Roman soldiers, under Roman imperial authority and with Roman nails.

As for the Magi, they became non-persons. They were reduced to just three foreigners. But in reality the Magi helped govern Parthia. They performed a similar task to the Levitical priesthood for the Israelitish kings.

Were there three Magi or more? We can say with near certainty that there were not three but many thousands! The Parthians were highly mobile and had several capitals. They traveled in massive, opulent, oriental style. The general selected by King Orodes to fight the Roman invader Crassus arrived with two hundred litters for his concubines. A thousand camels carried his personal baggage. A body of ten thousand horsemen and slaves served his personal needs. The Magi, the resplendently rich Parthian kingmakers, would have come to Jerusalem in their thousands or not at all!

This is how Matthew’s gospel describes the scene:

Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judah in the days of Herod the king,

BEHOLD! There came wise men (Magi) from the East to Jerusalem, saying:

‘Where is he that is born King of the Jews? … We are come to do homage to him.

When Herod heard this, he was troubled and all Jerusalem with him.

The word ‘troubled’ can better be translated ‘terrified’, ‘set in a tumult’ ‘consternated’.

Parthia had forged a peace treaty with Rome two decades earlier. This came after Roman legions had been grossly humiliated. In 55 BCE the avaricious Consul Crassus sought booty. Crassus, he of the saying ‘as rich as Crassus,’ was the powerful oligarch of Rome. Parthian king Orodes slaughtered his 40,000 strong legions. Presented with his severed head during a performance of the Euripides play ‘Bacchae’, Orodes filled its mouth with molten gold, mocking him to drink to his fill. In 40 BCE Parthia invaded Judea and deposed the Roman-selected high priest at the Temple and installed another, Antigonus. In 37 BCE Mark Antony invaded Parthia with a massive 16 legions of 100,000 men. They were decimated. He barely escaped with his life. In 34 Julius Caesar planned to attack Parthia. He was assassinated in Rome.

If in the next few days you hear people talking about ‘Three wise men’, you can tell them, ‘It’s time to wise up on the Parthian Magi!’

Today’s leaders need to remind themselves how this area of an amazing peace, became again the furnace of conflict.

Why does your text end exactly at the place where the roman counter strike started, crushed the parthian army, killed the parthian crown prince and took back all areas lost 3 years before and even larger ones?


From the postal service to the fridge, listed below are some, Persian inventions you in all probability didn’t know had been Iranian.

1. Human Rights

The Cyrus Cylinder has been traditionally recognized because of the world’s first common constitution of human rights. Created in 534 BCE, the Cyrus Cylinder is constructed out of clay and inscribed in Akkadian cuneiform script and predates the Magna Carta by one millennium. It was found in Babylon in 1879 and is now stored within the British Museum in London.

2. Teaching Hospital

Under the reign of Shapur I (240-270 CE), the Academy of Gundeshapur was based, shortly turning into the most important mental and cultural heart of the area, Persian inventions.

It is now thought its founding was impressed by Shapur I’s principal spouse, Azadokht Shahbanu, who first introduced Greek physicians to the Imperial Court at Ctesiphon to determine a hospital.

Under the later monarch Kosrau I (r. 531-579 CE), Gundeshapur flourished because the first educating hospital on the planet the place younger doctors-in-training labored underneath the supervision of more skilled physicians.

3. Alphabets

During the center of the sixth century BC, the Persian Empire of the Achaemenid dynasty rose to supremacy and unfold throughout Mesopotamia and Afghanistan.

The Old Persian language developed throughout the early history of this dynasty, and it’s not a direct offshoot of the Sumerian and Akkadian techniques and Persian inventions.

While the bodily look of Old Persian symbols is cuneiform (within the form of wedges), the precise shapes of the indicators don’t correspond to indicators within the older system utilizing related phonetic values.

4. The Postal Service

‘Chapar Khane’ is a Persian time period for the first postal service system used throughout the Achaemenid Empire. It was created by Cyrus the Great and later developed additional by Darius the Great as a technique of communication all through the Persian lands.

The system comprised of a collection of stations alongside a 2,500 m freeway all through the empire, the place the ‘Chapars’ would experience horseback, delivering submit from one part of the dominion to a different.

5. Windmills

The Persians invented the windmill c. 500 CE, though, it needs to be famous, that is the first recorded point out and the units had been in all probability in use earlier, Persian inventions.

Windmills had been utilized in pumping water and grinding grain. They had been the product of reeds woven collectively into paddles which had been then mounted to a central axis.

The idea was nearly actually recommended by means of the sail on ships, however, the Persians had been already making use of wind on land by means of the airflow system referred to as the windcatcher (wind tower), a construction connected to the top of a constructing which drew cool air down, pushing hotter air up and out.

Scholars proceed to debate whether or not the Persians or the Egyptians had been the first to develop the windcatcher, however, the proof appears to favor the Persians, pre-dating the Achaemenid Period.

6. Bazaar

Bazaars in Iran have been buying facilities, situated close to the gates of the city, congregational mosques, and the main squares. They join completely different high-ways and make the locations nearer to one another.

Bazaars were once prolonged and as they obtained bigger, new atmospheres and constructions together with the mosques, workshops, conventional bogs, cafes, and different public locations arose, Persian inventions.

Specifying a spot for all completely different buying functions is a brand new thought today whereas it first got here true 4000 years ago in Isfahan. Naqshe Jahan Square is the first business leisure heart all around the world and it’s in a league of its personal.

7. Backgammon

Backgammon, a popular modern game, was first invented in Iran in about 3000 BC. It is among the oldest surviving board video games, Persian inventions.

In the modern world, it’s performed with two gamers and the enjoying items are moved in line with the role of the cube. A participant wins if he/she is ready to take away all of their items from the board before their opponent.

8. The refrigerator

In 400 BCE, the ancient Persians created the world’s first-ever fridge. The Persian phrase for the fridge – Yakhchal – interprets as an ice pit, which may be very a lot how the modern-day fridge began out.

The unique construction had a domed form considerably like a small mountain, and it was used to retailer primarily ice but in addition, typically meals objects, Persian inventions.

9. Monotheism

Monotheism was first launched in Egypt underneath the reign of Akhenaten, and a few students and writers (amongst them Sigmund Freud) have superior the declare that Moses was influenced by Akhenaten’s faith or might even have been one in every one of his clergymen.

However, which may be, the Persian monotheistic faith of Zoroastrianism was based c. 1500-1000 BCE by the prophet Zoroaster and was totally developed by the point early Judaism started to take the form (sixth century BCE – 70 CE).

Zoroastrianism held there was just one supreme being, Ahura Mazda, and the aim of 1’s life was to comply with the desire of the benevolent God by means of the ideas of Good Thoughts, Good Words, and Good Deeds. Zoroastrianism additionally was the first religion to completely develop the ideas of heaven, hell, and purgatory.

10. Elite Military Units & Uniforms

The Median king Cyaxares (r. 625-585 BCE) was the first within the area to divide his navy into regiments and models (infantry, archers, cavalry) however Cyrus the Great, who conquered Media, reformed the sooner model, organizing the navy on the decimal system the place every unit was comprised of ten lesser models: 10 males = a company 10 corporations = a battalion 10 battalions = a division 10 divisions = a corps. Different models had been recognized by completely different colored uniforms (purple, yellow, blue).

They additionally developed the idea of the elite navy unit: the well-known 10,000 Persian Immortals of the Achaemenid Empire and the Savaran Knights underneath the Sassanian Empire (224-651 CE).

11. Alcohol

No matter how arduous Quran comes down on the consumption of alcoholic drinks, Alcohol was in spite of everything among the many top Persian Empire innovations! It was created by one Persian doctor, Muhammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi. However, it’s not clear as to how and what it was used for these days.

12. Animation

Modern animation has taken a great leap ahead however its history dates back to the Bronze Age in Persia, with Persian inventions.

An earthenware goblet found within the Burnt City within the Sistan and Baluchestan province is believed to be 5,200 years old.

The goblet depicts a collection of drawings of a goat leaping in direction of a tree and consuming its leaves. Sequential photos just like the one on the goblet could be discovered all through medieval Islamic Persia.

13. Heavily Armored Cavalry

The Parthians had been the first to develop the idea of closely armored cavalry in response to the arms and armor of their Greek and Roman adversaries, Persian inventions.

The Parthian cataphract wore a metal helmet and chain mail tunic which coated them from their necks to previous their knees and down their arms and their horses had been equally protected.

Cataphracts carried composite bows, swords, daggers, and lances. This idea was additionally developed by the Sassanians to create their elite power of armored cavalry, the Savaran Knights, among the many biggest combating forces of the ancient world.

14. Algebra

Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarazmi was a Persian scholar (750-850 AD) in Baghdad. His work spanned the fields of arithmetic, astronomy, and geography throughout the Abbasid caliphate. Today, he’s greatest recognized for the strategy by means of which he taught algebra as an unbiased science. For this purpose, he’s hailed because the founding father of algebra.

15. Battery

A ceramic pot, a metal tube, and a rod of a distinct metal had been used to create the Baghdad Battery or Parthian Battery. The artifacts had been present in Mahoze, or modern-day Khujut Rabu. The battery was examined by Western scientists who discovered that when the battery jar was full of vinegar (or one other electrolyte), it generated a current of 1.5 to 2.0 volts.

16. Sulphuric acid

Zakariya Razi (865-925 AD) was a pioneering Iranian scholar who found alcohol and sulphuric acid. Nowadays, sulphuric acid has a large range of makes use of and purposes, together with as drain cleaner, as an electrolyte in lead-acid batteries, and in numerous different clothes merchandise.

17. Hookah

Hookah, extremely popular amongst people who smoke who need a contact of classiness and unique is a small piped system meant for smoking and vaporizing, Persian inventions.

The hookah was really invented utilizing Persian technology within the ancient days. The monarchs are mentioned to have used them extensively. Later its use was seen in different international locations and the recognition of hookah elevated with time.

18. Chess

Although there may be some dispute as to if the game of chess originated from India or Persia, the earliest mentions of chess in writing could be discovered inside Iranian literature. The oldest surviving chess items got here from the Persian lands, thus reinforcing the assumption that chess originated in Persia.

19. The guitar

The earliest version of the modern-day guitar exists within the type of the tar or lut – a picket instrument on which strings had been plucked to supply the music, Persian inventions.

20. Taxation

The taxation system could be traced back to ancient Persian. It was a vital part of the Achaemenid state administration and was referred to as Achaemenid Taxation, Persian inventions.

In the Persian Empire underneath Cyrus II and Cambyses, topics had been largely obliged to ship solely presents, and regular taxes had been first launched underneath the rule of Darius I (r. 522-486 BC). While the system of state taxation already existed underneath Cyrus II, it was not regulated and people who didn’t pay taxes needed to ship presents and vice versa.

21. Birthday celebration

The Persians had been additionally the first to develop the observe of lavish celebrations of 1’s birthday in addition to the artwork of animation for leisure and the customized of getting dessert after a meal, Persian inventions.

Birthday celebrations originated (as they did in different cultures) with a pageant honoring the monarch’s start however progressively unfold to members of the Aristocracy after which the decrease lessons. In ancient Persia, birthdays had been celebrated with particular meals the visitor of honor would get pleasure from and a cake for dessert with candles.

Entertainment may need included animation – as evidenced by artifacts similar to a cup which, when quickly turned, confirmed a goat leaping within the air to grab leaves from a tree – and music that includes vocals accompanied by stringed devices such because the cartar (also called the tar) and the sestar, precursor of the modern-day guitar. The observation of serving dessert after a meal was not reserved just for birthdays however adopted day-after-day’s night meal.

22. Important discoveries in modern drugs

Ibn Sina or Abu Ali Sina is thought more generally within the Western world as Aveccina. He is taken into account to be one of the crucial important physicians, astronomers, and thinkers of the Islamic Golden Age (8th-13th centuries).

After qualifying as a doctor at the younger age of 18, he went on to supply his most well-known works – ‘The Book of Healing’, and ‘The Canon of Medicine’, an encyclopedia of medication, Persian inventions.

23. The first monotheistic faith

Zoroastrianism is taken into account to be the world’s oldest monotheistic faith, based on the prophet Zarathustra over 3,500 years ago within the city of Yazd, which is now in Iran. Estimates counsel there are around 190,000 Zoroastrians worldwide immediately.

24. Polo

This game was first created in Persia in 600 BC and ‘Chogan’ is the Persian time period for it. In different phrases, Polo is the world’s first team sports activity. It was really a observe for reinforcing the military within the Achaemenid time however turned very popular within the Parthian period.

Due to the relationships with different international locations and Persians’ immigration, it changed into a world-known sport within the Sassanid time, Persian inventions.

25. Qanat (water irrigation)

The qanat was a water management system utilized in irrigation, which dates back to the pre-Achaemenid period. The oldest recognized qanat is within the city of Gonabad in Iran, which after 2,700 years nonetheless succeeds in offering consuming and agricultural water to people immediately.

26. Landscaped Gardens & the Word ‘Paradise’

The qanat enabled the cultivation of landscaped gardens which turned into a regular characteristic of Persian architectural design, Persian inventions. Cyrus the Great is claimed to have spent a lot time in his gardens as possible before attending to the business of working his empire.

These gardens had been lush oases from day by day life the place one may calm down and be alone with one’s ideas or benefit from the company of others and had been referred to as pairi-daeza which supplies English its phrase paradise.


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