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Hvordan håndterede nazistiske koncentrationslejrmedarbejdere med overlevende fra gasser?

Hvordan håndterede nazistiske koncentrationslejrmedarbejdere med overlevende fra gasser?


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Jeg har læst en historie om en kvinde, der blev sat i et gaskammer og overlevede det.

I den mest berygtede af alle, Auschwitz-Birkeanau, blev hun hyret nøgen i et gaskammer sammen med hundredvis af andre.

Alligevel gik Turgel, der dengang var 21 år, levende ud.

Hun anede ikke, at nazisterne havde forsøgt at dræbe hende, før en kvinde, hun kendte, sagde: ”Ved du ikke, hvad der lige er sket med dig? Du var i gaskammeret! ”

Selvfølgelig blev hun ikke sat i gaskammeret igen.

Jeg spekulerer på, hvorfor. Der er flere muligheder:

  1. Vagterne lagde ikke mærke til, at hun gik væk, og hun var død på papir.
  2. Vagterne lagde mærke til det, men besluttede ikke at give hende gas igen.
  3. Der var en politik om ikke at gas en person to gange.
  4. Hun flygtede fra koncentrationslejren umiddelbart efter gasning.

Hvilken af ​​disse muligheder er mest sandsynligt baseret på det, vi ved om nazistiske koncentrationslejre?


Det generelle spørgsmål kan ikke besvares i alle sager. Det er også for uspecifikt med hensyn til tidsrammen. Politikkerne og formålene for alle sådanne lejre ændrede sig over tid. En koncentrationslejr blev drevet anderledes i 1933 i forhold til 1943 eller 1945, og de såkaldte udryddelseslejre var en anden igen.
Bortset fra at en ting er sikkert: Tyskerne i SS forsøgte virkelig at slå alle jøder ihjel. Det var planen officielt efter Wannsee-konferencen. Hvis en person skulle blive skudt og pistolen blev klemt fast, ville personen blive skudt af en anden, slået ihjel osv. Der var bestemt ingen generel beredskabsplan for, hvad man skulle gøre, når det første forsøg på at dræbe nogen ikke virkede som planlagt. Kun slutresultatet var vigtigt i den 'endelige løsning'.

Men for Gena Turgel (født Goldfinger) synes sagen at være kendt:

På et tidspunkt overlevede hun gaskamrene, da mekanismen gik i stykker, og hun sagde senere, at denne snævre flugt overbeviste hende om, at hun havde pligt til at vidne om Holocaust ved at tale med skolebørn om det.
Telegraph: "'Bruden af ​​Belsen', der overlevede fire dødslejre, dør i en alder af 95" (9. JUNI 2018 • 15:06)

Det betyder, at en hel "batch" af mennesker gik ind og overlevede. Det betyder, at kun sag 2 fra spørgsmålet er eksternt anvendelig her:

Vagterne lagde mærke til det, men gjorde ikke prøve at give hende gas igen.

Eller som Danila Smirnov kommenterede:

En anden overlevendes beretning omtaler vagter, der løber tør for gas og vender ofrene tilbage til lejren. Da begge hændelser skete i den samme lejr, var årsagen sandsynligvis den samme - gaskammeret var af en eller anden grund ikke i driftstilstand.

Og efter gasningsforsøget løb tiden op for dødslejren:

I januar 1945 blev Gena og hendes mor sendt på en dødsmarch fra Auschwitz og efterlod Hela, Genas søster. De så hende aldrig mere. Efter flere dage kom de til Włocławek (Leslau på tysk), hvor de blev tvunget ind på lastbiler. De rejste under frygtelige forhold i de næste tre til fire uger, til sidst ankom de til koncentrationslejren i Buchenwald. Derfra blev de sendt på kreaturvogne til Bergen-Belsen, hvor de ankom i februar 1945. het.org.uk: Gena Turgel MBE

Denne historie er en af ​​en vis grad af held og timing:

Den 26. januar 1945 blev det sidste krematorium V i Birkenau revet ned med sprængstof kun en dag før det sovjetiske angreb. WP: Auschwitz koncentrationslejr

Det bringer os tilbage til åbningsafsnittet: efter den mislykkede gasning forsøgte de at dræbe Goldfinger på en dødsmarch.


I "Auschwitz: A Doctor's Eyewitness Account" af dr. Miklos Nyiszli, som jeg læste for mange år siden, nævnte han en overlevende, der var gået ud af, muligvis overlevede ved at have hovedet tæt på en luftlomme i en bunke lig, der blev genoplivet. Hun blev kort tid efter returneret til gaskammeret.


Belzec

For at udføre massemordet på Europas jøder etablerede SS drabscentre, der udelukkende eller primært var afsat til destruktion af mennesker i gaskamre. Belzec var blandt disse drabcentre. Det var et af tre drabscentre forbundet med Operation Reinhard, SS-planen om at myrde næsten to millioner jøder, der bor i det tysk-administrerede område i det besatte Polen kaldet General Government.

Nøgle Fakta

Byggeriet begyndte i november 1941 på Belzec. Dette var det første drabscenter for at gennemføre Operation Reinhard ( Aktion Reinhard ).

Fra marts 1942 blev jøder fra forskellige dele af den generelle regering deporteret til Belzec, hvor de blev myrdet i gaskamre med kulilte fra genererede store dieselmotorer.

Belzec var den første af Operation Reinhard -lejrene, der lukkede i december 1942. Da deporteringer til drabcentret stoppede, havde tyske myndigheder myrdet cirka 434.500 jøder på stedet.

Dette indhold er tilgængeligt på følgende sprog

Operation Reinhard-myndigheder konstruerede Belzec-drabscenteret på stedet for en tidligere arbejdslejr i det tyske besatte Polen. Det var det andet tyske drabscenter, der startede driften. Det var også det første af tre drabcentre oprettet som en del af Operation Reinhard (også kendt som Aktion Reinhard eller Einsatz Reinhard ). Operation Reinhard var den plan, der blev implementeret af SS- og politilederen i Lublin, SS -general Odilo Globocnik, om at myrde jøderne i generalregeringen (Generalgouvernement).

Arbejdslejren og senere drabcentret var placeret mellem byerne Zamosc og Lvov (i dag Lviv), cirka 70 miles sydøst for Lublin. Under den tyske besættelse af Polen i Anden Verdenskrig var dette område en del af Lublin -distriktet i den generelle regering . Lejren lå omkring 1,5 km syd for landsbyen Belzec. Beliggende langs Lublin-Lvov jernbanelinjen, var drabcentret kun 1.620 fod (mindre end en halv mil) fra Belzec jernbanestation. Et lille skinnespor forbandt lejren med stationen.


Hvordan håndterede nazistiske koncentrationslejrmedarbejdere med overlevende fra gasser? - Historie

Tyske anklagere udsendte fredag ​​en anklage mod en 95-årig tidligere nazistisk koncentrationslejrsekretær, der påstod 10.000 forhold for at have hjulpet, medvirket og været medskyldig i drabsforsøg som en del af det nazistiske terrorapparat.

Ifølge anklagerne hjalp hun de ansvarlige i lejren i det systematiske drab på jødiske fanger, polske partisaner og sovjetiske russiske krigsfanger i sin funktion som stenograf og sekretær for lejrkommandanten. ”

Identificeret af den tyske radio- og tv-udsender NDF som Irmgard F., den tidligere sekretær og stenografist maskinskriver for Stutthof-lejrkommandanten Paul-Werner Hoppe havde været under efterforskning siden 2016. Under undersøgelsen interviewede myndighederne overlevende i både USA og Israel. Irmgard arbejdede i lejren, som var placeret 20 miles væk fra den polske by Gdansk (dengang kendt som Danzig), mellem juni 1943 og april 1945. Det menes, at 65.000 mennesker blev dræbt i Stutthof -lejren.

I 1954, som vidne i sagen mod Hoppe, erklærede Irmgard, at al korrespondance med SS Økonomisk og Administrativt Hovedkontor gik over hendes skrivebord, og at Hoppe dikterede breve til hende. Hun sagde, at hun på det tidspunkt var klar over, at nogle lejrfanger blev dræbt, men mente, at drabene var straf for forbrydelser begået af dem. Hun hævder også, at hun ikke var klar over omfanget af drabene i gaskamrene.

I et interview med NDR hævdede Irmgard, at hendes kontorvindue ikke pegede i lejrens retning, at hun aldrig var kommet ind i lejren, og at hun først blev opmærksom på drabene, efter at krigen var slut.

Sidste år blev Bruno Dey, en 95-årig tidligere nazistisk koncentrationslejrvagt, dømt for 5.223 tilfælde af medvirken til drab og ét tilfælde af tilbehør til drabsforsøg.

Det er første gang i flere år, at en kvinde bliver tiltalt som støttemedarbejder i en nazistisk koncentrationslejr, da de seneste sager har fokuseret på tidligere SS -vagter. En domstol i Slesvig-Holsten skal nu afgøre, om en retssag skal indledes. Beslutningen vil være baseret på en fastlæggelse af den tidligere sekretærs rolle i lejren og hendes “ konkrete ansvar ” i drabene. Da Irmgard var under 21 år på tidspunktet for lovovertrædelsen, vil sagen blive retsforfulgt som mindreårig.


Dr. Theresa Ast - august 2013


    Forberedelsen til D-dages landinger involverede uddannelse og stationering af et stort antal mænd- næsten 3/4 millioner og forberedelse af tunge rustninger og køretøjer
    Når invasionstyrkerne var landet og kommet af sted fra strandene, havde de brug for at konsolidere deres position og skubbe frem mod de tyske styrker
    Ved krigsudbruddet blev det besluttet, at hæren og aposs behovet var for unge læger, der kunne tjene hvor som helst. I 1914 blev de territoriale hære straks mobiliseret, lægerne med dem. Dette efterlod gabende huller i civil lægehjælp og strategier
    Nilen var af stor betydning i det gamle Egypten, da den spillede en stor rolle i transport af mennesker, dyr og afgrøder og muliggjorde let kommunikation mellem bosættelser.

Fuld tekst | Lydfiler

Hvordan overlevede jeg? Når en person er i problemer, vil han gerne leve. Han kæmper for sit liv og hellip Nogle mennesker siger, & ldquoEh - Hvad der bliver, bliver. & Rdquo Nej! Du skal kæmpe for dig selv dag for dag. Nogle mennesker var ligeglade. De sagde, & ldquoJeg vil ikke leve. Hvad er forskellen? Jeg gider ikke. & Rdquo tænkte jeg dag for dag. Jeg vil leve. En person skal holde fast i sin egen vilje, holde fast i det i sidste øjeblik.

Jeg er fra Warszawa. Jeg boede i Praga, som er den del af byen på tværs af floden Vistula. Jeg havde et dejligt liv der. Jeg havde min egen butik, hvor jeg plejede at lave pelsfrakker. I Warszawa, da en jødisk ferie kom, plejede vi at vide, at det var en ferie. Alle butikkerne blev lukket, og folk var i synagogerne.

Ud af de 78 mennesker i min familie er jeg den eneste, der overlever. Mine forældre havde 3 drenge og 3 piger: Mine forældre var Jacob og Toby mine brødre var Moishe og Baruch, og mine søstre var Sarah, Rivka og Leah. De blev alle dræbt.

Min mor og min storesøster blev dræbt i den sidste uge af januar 1941. År 1941 var en kold vinter med meget sne. En morgen SD SD: (Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsfuehrers-SS), SS sikkerheds- og efterretningstjeneste. SD spillede en vigtig rolle i udførelsen af ​​den endelige løsning.

SD -betjente tjente i Einsatzgruppen, politi og andre sikkerhedsenheder. Det blev oprettet i 1932 under Reinhard Heydrich og i 1938 indarbejdet i Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office, RSHA). Kilder: Encyclopedia of the Holocaust Historical Atlas of the Holocaust. og det jødiske politi Jødisk politi: (Judischer Ordnungsdienst), de jødiske politienheder organiseret i ghettoer af Judenrat. Det jødiske politi indsamlede mennesker til tvangsarbejde, bevogtede ghettohegnene og -portene og greb til sidst folk til deportationer.

Der var ofte fejl og korruption blandt politiet, og de blev betragtet med frygt af ghettosamfundet. De og deres familier var i første omgang fritaget for deportation, men denne undtagelse blev ophævet, da deres anvendelighed for tyskerne ophørte. Kilde: Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. fangede mig på gaden. Jeg blev tvunget til at arbejde med en masse andre mennesker, der ryddede sne fra jernbanesporene. Vores opgave var at holde togene kørende.

Da jeg vendte tilbage til ghettoen Ghetto: et lukket distrikt, hvor jøder blev tvunget til at leve adskilt fra resten af ​​samfundet.

Koncentrationen af ​​jøder i ghettoer var en politik implementeret af Tyskland i Østeuropa og Sovjetunionen. Etableringen af ​​ghettoer var ofte den første fase i en proces, som blev efterfulgt af deportation til koncentrationslejre og udvælgelse til udryddelse eller tvangsarbejde. At tvinge jøder til ghettoer krævede deres indsamling fra de omkringliggende områder og deres adskillelse fra lokale befolkninger. Kilde: Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. Jeg fandt ud af, at min mor og storesøster var blevet dræbt. Tyskerne krævede, at Judenrat Judenrat: et jødisk råd oprettet under tyske ordrer, der var ansvarlig for interne spørgsmål i en ghetto.

Det var påkrævet at yde jøder til tvangsarbejde og indsamle værdigenstande til at betale kollektive bøder, der blev pålagt af tyskerne. Medlemmerne af Judenrat mente, at ved at efterkomme tyske krav, der kunne forbedre den barske realitet i den tyske administration. Ofte var de i stand til at oprette hospitaler og suppekøkkener og forsøge at imødekomme basale sanitære behov i ghettoen.

I begyndelsen forsøgte medlemmerne at modstå tysk pres. Men som tiden gik, blev Judenrat tvunget til at levere jøder til deportationstogene, der bragte dem til deres død. Under pres samarbejdede mange medlemmer af Judenrat med tyskerne. Der var imidlertid mange tilfælde af modstand, af resignation, af støtte til partisanerne og om at begå selvmord frem for at bøje sig for tysk pres. Kilde: Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. indsamle guld og pelse fra folket i ghettoen. Da de spurgte min mor om smykker og pelse, sagde hun, at hun ikke havde nogen. Så de skød hende og min storesøster også.

Min far blev dræbt i april 1942. Han gik for at købe brød fra de børn, der smuglede mad ind i ghettoen. Børnene bragte brød, kartofler og kål over muren ind i Warszawa ghetto. En jødisk politimand påpegede min far til en tysker og fortalte ham, at han så min far tage et brød fra en dreng ved væggen. Tyskeren skød min far i ryggen.

Deporteringerne startede den 22. juli 1942. Mine andre 2 søstre og 2 brødre tog til Treblinka. Derefter så jeg aldrig nogen fra min familie igen.

Jeg er en bunker. I ghettoen arbejdede jeg på Tobbens & rsquo shop Tobbens & rsquo Shop: en tekstilfabrik, der drives af Walter Tobbens, den største arbejdsgiver i Warszawa -ghettoen.

Tyske producenter dukkede op i Warszawa ghetto i sommeren 1941. Først afgav de ordrer med jødiske værksteder, men de etablerede deres egne fabrikker.

I 1943 blev Tobbens udnævnt til ghettokommissær for at overføre arbejdere fra Warszawa ghetto til arbejdslejre i Lublin -området. På dette tidspunkt fulgte arbejderne imidlertid instruktionerne fra den jødiske kamporganisation (ZOB).

I maj 1943, efter at Warszawa Ghetto -opstanden 10.000 arbejdere blev overført til en fabrik Tobbens etableret i Poniatowa -arbejdslejren nær Lublin. I november 1943 blev lejren imidlertid likvideret og fangerne blev skudt som en del af operationen kendt under kodenavnet & ldquoErntefest & rdquo (Harvest Festival). Kilde: Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. . Vi lavede lam og rsquo -uldjakker til den tyske hær. Det var korte jakker i dag, vi ville kalde dem Eisenhower jakker.

Til frokost gav de os brød og suppe. Om aftenen fik vi endnu et brød og kaffe. Når polakker kom til butikken, kunne vi handle med dem for ekstra mad. Vi gav dem et par skjorter til et stykke salami og lidt brød eller kartofler til at lave en suppe. Men hvor længe kan vores situation vare?

En dag var der et udvalg, og jeg blev trukket ud af butikken. Jeg var dog heldig, fordi en Volksdeutscher Volksdeutscher: en nazistisk betegnelse for en person af tysk herkomst, der bor uden for Tyskland.

De havde ikke tysk eller østrigsk statsborgerskab som defineret af det nazistiske udtryk Reichsdeutscher. Nazityskland gjorde en stor indsats for at få støtte fra Volksdeutshe, der udgjorde minoritter i flere lande.

Nazityskland modtog støtte fra Volksdeutsche hundredtusinder sluttede sig til de tyske væbnede styrker, herunder SS. Kilde: Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. fortalte dem, at jeg var en god arbejdstager. Så jeg fik lov til at gå tilbage til butikken, og en anden blev sat i mit sted.

En ven fortalte mig, at han så en af ​​mine søstre arbejde i Shultz & rsquos butik. Jeg ville se hende, men jeg var 3 kilometer væk, og jeg vidste ikke, hvordan jeg skulle komme dertil. En jødisk politimand fortalte mig, at han kunne få en tysk soldat til at gå med mig og bringe mig tilbage. Det ville koste 500 zloty, hvilket var mange penge, men jeg sagde OK.

Soldaten lagde mig i håndjern, og han gik bag mig med et gevær, som om jeg var hans fange. Da jeg kom til Shultz & rsquos butik, kunne jeg ikke finde min søster. Så fandt jeg ud af, at jeg sad fast der. Jeg kunne ikke gå tilbage, fordi ghettoen havde været omgivet af tyske soldater. Næste morgen var den 19. april 1943, som var den dag, hvor Warszawa Ghettooprøret begyndte.

Den 1. maj 1943 blev jeg skudt i højre ankel. Kuglen gik gennem kødet og ikke benet, så jeg tabte ikke mit ben. Jeg blev taget til Umslagplatz Umslagplatz: betyder overførselssted, stedet i Warszawa ghettoen, hvor jøderne blev samlet til deportation.

Umslagplatz, der ligger på hjørnet af gaderne Zamenhof og Niska, var området, der adskiller Warszawa -ghettoen fra den polske del af byen. Fra dette sted blev hundredtusinder af jøder deporteret til udryddelseslejre og koncentrationslejre-for det meste til Treblinka mellem juli og september 1942 og januar og maj 1943.

I 1988 blev der opført et monument på stedet, hvor omkring 300.000 Warszawa -jøder blev sendt til døden. Kilde: Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. . Udryddelseslejren Treblinka kunne kun tage 10.000 mennesker om dagen. I vores gruppe var vi 20.000. De afbrød halvdelen af ​​vores tog og sendte det til Majdanek Majdanek: en af ​​de 6 udryddelseslejre, det var den eneste dødslejr beliggende nær en større by i en forstad til Lublin.

Lejren dækkede 667 hektar, havde et elektrisk pegetråd med dobbelt pigtråd og 19 vagttårne. Der var 7 gaskamre, et krematorium og 2 galger. Næsten 500.000 mennesker passerede gennem lejren for dem, 360.000 omkom, de fleste fra de barske forhold i lejren, et mindretal blev gaset.

I juli 1944 blev lejren forladt, personalet ødelagde dokumenter og satte ild til bygningerne, men de formåede ikke at ødelægge gaskamrene og de fleste fanger og rsquos kaserner.

Umiddelbart efter lejren og rsquos frigjorde byfolk fra den sovjetiske hær fra Lublin flere tons menneskelig aske i en stor bunke nær krematoriet. Lejren blev udpeget som et nationalt museum. Wiktor Tolkin designede et mausoleum, der står ved siden af ​​gaskammer-krematoriumskomplekset. Inde i en kæmpe marmorskål, der er åben for elementerne, beskyttet af en kuppeltop understøttet af 3 søjler, kigger besøgende på en sort bunke af benflettet aske. Majdanek er en af ​​de bedst bevarede lejre, og dens udstillinger er en afslappende påmindelse om dens dødelige historie. Kilder: Encyclopedia of the Holocaust Young, The Texture of Memory. koncentrationslejer. Majdanek var en anden dødslejr.

På Majdanek tog de vores tøj og gav os stribede skjorter, bukser og træsko. Jeg blev sendt til Kaserne 21. Da jeg lå i min seng, spurgte en ældre mand mig, hvordan jeg havde det. Han sagde, & ldquoJeg kan hjælpe dig. & Rdquo Han havde været læge i Paris. Han tog en lille lommekniv og opererede mig. Den dag i dag forstår jeg ikke, hvordan han kunne have opbevaret en kniv i lejren. Der var ingen medicin eller bandager. Han sagde, & ldquoJeg har ingen medicin, du skal hjælpe dig selv. Når du tisser, skal du bruge noget af urinen som et antiseptisk middel på dit sår. & Rdquo

Vi skulle gå 3 kilometer på arbejde. Jeg var nødt til at holde mig selv lige uden at halte og gå ud af porten til lejren. Jeg var bange. Hvis jeg haltede, ville de tage mig ud af køen. På Majdanek hængte de dig for enhver lille ting. Jeg vidste ikke, hvordan jeg ville klare det. Gud må have hjulpet mig, og jeg var heldig.

Vi stod ved appellen Appel: betyder opkald, de var en daglig funktion i lejrlivet. Fanger måtte stå ved opkald morgen og aften.

Opkaldene var straffe, da fangerne meningsløst blev tvunget til at stå i timevis udenfor i dårligt vejr. Selv døde fanger måtte vendes og tælles. Udvælgelser fandt sted ved opkald, hvor de svagere fanger ville blive slået til udryddelse. Kilde: Forskellige erindringer om overlevende (se bibliografi). i vores træsko. Så da vi kom ud af porten, måtte vi tage vores træsko af og binde dem over vores skuldre med et stykke snor. Vi var nødt til at gå til arbejde barfodet. Der var små sten på vejen, der skar ind i din hud, og der løb blod fra mange menneskers fødder. Arbejdet var beskidt markarbejde. Efter et par dage kunne nogle mennesker ikke mere, og de faldt ned i vejen. Hvis de ikke kunne rejse sig, blev de skudt, hvor de lå. Efter arbejde måtte vi bære ligene tilbage. Hvis 1.000 gik på arbejde, skulle 1.000 komme tilbage.

En dag, da vi stod ved appellen, røg en mand bagest i køen en cigaret. Tunge rygere ville finde et stykke papir og tænde det bare for at føle, at de røg noget. En tysker, Lagerfuhrer Lagerfuhrer: kommandant (chef) for en koncentrationslejr. Kilde: Dictionary of the Holocaust. , kom op på en høj, sort hest. Hesten havde en hvid plet på hovedet og benene var også hvide. Det var en smuk hest. Lagerfuhreren holdt en pisk i hånden. Denne mand var et monster. Det var sent på dagen, og solen gik ned. Han så røgen fra cigaretten.

Lagerfurhreren kiggede ned på os og forlangte at vide, hvem der havde røget en cigaret. Ingen svarede. & ldquoJeg skal hænge 10 hunde, & rdquo sagde han. & ldquoJeg vil give dig 3 minutter. & rdquo De kaldte os hunde, fordi vi havde mærker med vores numre på, mit nummer var 993. Vi kiggede fra det ene til det andet, men ingen svarede.

Lagerfurhrer ventede ikke 3 minutter, han ventede ikke 2 minutter. Han tog sin pisk, og han skar 2 rækker af 5 fanger af. Jeg var i gruppen på 10.

Han spurgte, & ldquo Hvem vil først op på bænken? & Rdquo Du skulle gå stå på bænken og lægge rebet om din hals. Jeg var i de første tre til at gå op på bænken. Jeg kravlede op og lagde rebet om min hals.

Han begyndte at slå os. Han slog mig så meget, at blodet løb ned af mit hoved.

Inden dette skete, var en soldat kommet til Majdanek med det formål at udvælge tre grupper på 750 mennesker til at tage til en anden lejr. Jeg var blevet udvalgt til at være i den anden gruppe på 750. Denne soldat havde været i Lublin Lublin: dødslejren Majdanek lå ved siden af ​​og inden for synet af byen Lublin. Hovedkvarteret for SS og Sipo og SD var placeret i Lublin cirka 5 km nord for Majdanek -lejren. Kilde: Historisk Atlas for Holocaust. på hovedkontoret, der behandler vores papirer. Mens jeg stod på bænken, kom soldaten tilbage til galgeområdet.

Da han så, hvad der skete, begyndte han at græde, og ldquoHalt, Halt! Hvad sker der her? & Rdquo

Lagerfurhrer sagde, og en hund røg en cigaret. De vandt & rsquot sige hvilken, så jeg kommer til at hænge 10 hunde. & Rdquo

& ldquoHvem hunde? & rdquo spurgte soldaten. Jeg har papirer til at overføre disse mennesker, og jeg kan ikke bringe døde hunde ind. Jeg er nødt til at bringe dem i live. & Rdquo

Soldaten tog rebet af, der havde været om min hals. Alt det ville have taget var et par sekunder mere, og jeg ville have været død. Han skulle bare sparke bænken ud. Soldaten slog os, indtil vi hoppede ned fra bænken og kom tilbage i stregen.

Soldaten tog os med til jernbanesporene, han satte os på et tog, og næste morgen forlod vi Majdanek. Jeg havde været der i 9 uger. Vi var på dette tog i to nætter og en dag uden mad eller vand. I mine 9 uger på Majdanek havde jeg ikke skiftet skjorte eller vasket mig. Vi blev spist op med lus, og mange af os var hævede af sult.

Da vi stod af toget, så vi, at vi var ankommet til Auschwitz. Der var et udvalg, og nogle af os blev maskingeværet på et felt der. De tog dem ikke med i gaskamrene.

Jeg blev taget for at få et nummer tatoveret på min arm. Jeg fik nummer 128232. De separate tal tilføjer op til 18. I det hebraiske sprog står bogstaverne i alfabetet for tal. Bogstaverne, der står for tallet atten, staver det hebraiske ord & ldquoChai, & rdquowhich betyder liv. Efter at jeg var blevet tatoveret, fik jeg en kartoffel.

Jeg blev først sendt til lejren ved Buna. Da jeg kom ud af karantæne, blev jeg sat i gang med at bygge jernbanespor. Capoen Capo: (Kapo), tillidsmand, en SS -udnævnt fange, der var leder af en arbejdsgruppe. Han eller hun beholdt denne privilegerede position ved at terrorisere underordnede fanger.

Capos var et instrument for lejrregimet med ydmygelse og grusomhed, og deres rolle var at bryde fangernes ånder.

Capos havde varmt tøj, nok at spise og boede i en reserveret afdeling til fængselsbarakkerne. I mange tilfælde blev Capos, der mishandlede fanger, stillet for retten efter krigen. Kilde: Tjekkisk, Auschwitz Chronicle Encyclopedia of Holocaust forskellige erindringer om overlevende (se bibliografi). der var en morder. Jeg er kort, og han ville sætte en kort mand sammen med en høj mand til at bære tyve fods jern. Den høje mand, jeg arbejdede med, måtte bøje knæene.

En gang faldt jeg ned og kunne ikke rejse mig. Capoen begyndte at skrige og slå mig, og han trak mig til side. Der var et udvalg, og vi måtte tage vores tøj af og stå nøgne hele natten. Næste morgen kom der en lastbil med et rødt kryds, og de skubbede os ind i den, den ene oven på den anden. Vi troede, at de ville tage os med til gaskamrene.

I stedet blev vi taget til Auschwitz I -lejren. En polsk mand kom ud af en bygning, og han bad os om at kalde vores numre op. Jeg sagde, & rdquo 128232. & rdquo Han kiggede på et papir og spurgte mit navn? Jeg sagde, & ldquoSzlama Radosinski, & rdquo, som er mit navn på polsk og ikke lyder som et jødisk navn. Han spurgte mig, hvor jeg var fra? & ldquoWarsaw, & rdquo sagde jeg. Hvor længe var jeg der? & ldquoJeg blev hævet der, & rdquo sagde jeg.

Han begyndte at snakke med mig, som jeg aldrig har hørt før i mit liv. Han trak mig ud af stregen og satte mig i et hjørne. Han sagde, & ldquo Bliv her. & Rdquo Han bragte mig et stykke tæppe til at dække mig over med. Jeg frøs, så han bragte mig inde i kasernen.

Jeg lagde mig. Jeg vidste ikke, hvad der skete, eller hvad jeg skulle tænke. En ung fyr kom hen til mig og sagde, & ldquoJeg kender dig. & Rdquo spurgte jeg ham, & ldquoHvem er du? & Rdquo Han sagde, at han hed Erlich, og at han kendte mig fra Majdanek.

Jeg spurgte ham, hvad dette sted var. Han sagde, at det var hospitalsbarakken, blok 20. Han fortalte mig, & ldquoDet er meget dårligt her. Dr. Mengele Mengele, Josef: (1911-1978?), Læge og SS-officer, i maj 1943 meldte han sig frivilligt til at tage til Auschwitz og blev der indtil evakueringen den 18. januar 1945. Han blev kendt for sin sadisme.

Mengele spillede en fremtrædende rolle i de udvalg, hvor deporterede enten blev sendt for at blive registreret i lejren eller sendt til øjeblikkelig udryddelse. Mengele & rsquos imperious tilstedeværelse ved disse markeringer er noteret i talrige overlevelsesminder.

Mengele gennemførte også pseudovidenskabelige forsøg i Auschwitz ved hjælp af tvillinger og dværge som menneskelige marsvin. En række eksperimenter involverede dryp af kemikalier i hans ofre og rsquo -øjne for at forsøge at ændre deres farve. Han dræbte sine ofre selv med indsprøjtninger i deres hjerter og foretog undersøgelser efter døden på deres kroppe.

Mengele & rsquos doktorafhandling blev tituleret & ldquoThe Racial Morphological Investigation of the Front Submaxilla Section in Four Racial Groups. & Rdquo Hans forskning i denne henseende er blevet kaldt en forløber for hans senere arbejde i Auschwitz.

I 1949 dukkede Mengele op i Argentina, hvor han fik asyl. I 1960 bad Vesttyskland om udlevering, men Mengele flygtede til Brasilien og derfra til Paraguay. Han druknede angiveligt i en svømmeulykke i Brasilien i 1978. Kilder: Tjekkisk, Auschwitz Chronicle Encyclopedia of Holocaust. kommer to gange om ugen for at foretage valg. Men det er tirsdag, og han kommer ikke igen i denne uge. Jeg vil fortælle dig, hvad der kommer til at ske. & Rdquo Jeg havde ikke spist siden mandag. Han gav mig et brød.

Erlich havde været der i 5 uger. Han var kommet fra Majdanek til Auschwitz samme dag som jeg. To af lægerne på hospitalet kendte hans bedstefar, der havde været deres rabbiner i Krakow. De havde skjult ham for Dr. Mengele. Disse læger havde forsøgt at hjælpe med at skjule jødiske mennesker i Krakow. Da SS kom, dræbte de de jøder, de skjulte, og tog lægerne med til Auschwitz.

Torsdag kom Erlich til mig og sagde: & ldquoDu skal ud herfra. & Rdquo sagde jeg, & ldquo Hvad skal jeg gøre-spring fra vinduet på anden sal? & Rdquo Om eftermiddagen kom han igen og sagde: & rdquoDu skal få herfra, eller efter i morgen vil du være død. & rdquo Cirka en time senere kom en mand ind og satte sig ved et bord. Han spurgte, & ldquo Hvem vil på arbejde? & Rdquo Polakkerne på hospitalet var ikke bekymrede for at gå på arbejde. Hvorfor skulle de gå på arbejde, når de fik pakker fra Røde Kors og fik nok at spise?

Jeg var nødt til at få dette arbejde. Manden ved bordet spurgte mig mit nummer, og så stoppede han mig ud. Jeg bad ham, og jeg vil gerne ud. Jeg har venner udenfor. Lad mig venligst komme ud. & Rdquo Han gav mig et stykke papir, der sagde blok 6.

Jeg gik til blok 6, og jeg viste papiret. Manden der sagde, & ldquoJeg kan ikke slippe dig ind før 9 o & rsquoclock om natten. & Rdquo Jeg blev der, indtil mændene vendte tilbage fra arbejde. En mand spurgte mig, & ldquoDu er ny her, hvor er du fra, og hvad gjorde du? & Rdquo sagde jeg, & ldquoJeg er fra Warszawa, og jeg var en pelsmand. & Rdquo Han spurgte mig, hvor jeg boede, og jeg fortalte ham. Han spurgte mig, om jeg kendte et bestemt mandsnavn, og jeg sagde: Ja, han er også en bunker, og han bor i en sådan gade. & Rdquo

En af mændene sagde, & ldquoJeg tror ikke på dig, hvad hedder denne mand? Han har et kaldenavn. & Rdquo sagde jeg, & ldquo Denne mand har et lille stykke hud hængende ned ved venstre øre, og de kalder ham & lsquotsutsik & rsquo (jiddisch = brystvorte). & Rdquo Da jeg sagde dette, begyndte de at hjælpe mig. De bragte mig et stort stykke brød og en kold suppe.

De spurgte mig, hvor jeg skulle arbejde, og jeg viste dem papiret. De sagde, & ldquoOh, Nej! Du vil ikke klare det over 8 eller 10 dage i det job. & Rdquo Jobbet var at arbejde i en kulmine. & ldquo Den længste nogen lever i det job er to uger. Efter det går de til krematoriet. & Rdquo jeg var bange. Mit nummer blev registreret som arbejder der. Jeg sagde, & ldquoHvis jeg ikke går derhen, så bliver jeg hængt ved siden af ​​køkkenet, og fangerne kommer til at gå forbi mig. & Rdquo

De sagde, & ldquoDon & rsquot bekymre dig. & Rdquo En fyr ringer til en anden fyr og siger, & ldquoGo fix this! & Rdquo De gik til Capo med et stykke papir. Denne Capo var en morder. Han havde en grøn trekant. Tyskerne åbnede fængslerne, og de gjorde fangerne til vores chefer. Nogle af drengene arbejdede i Canada. Da transporterne kom, adskilte de værdigenstande. De satte deres liv på spil for at smugle guld og andre ting ud. Hver dag bragte de denne Capo -cigaretter eller salami, så han sagde, & ldquoJa. & Rdquo

Næste morgen vækkede de mig, og de tog mig med. De satte mig midt på linjen, og vi gik sammen ud af porten. They told me that as soon as we get out of the gate, I would be safe because over 6,000 prisoners walk out of the gate every day and nobody knows who is who.

There was a beautiful orchestra Orchestra: There were 6 orchestras at Auschwitz including a women&rsquos orchestra at Birkenau and a male orchestra at Auschwitz I which consisted of 100 musicians.

Their activities included playing music for the prisoners who were marching to work and for the arrival of important guests at the camp. In addition, they played at parties for the SS and gave formal concerts for the camp staff.

Various survivor memoirs mention the orchestra&rsquos playing for the arrival of deportees to give them a false sense of comfort. There were orchestras at most of the major concentration and extermination camps. Sources: informal conversation with Bret Werb, Music Archivist at the USHMM Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. playing by the gate. They would not let me go to the other job. I stayed with them until the last minute when Auschwitz was liquidated. They helped me out with little pieces of bread and a little soup.

One day the boys asked me if I could make a cap for the Capo, and they brought me some striped material. I took a piece of string to take a measurement. I asked them for some thread and a needle, and I made the cap in about 2 hours. For stiffness I took some paper from a cement bag and doubled the material at the top. The Capo liked the cap. I was his guy from then on, and he never beat me the whole time.

I was working for over a year with the boys at the same job, digging sand. Ten of us worked in the sand mine. There was a little guy from Breslau that we made our supervisor. He stood on top, and we were 20 feet down below. Every day we loaded up a wagon with the sand and pushed it 16 kilometers. That was 2 trips of 4 kilometers one way and 4 kilometers coming back--over 10 miles a day.

Twice a day we carried sand to Birkenau to cover the ashes of the dead. The sand was to cover the ashes that came from the crematoria. I did this for more than a year.

The ovens were on one side of the crematoria, and the ashes came out this side. The other side was where the gas chamber was. The Sonderkommando Sonderkommando: (Special Commando), 1. a prisoner slave labor group assigned to work in the killing area of an extermination camp. Few Sonderkommando survived as they were usually killed and replaced at periodic intervals. There were several Sonderkommando revolts. The group at Auschwitz-Birkenau staged an uprising in 1944 and set off an explosion that destroyed Crematorium IV.

2. A German unit that worked along with the Einsatzgruppen in the Soviet territories. Their task was to obliterate the traces of mass slaughter by burning bodies. Sources: Encyclopedia of the Holocaust Historical Atlas of the Holocaust. , took the ashes out of the ovens. There were big holes for the ashes and we covered the ashes with sand.

I saw when the transports came. I saw the people who were going in, who to the right and who to the left. I saw who was going to the gas chambers. I saw the people going to the real showers, and I saw the people going to the gas. In August and September of 1944 I saw them throw living children into the crematorium. They would grab them by an arm and a leg and throw them in.

One Saturday, when we were working, we turned around and saw a soldier with a rifle, so we started to speed up. The soldier said, &ldquoSlow down today is your Sabbath.&rdquo He was a Hungarian, and he said, &ldquoCome to my barracks at 4 o&rsquoclock, and I will have something for you. I will put out a bucket with trash in it. Look under the trash, and you will find eleven pieces of bread.&rdquo For two or three weeks he put out bread for us. He asked us to bring him money from Canada, which we did. He used to tell us the names of the Jewish holidays. One day he disappeared.

The Russians were pushing back the Germans at Stalingrad. Transports were coming from the Lodz ghetto. That is when we saw them grab the little children by the head and the leg and throw them into the crematoria alive. Then the Hungarian Hungarian Jews: the tragedy of the destruction of Hungarian Jewy is that it came late in the war. The deaths of approximately 550,000 Hungarian Jews occurred between May and July 1944 most of them were gassed at Auschwitz-Birkenau.

Germany occupied Hungary on March 19, 1944 in response to the threat of the approaching Soviet Army. Prior to that time the authoritarian government of Hungary, although allied with Nazi Germany, resisted German demands to implement the Final Solution program.

The occupation forces included a Sonderkommando unit headed by Adolf Eichmann. Between May and July 1944 Eichmann succeeded in deporting 440,000 Jews. However, the Hungarian government stopped the deportations in July. In October 1944 when the fascist Arrow Cross Party overthrew the Horthy government in a coup d&rsquoetat Eichmann was able to resume his murderous activities.

Eichmann was opposed by efforts to rescue Hungarian Jews, most notably by the Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg. Wallenberg saved the lives of tens of thousands of Jews in Budapest by creating safe houses and distributing protective passports, the so-called Swedish Schutz-Passes. Source: Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. people were coming.

There was this group of young people who wanted to destroy the crematoria. There were four crematoria in Birkenau. The young girls worked at an ammunition factory, and they smuggled in explosives. One crematorium was destroyed. They hung 2 of the girls in front of us when we came back from work.

Life was going on. Everyday was a different problem until January 18, 1945, when they began liquidating Auschwitz. On the 18th I left Auschwitz, and 9 days later the Russians liberated it. Those 7 days cost me 5 months.

When we left, everybody had to get out of the barracks. I was walking the whole night with a rabbi from Sosnowiec. The Rabbi had come from Block 2, which was the tailor shop. I saw that the soldiers behind us were shooting the people who fell down. The Rabbi fell down in the road and this boy from Belgium and I held up the Rabbi between us and kept walking. We saw a sled pulled by a soldier, and we asked him if we could pull the sled with the Rabbi in it until morning.

The guys who lived in Block 2, the tailors&rsquo barracks, could get some of the gold and the diamonds that people had sewn into the linings of their clothes. They gave their block leader some gold and diamonds to let them hide the Rabbi in the barracks. They hid him in a closet that they had built in the wall. They put the Rabbi in the closet when they went out to roll call at 6 o&rsquoclock in the morning and took him out when they came back in the evening. Many times I went there at 5 o&rsquoclock in the morning to say Kaddish Kaddish: from an Aramaic word meaning &ldquoholy&rdquo, one of the most solemn and ancient of all Jewish prayers. The Kaddish is recited at a grave and on the anniversary of the death of a close relative.

Although the prayer itself contains no reference to death its use in this regard perhaps arose from the belief that saying the praises of God would help the souls of the dead find everlasting peace.

Besides the Mourner&rsquos Kaddish, regular Kaddish is recited at every public prayer service. Source: Rosten, The Joys of Yiddish. for my parents with the Rabbi.

At daylight we came to a small town and the farmers let us stay in the stables. In the evening we had to get out. We walked to a railroad station. In two days the train brought us to Gross-Rosen Gross-Rosen:a concentraton camp located near a granite quarry of the same name in Lower Silesia. The working conditions involved backbreaking labor in the quarry and special work assignments during what were supposed to be hours of rest.

The camp was expanded into a network of 60 sub-camps involved in armaments production. The main camp held 10,000 and the sub-camps 80,000 prisoners.

The Jewish population of the camp varied. From March 1944 until January 1945 the camp received an uninterrupted flow of Jewish prisoners, including prisoners from the partially evacuated Auschwitz camps.

Gross-Rosen was evacuated in early February 1945 by rail and on death marches. Records show that 489 prisoners were sent to Dachau, 3,500 to Bergen-Belsen, 5,565 to Buchenwald, 4,930 to Flossenburg, 2,249 to Mauthausen and 1,103 to Mittelbau, however, the records are incomplete. Sources: Encyclopedia of the Holocaust Historical Atlas of the Holocaust. camp. I never saw the Rabbi again.

Gross-Rosen was murder. The guards walked around with iron pipes in their hands. They said, &ldquoWe are going to help you we are going to get you out of here.&rdquo We were put in a shed with two thousand men. In the daytime we had to stand up, and at night we slept head to food. The only food we got was a slice of bread and a cup of coffee at night. I thought I was going to be die there.

They walked us to the railroad station, and in 3 days we came to Dachau Dachau: one of the first Nazi concentration camps opened March 22, 1933, and located 10 miles from Munich. Dachau was a model institution for subsequent camps and a training ground for the SS.

Originally intended for political prisonersCommunists and Socialists, later Jews, Gypsies, Jehovah&rsquos Witnesses who resisted the draft and homosexuals were sent there. During the last months of the war Dachau became a dumping ground for inmates from other camps and conditions deteriorated further. Up to 1,600 prisoners were crowded into barracks intended for 200.

Dachau was liberated on April 29, 1945 by the US Seventh Army. A trial was held by an American court and 36 members of the SS staff were sentenced to death.

In Dachau, as well as at other Nazi camps, medical &ldquoexperiments&rdquo were carried out where prisoners were used as human guinea pigs. At Dachau there were high-altitude and freezing experiments and a malaria and tuberculosis station. There were tests to see if seawater could be made drinkable. Many inmates who were forced to participate died horrible deaths. The Nuremberg Military Tribunals found that the medical experiments served the ideological objectives of the Nazi regime and that none of them were of any scientific value. Source: Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. . The train ride was terrible the train pulled up and pulled back, up and back. We ate snow for water. A man was in there with his son who went crazy. The son grabbed the father by the neck and choked him to death. At Dachau there was a selection for the typhus blocks. I had a friend from Radom who was strong. He could have made it, but they put him in the typhus block.

I left Dachau on the 26th or the 27th of April, 1945. I was liberated on May 1st. During this time we were traveling on trains. We were in Tutzing and in Feldafing and in Garmisch. There were big mountains there . One day they had us get out of the train, and we had to go up twenty feet to the other side of the mountain. Then the Germans set up machine guns and started to fire at us. A few hundred were killed as we ran back to the train.

The next day we heard planes dropping bombs. A few hours later the soldiers opened the door to the train. They said they needed a few people to work cleaning up from the bombs, but we were scared to go. So they said &ldquoYou, you and you out,&rdquo and they caught me. I said to myself, &ldquoI think this is the end. After all these years in the ghetto and losing everybody, now this is the end. Who is going to be left to say Kaddish for my family?&rdquo

We went to this small town on the other side of the mountain where the train station had been bombed. To one man they gave a shovel, to another a broom and to me they gave a pick. I saw a counter in the station where they were selling little black breads. I said to myself that I would like to eat a piece of bread before they kill me. I was ready for Kiddush Hashem Kiddush Hashem: a Hebrew term meaning &ldquosanctifying the Name [of God]&rdquo, denotes exemplary conduct in connection with religious martyrdom.

Historically, the choice of accepting martyrdom was an option, and conversion or expulsion were alternatives. The Holocaust eliminated the element of choice.

Where rescue was impossible and resistance would be futile there are numerous accounts of Jews going to their deaths with dignity. Source: Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. . I grabbed a little dark bread into my jacket and started eating it. A soldier saw me and he howled, &ldquoGo to work.&rdquo I stayed until I had eaten the bread. I did not move, even though he beat me. I fell down and he kicked me and I got up. I had to finish eating that little bread. Blood was running down my head. When I finished, I went to work. I had gotten my wish. Then I knew that I was going to survive.

Early at 4 a.m. the next morning near Tutzing we heard heavy traffic on the highway. We pushed to look out of the two little windows of the train. We expected to see the Russians coming but it was the Americans. We hollered. A jeep drove up with two soldiers. One was a short man, an MP. He spoke good German. He asked who we were. We said we were from the concentration camps. Everybody started hollering and crying. The American soldiers said we were free. They arrested the Germans and the Germans got scared. It was May 1, 1945.

The Americans cooked rice for us. The MP saw me take some rice and he said, &ldquoDon&rsquot eat that. If you do, you will die. There is too much fat in that for you to eat now. Because your stomach has shrunk, if you eat that you will get diarrhea. I will give you a piece of bread, and you should toast it.&rdquo

&ldquoWhat is toast,&rdquo I asked. He said, &ldquoToast is when you make the bread hard.&rdquo They brought us to Feldafing. I sat in the sun. I boiled a little water and sugar. In two weeks my stomach stretched. They gave us pajamas to wear, but we had no shoes.

One day I saw the same MP in the Jeep. We said to him, &ldquoYou gave us freedom, but we have no clothes.&rdquo He said, &ldquoI am 3 kilometers from here come tomorrow at 7 am. We were there at 6 am. We saw the soldiers get breakfast. He signaled for us to get breakfast too and he told the Captain about us. The Captain said to bring us in. We were nearly naked in our pajamas and with no shoes. The Captain gave us a paper to go to the PX and we got shoes, pants, shirts and jackets. We were told to come back at lunchtime. We got three meals a day for weeks.

At the Displaced Persons Displaced Person: (DP), one of approximately 1,500,000 to 2,000,000 persons who had been uprooted by the war and who by the end of 1945 had refused to or could not return to their prewar homes.

When the war ended, most Jewish DP&rsquos were housed in camps behind barbed wire in poor conditions. Until the State of Israel was established in 1948, legal immigration to Palestine was blocked by official British policy. Immigration to the United States in meaningful numbers was also severely restricted until the passage of the Displaced Persons&rsquo Act in 1948. Between 1945 and 1952 approximately 400,000 DP&rsquos immigrated to the United States, of whom approximately 20 percent, or 80,000, were Jewish. Between 1948 and 1951, almost 700,000 Jews emigrated to Israel, including more than 2/3 of the Jewish displaced persons in Europe.

Displaced Persons camps were set up at the end of WWII to house the millions of uprooted persons who were unwilling or unable to return to their homes. By the end of 1946, the number of Jewish DP&rsquos was 250,000, of whom 185,000 were in Germany, 45,000 in Austria and 20,000 in Italy.

The Jewish survivors languished in camps primarily in the Allied zones of occupation in Germany. At first the DPs lived behind barbed wire fences under guard in camps that included former concentration camps. For example, in the British zone the survivors were held at the former Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. Some DP&rsquos were housed in better conditions in residential facilities. Eventually, the Jews gained recognition as a special group with their own needs and put into separate facilities. Sources: USHMM, Historical Atlas of the Holocaust Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. camp in Feldafing a man asked me to bring food to his niece who was in the hospital. I brought her oranges, bread and butter. When she got well, she gave me a pair of white linen pants. &ldquoYou saved my life,&rdquo she said.

In Germany Feldafing had a big name as a place where you came to find missing people. They put up lists of names of survivors on the walls. A lot of liberated people came looking for relatives. A friend of mine came with two ladies, one whom I knew from before, and the other, Sofia, was my wife&rsquos friend.

Sofia said, &ldquoYour were in the fur business my girlfriend&rsquos family was in the fur business too. Did you ever hear the name of Bursztyn?&rdquo I said, &ldquoI used to deal with the Bursztyns.&rdquo She asked me to come to Turkheim to meet her.

I had nothing to lose. Two brothers from Lodz, tailors, made me a suit with two pairs of pants out of a grey and white blanket. My friend and I put our belongings together in one package and went out on the highway to hitchhike to Turkheim. I left Feldafing in August of 1945.

The next day my wife, Frieda, came to see Sofia. My wife was shy and wouldn&rsquot come downstairs to meet me. So Sofia said to her, &ldquoGo to the window and take a look.&rdquo She looked. Since then I say, &ldquoMy wife looked through the window and took a fishing rod and she got me.&rdquo

We got married in November 1946. My wife was from the same town as I was, and I used to deal with her family. With us there was a feeling, like a family.

We were very poor. At that time you had to have a card to buy things. I went to the Burgermeister, who was like the mayor, to get coupons to get a suit. The problem was that I did not have any money to buy it. My wife and Sofia had a little money that they loaned me to buy a suit, and I loaned this suit to my friend when he got married.

My wife had no dress. We were going to get married on Saturday night. Saturday during the day I knocked on the door of this German woman I knew. I had spoken to her in the street, and we had talked a few times. She had a daughter who was the same size as Frieda. I got 2 packages of cigarettes, 2 Hershey chocolate bars and a little can of coffee and put them into a paper bag.

When she answered the door, we talked and she said to me, &ldquoOh, I saw at the City Hall that you are going to get married.&rdquo &ldquoYes,&rdquo I said, &ldquoand I am sorry, but my bride has no dress.&rdquo

Her daughter said, &ldquoOh, No!,&rdquo and she jumped to the ceiling. Her mother asked her, &ldquoWhy do you jump, he never said anything about you?&rdquo She said, &ldquoHe is going to want a dress.&rdquo I said, &ldquoYes, I want a dress.&rdquo I told that lady that I did not come to rob her. I came to ask her to help me.

I went over to the cedar robe and opened the door and I saw a sky-blue dress. I took up the dress on the hanger and held it up and saw that it was a beautiful color. The daughter started crying. I took the little bag and turned it over on the table and said, &ldquoThis is the money. This is all that I have. Later on, if I have some, I am going to pay more.&rdquo The mother said, &ldquoTake it.&rdquo I thanked her and walked out. The daughter was crying. Later on when I built myself up I never went back to the house because I did not want the daughter to get angry. I saw the mother on the street and talked to her. I did not say to her &ldquoWhat you people did to us.&rdquo

We got married on November 11, 1946. All the greeners Greeners:greenhorns, inexperienced people, particularly new immigrants, used affectionately among the Holocaust survivors.

The term comes from the Yiddish word "grin" which means the color green. Source: Shep Zitler. in our town came to the wedding. My friend left early on Friday and brought home carp fish and ducks and a goose. We had challa and cakes, and there was singing and dancing. There was just one thing missingrelatives.

We moved from Turkheim to Landsberg, and after 4 years until we came to the United States. My son was born on May the 13, 1948 the State of Israel was born on May the 14, 1948.

We came to New Orleans in 1949. I could not speak English. I went to a fur shop and they gave me fur and pointed to a sewing machine. I sewed. Then I pointed to a frame for stretching the skins and showed them I could do that. I also picked up a knife and showed them I could cut. The hired me at 50 cents an hour even thought the going rate for beginners was 75 cents an hour.

I bought a sewing machine for $50 and started taking in work. Then I was hired by the Haspel Brothers store where I was a foreman. I built myself up, and we raised and educated our two children. After 28 years Frieda and I went on our first vacation in 1978 to Israel.

There we 375,000 Jews living in Warsaw before the war. I doubt that there are 5,000 living there today. It is very, very important for me to tell this story.


Holocaust film reveals long-hushed child sex abuse

Renee Ghert-Zand is a reporter and feature writer for The Times of Israel.

A documentary film premiering Wednesday evening on Israeli television sheds light on a dark corner of what is already the blackest of historical events. “Screaming Silence,” which will be broadcast on the eve of Israel’s Holocaust Remembrance Day, is about a topic which few, even World War II scholars, have dared to broach in public before: sexual abuse of children during the Holocaust.

For the first time, Holocaust survivors who were raped or sexually abused as children and teens in the ghettos and concentration and labor camps speak on camera about what happened to them and how this sexual violence has scarred their lives over the 70 years since the war ended.

These individuals kept the sexual abuse they experienced a secret from everyone, including their spouses, children and grandchildren—who will learn for the first time about what happened to their loved ones from this film.

Ronnie Sarnat devoted six years to producing “Screaming Silence.” She was determined to deal with a difficult subject that others have refused to research and speak about.

“The Holocaust research establishment doesn’t think that the Holocaust and sex go together,” she asserts. “But who decides what is permitted and what is not?”

Professor Gideon Greif, chief historian at Shem Olam: The Holocaust & Faith Institute for Education and Research and an expert on Auschwitz, concurs that indeed, there has been a tendency among Holocaust scholars not to touch upon the subject of sexual abuse of children.

‘There has been a lack of information about this topic because of a desire among those who study the Holocaust not to hurt the dignity of the victims’

“There has been a lack of information about this topic because of a desire among those who study the Holocaust not to hurt the dignity of the victims,” says Greif, who was a consultant to the film.

“Yad Vashem, for instance, has many testimonies that include accounts of rape and sexual abuse, but historians have been reluctant to deal with this. This film is really the first time that the subject is being dealt with so openly,” he says.

It took Sarnat a significant amount of time to locate survivors who were raped or sexually abused as children or teenagers. Once she found them, they had to decide they were ready to reveal publicly secrets they had buried so deeply and for so long out of shame and a paralyzing fear of being rejected by their children if the truth were known.

One elderly man in the film talks about how his son was such a “macho Israeli” that he felt he could never reveal to him what had happened.

“How could I let him think of his father as a ‘one of those Jews who went to the slaughter like sheep’?” han siger.

Sarnat and her creative team decided to make the film using only the first-person testimonies of the survivors. There is no third-person narration and there are no talking heads providing historical context or psychological analysis.

“The witnesses wrote their own script, so to speak, and determined the limits of what they would or would not say on camera,” the producer says.

She believes this technique elevates the film beyond a horrific retelling of events to a more complex work in which the issue of rape is not necessarily more important than the question of whether a person should or should not tell a deeply held dark secret before he or she dies.

These survivors—both men and women—describe having been sexually abused, raped, gang raped or witnesses to prostitution at a young age

Watching and listening as these survivors—both men and women—describe having been sexually abused, raped, gang raped or witnesses to prostitution at a young age is difficult. Even more gut wrenching is hearing how these acts of violence damaged the rest of their lives and their images of themselves.

For instance, one man, who was raped by a German soldier as a 13-year-old boy in Tunisia, has struggled his whole life with his sexual identity. How could he be a man who goes out with women if he was in the position of being one, he asks.

One of the women speaks of how she never feels at ease and is always looking over her shoulder. She says she has never been able to have a sexual relationship. All she says about the fact that she has children and grandchildren is that “their father was a very cruel man.”

The man who was afraid of telling his “macho” son about his experiences in Auschwitz recounts what happened to him as a “piepel.”

According to Sarnat, no one is sure what the origin of the term is, but everyone in the camps knew what one was: A piepel was a pre-adolescent or young adolescent boy who was forced to serve one of the kapos (prisoner functionaries, who were Jewish or non-Jewish) in a concentration or labor camp. The boy was used to service all the kapo’s needs—including sexual ones. (Elie Wiesel included a scene with a piepel in his seminal Holocaust memoir “Night,” and the controversial Israeli Holocaust survivor writer Yehiel Dinur, also known by the pen name Ka-Tsetnik, wrote a novel titled “They Called Me Piepel” in 1961.)

The man who was a piepel tells about how, as a boy in Auschwitz, he was raped by an especially cruel kapo who forced bread into his mouth to shut him up during the rape. The man recalls how he was starving and readily ate the bread, and then says that he isn’t completely comfortable calling what happened to him rape because he willingly ate the bread.

“Child victims of rape are not like adult victims of rape,” says Sarnat. “They think it must be a punishment for what they have done.”

The man’s reaction is understandable from a psychological perspective, but Greif warns that it is imperative to always remember that the perpetrators, the Germans and their accomplices—and not the Jewish victims—were to blame.

…there is no way to really know how extensive this phenomenon was for the simple reason that the victims…never spoke about what had happened to them

According to Greif, sexual abuse and rape of Jews, including children, was a limited phenomenon because of the Nazi racial laws that prohibited Germans from having sexual relations with Jews.

“The sexual abuse that did occur was part of the Nazis’ drive to humiliate Jews, but there was no systematic approach to this,” he says.

Indeed, there is no way to really know how extensive this phenomenon was for the simple reason that the victims—like the ones in the film—never spoke about what had happened to them.

But Sarnat believes that if others go beyond the Holocaust research establishment as she has and do their own digging, they will find out more and more about this subject.

“Yad Vashem and the Germans both say that there were no Jewish girls used as prostitutes to service the Nazis. But I have testimonies that Jewish girls did work in bordellos in the camps,” she says. “They must have changed their names so the Germans wouldn’t know they were Jewish.”

Otherwise they wouldn’t have been able to avoid the gas chambers and crematoria by being sex slaves.

“Screaming Silence” will air on Israel Channel 1 on April 15 at 10:20 p.m.

The writer has been asked not to use the names of the people in the film or to identify them in the photos out of respect for the fact that they have not yet revealed their secret to their families.

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One of the last Ravensbruck “rabbits” tells her terrifying story.

I’m still pinching myself since I was lucky enough to spend time with with one of my heroes, Stanislawa Sledziejewska-Osiczko, at the seventieth anniversary of the liberation of Ravensbruck Concentration Camp. Known as Stasia to her friends (and everyone who meets her instantly becomes her friend) she’s a woman I’d only read about while researching my novel Lilac Girls. Stasia and seventy other young Polish women were used as experimental subjects by Nazi doctors and became known as the “rabbits” or “guinea pigs.” Just 14 years old when she was chosen to undergo the experiments, she was one of the youngest to be operated on at Ravensbruck Concentration Camp, her leg surgically opened and infected with tetanus and gangrene, broken glass and dirt in order to test the efficacy of sulfa drugs. There are only five survivors of the experiments alive today.

I was at the camp with my friend Stacy Fitzgerald who is shooting a documentary on the Ravensbruck Rabbits and got to hear Stasia’s stories of being hunted by the camp authorities once the Nazis realized they were losing the war. She told how the camp guards went block to block searching for the survivors of the medical experiments in order to eliminate the evidence of their crimes. The rabbit’s fellow prisoners of all nationalities rallied around them. They hid the girls, often by exchanging numbers with them or sneaking them into the typhus block where they slept among the dying inmates. This was a safe place since the camp staff did not enter the typhus block, afraid they’d contract the disease.

“Finally we dug holes under the blocks and squeezed ourselves under there,” Stasia said. “We could hear the dogs searching for us. It was terrifying.”

Today, Stasia radiates positive energy as she’s pushed across the gravel in her wheelchair, but isn’t afraid to share anecdotes through our translator.

“See these sharp stones?” she said. “They made us walk on them in bare feet. We only had shoes in winter.”

A true celebrity, crowds followed her wheelchair wherever she went in the camp.

A group of teens hovered nearby and a brave girl approached Stasia.

“May I hug you?” the girl said.

“Tak, tak,” Stasia said, waving her over. “Yes, yes.”

The girl hugged Stasia and neither let go for several seconds. It was one of my favorite moments all weekend. Who wouldn’t want to salute a woman who withstood the most heinous medical experiments, evaded Nazi execution at Ravensbruck and returned to Poland after the war to deal with Stalin’s occupation? Post war Poland was difficult for the women, since many were still very sick from the wounds to their legs, but the German government refused to recognize Poland as a country and would not pay the women compensation, something Caroline Ferriday helped them fight.

I was happy to see that a group of Polish motorcyclists have befriended the Polish survivors. Each member wears the blue-striped survivor kerchief, emblazoned with the red triangle the Polish political prisoners once wore, printed with a survivor’s name and camp number and acts as a helper to that woman.

Stasia is lucky to have Leszek Rysak, above, as her helper. A history teacher and all around great guy, Leszek calls Stasia “auntie” and dedicates a large part of his time to helping her.

Leszek and other members of the motorcycle group join Stasia and fellow “rabbit” Wanda Rosiewicz at the crematorium to remember their friends they lost at Ravensbruck

Leszek Rysak

Meeting Mrs. Sledziejewska-Osiczko was a profoundly moving experience. I told her about Lilac Girls and she was happy to hear the world will soon know the story of what she and her fellow “rabbits” endured. But most of all I was thrilled to see the whole camp embrace her. With people today idolizing reality TV stars and viral internet sensations it’s refreshing to see a woman like Stasia in the limelight, finally getting her fifteen minutes of fame.


How the world discovered the Nazi death camps

PARIS — Images of what the Allies found when they liberated the first Nazi death camps towards the end of World War II brought the horror of the Holocaust to world attention.

Many of the ghastly pictures were at first held back from the broader public, partly out of concern for those with missing relatives.

The concentration and extermination camps were liberated one by one as the Allied armies advanced on Berlin in the final days of the 1939-1945 war.

The first was Majdanek in eastern Poland, which was freed on July 24, 1944, by the advancing Soviet Red Army.

But it was only the following year that media coverage was encouraged by the provisional government led by general Charles De Gaulle set up after the liberation of France.

‘Death Marches’

In June 1944, as it became clear that Germany was losing the war, Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler ordered that camps be evacuated before they were reached by Allied troops, and that their prisoners be transferred to other camps.

This mainly concerned camps in the Baltic States that were most exposed to advancing Soviet troops. Officers of the SS paramilitary in charge were ordered to cover up all traces of crimes before fleeing.

The sprawling Auschwitz-Birkenau complex in southern Poland, liberated by the Red Army on January 27, 1945, was gradually dismantled from mid-1944 and its more than 60,000 prisoners evacuated.

When the Soviets arrived, only 7,000 prisoners remained, unable to walk and to follow their comrades on what became known as “Death Marches” to other camps.

Images not widely shared

The discovery of the first camps had little impact on the public at large because the images were not widely shared.

Russian and Polish investigators photographed the camps at Majdanek and Auschwitz, and US army photographers made a documentary on Struthof, the only Nazi concentration camp based in what is now France.

But France in particular did not want them broadcast to avoid alarming people with relatives who were missing after being deported, captured or conscripted.

A turning point came on April 6, 1945, with the discovery of Ohrdruf, an annex of the Buchenwald camp in Germany.

‘Indescribable horror’

When American forces — accompanied by US war correspondent Meyer Levin and AFP photographer Eric Schwab — entered Ohrdruf, they came across a still-blazing inferno and skeletal prisoners executed with a bullet to the head.

The Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, Dwight Eisenhower, visited the camp on April 12, describing afterwards “conditions of indescribable horror.”

The Allied leadership decided immediately that all censorship should be lifted so the world could see evidence of the Nazi atrocities.

That evening France’s communist daily Ce Soir published on its front page a picture of a mass grave.

Days later Eisenhower said journalists should visit camps “where the evidence of bestiality and cruelty is so overpowering as to leave no doubt in their minds about the normal practices of the Germans.”

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Death Marches and Liberation

Dachau remained in operation for 12 years—nearly the entire length of the Third Reich. In addition to its early prisoners, the camp expanded to hold Jews, Roma and Sinti, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and prisoners of war (including several Americans.)

Three days prior to liberation, 7,000 prisoners, mostly Jews, were forced to leave Dachau on a forced death march that resulted in the death of many of the prisoners.

On April 29, 1945, Dachau was liberated by the United States 7th Army Infantry Unit. At the time of liberation, there were approximately 27,400 prisoners who remained alive in the main camp.

In total, over 188,000 prisoners had passed through Dachau and its sub-camps. An estimated 50,000 of those prisoners died while imprisoned in Dachau.


Visitor Voice, Thought and Responses to the Exhibiton

A key aim of the exhibition was to provide the space to give visitors an opportunity to reflect. Visitor voice, thought and responses towards the exhibition, Dilemmas, Choices, Responses: Britain and the Holocaust are embedded within this online exhibition, and can be further seen as a Storify article (download PDF below).

It is interesting to note the connection and relevance of Britain’s past to our current political, economic and social crisis, in particlar reference to the current refugee crisis. One of our current blog writers, Elizabeth Fraser published an acocunt of her visit to the exhibiton entitled, Exhibition Review: Dilemmas, Choices, Responses: Britain And The Holocaust.


Se videoen: Surviving the Holocaust: Segment 6 The Gas Chambers (Kan 2022).


Kommentarer:

  1. Shareek

    Det er bemærkelsesværdigt, ret morsomt budskab

  2. Cinnard

    Nå, det er ikke nødvendigt så at sige.

  3. Ransley

    Du har ikke ret. Jeg er sikker. Vi vil diskutere. Skriv i PM, vi vil tale.

  4. Gregor

    Dette lotteri?



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